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Quartermaster Corps (United States Army)

The United States Army Quartermaster Corps the Quartermaster Department, is a Sustainment combat service support, branch of the United States Army. It is one of three U. S. Army logistics branches, the others being the Ordnance Corps; the U. S. Army Quartermaster Corps mission is to support the development, production and sustainment of general supply, Mortuary Affairs, subsistences and water, material and distribution management during peace and war to provide combat power to the U. S. Army; the officer in charge of the branch for doctrine and professional development purposes is the Quartermaster General. The current Quartermaster General is Brigadier General Douglas M. McBride; the Quartermaster Corps is the U. S. Army's oldest logistics branch, established 16 June 1775. On that date, the Second Continental Congress passed a resolution providing for "one Quartermaster General of the grand army and a deputy, under him, for the separate army". In 1802 under President Thomas Jefferson the size of the US Army was reduced with the Quartermaster Department being disbanded.

In its place the nation was divided into three departments, each with its own agent and subordinates who were responsible for quartermaster functions within each Department The Quartermaster Corps was re-established in 1812. From 1775 to 1912, this organization was known as the Quartermaster Department. In 1912, Congress consolidated the former Subsistence and Quartermaster Departments to create the Quartermaster Corps. Quartermaster units and soldiers have served in every U. S. military operation from the Revolutionary War to current operations in Iraq and Afghanistan. The Regimental Insignia was revised in 1994 to the current insignia; the insignia is described as a gold color metal and enamel device 1 inch in height consisting of a gold eagle with wings spread and head lowered looking to his right and standing upon a wheel with a blue felloe set with thirteen gold stars, having thirteen gold spokes and the hub white with a red center. Attached below the device is a gold scroll inscribed SUPPORTING VICTORY in black.

The original regimental insignia was all gold and approved on 31 March 1986. The design was changed on 7 June 1994 to add color to the insignia; the Regimental DUI is worn on the Soldier's right side above the name tag and any unit awards on the Army Service Uniform. The Branch Insignia was approved in its present form in 1913; the sword is characteristic of military forces and symbolized the Quartermaster Corps control of military supplies. The key is representative of the Corps traditional storekeeping function; the wheel is styled after a six-mule-wagon wheel and represents transportation and delivery of supplies. The wheel has thirteen spokes, a red and white hub and a blue felloe embedded with thirteen gilt stars; the thirteen stars and spokes of the wheel represent the original colonies and the origin of the Corps which occurred during the Revolutionary War. The gilt eagle is symbolic of our nation; the colors red and blue are the national colors. The Branch Insignia is worn on the lapel of the Army Service Uniform, singly on a brass disk for Enlisted personnel and in pairs for Officers.

The function of the Quartermaster Corps is to provide the following support to the Army: general supply Mortuary Affairs subsistence petroleum and water field services aerial delivery shower, fabric/light textile repair material and distribution management Former functions and missions of the Quartermaster Corps were: military transportation military construction U. S. Army Remount Service horses/war dogs military heraldry Quartermaster detachments and battalions are assigned to corps or higher level commands. Divisions and smaller units have multifunctional support battalions which combine functional areas from the Army Transportation Corps, Army Quartermaster Corps, Army Ordnance Corps, the Army Medical Service Corps. Quartermaster organizations include field service, general supply, petroleum supply and petroleum pipeline, aerial delivery and mortuary affairs units. Most are company level except water, which has battalion and group level units. There is one Bulk petroleum Company on Active Duty.

The nine Quartermaster Enlisted Military Occupational Specialties are: 92A – Automated Logistical Specialist 92F – Petroleum Supply Specialist 92G – Culinary Specialist 92L – Petroleum Laboratory Specialist 92M – Mortuary Affairs Specialist 92R – Parachute Rigger 92S – Shower/Laundry and Clothing Repair Specialist 92W – Water Treatment Specialist 92Y – Unit Supply SpecialistThe five Quartermaster Warrant Officer Military Occupational Specialties are: 920A – Property Accounting Technician 920B – Supply Systems Technician 921A – Airdrop Systems Technician 922A – Food Service Technician 923A – Petroleum Systems TechnicianThe three Quartermaster Officer Areas of Concentration have been merged into 92A as Additional Skil

Brigham Young University Museum of Peoples and Cultures

The Brigham Young University Museum of Peoples and Cultures, located in Provo, Utah, is the university's museum of archaeology and ethnology. The Museum of Peoples and Cultures has a wide variety of collections containing over a million objects. Most of the 7,000 collections come from the regions of South America, Central America, the American Southwest, the Great Basin and Polynesia. However, there are many objects from other parts of the world which are available for study and research. From about 1980 until 2014 the museum was located in BYU's Allen Hall. In 2014 a new facility was opened at 2201 N. Canyon Road a few blocks north of the BYU football stadium. South America Many of the Museum’s accessions come from the South American continent. One of the notable collections of the MPC is the ancient Andean textiles; the Spoerl Collection and the Cheesman Collection account for the majority of these textiles. The Spoerl Collection contains textiles and textile production tools but the Cheesman Collection contains other ancient and modern artifacts from South America.

The majority of the textiles from both collections date from the prehistoric period in Peru. There is a current exhibit, "Greater than Gold: Textiles of the Ancient Andes", displaying many of these textiles that will run through late 2016; the Spoerl Collection contains 581 items and includes: Ancient Andean textiles, textile fragments, cordage fragments, textile tools. The Cheesman Collection contains 759 items and includes: Ancient Andean textiles, textile fragments, textile tools, projectile points. Mesoamerica and Central America The Museum has many accessions from Mesoamerica and Central America. Four select collections that contain a variety of artifacts from ancient and modern cultures of this region are the Cluff, Barlow and Krenusz Collections; the Barlow Collection is from Costa Rica and Nicaragua and contains ancient pottery. However, there are other artifacts such as axe heads and projectile points within the collection; the Birrell Collection contains ethnographic textiles from South America.

Many of the pieces within this collection are women’s clothing such as skirts, hair wraps and huipils. The collection contains a variety of woven blankets and bags. However, it is important to note that the MPC ethnographic textile collection is not limited to Mesoamerica and South America but contains examples from other parts of the world; the Bowen Collection contains fine examples of ancient Mesoamerican pottery. The Krenusz Collection contains little pottery but has other important pieces like metal axe heads and projectile points; the jade figurines and jewelry are a highlight of this collection. Some of the most unusual objects from the Krenusz Collection are the ancient Mexican stamps which display a variety of animal and geometric designs; the Cluff Collection contains unusual black pottery, acquired on an expedition by Benjamin Cluff to the American Southwest and Mesoamerica in the early 20th century. The Barlow Collection contains 270 items and includes: Ancient Costa Rican and Nicaraguan pottery, axe heads, projectile points.

The Birrell Collection contains 355 items and includes: Ethnographic textiles from South America and Mesoamerica, women’s clothing, rugs and purses. The Bowen Collection contains 98 items and includes: Ancient pottery, metates, cord sandals, projectile points, lithics; the Cluff Collection contains 182 items and includes: Early 20th century black glazed pottery. The Krenusz Collection contains 692 items and includes: Ancient metal axe heads, scrapers, projectile points, ear spools, jade figurines and jewelry; the American Southwest and Great Basin The American Southwest and the Great Basin is another region that accounts for a large portion of the Museum’s collections. One select collection from this area is the Dillman Collection; this collection contains a variety of Ute objects made in the 1930s on Native American reservations in eastern Utah. This collection contains baskets and leather pieces but there are some archeological objects as well; the leather pieces in particular exhibit the superb craftsmanship of the Ute artists and show how their beliefs influenced their work.

Part of this collection was on display in the early 1990s. The acquired Reidhead Collection from the site of Fourmile Ruin in Arizona is another impressive holding of the Museum. Altogether this collection contains 8,712 items including 2,000 arrowheads; the pottery is the main highlight of this collection and displays a variety of Hopi Yellow Ware and White Mountain Red Ware. Additionally, there are a variety of other artifacts which reveal more about the Native American civilization at Fourmile Ruin; some of the objects from this collection are part of the Museum's current exhibit New Lives: Building Community at Fourmile Ruin. The Turley Collection contains objects from Casas Grandes. Most of the collection contains pottery styles such as Ramos Black, Madera Black-on-Red and Villa Ahumada. Although the majority of the pottery in this collection is in the form of pots and bowls, there are impressive examples of effigy jars; the pottery displays a variety of geometric designs and patterns and is intermixed with representative drawings of animals and plants.

The Dillman Collection includes: Ancient and ca. 1930s Ute baskets, leather pieces, game pieces, metates, some pottery. The Reidhead Collection contains 8,712 items and includes: Ancient po

Mari Abad

Mariabad is an inner eastern suburb of Quetta, capital of Pakistan's Balochistan province. It is the most populous area of Quetta with five lakh population; the majority of the population are Hazara people. This place is the birthplace of many Hazara political, military, sports personalities of Quetta city. Hazaras had been seasonal menial workers in British India, who came here in winter months to work in coal mines, road construction etc. During the British colonial expansion in Sindh and Northwest Frontier; the earliest record of Hazaras in the areas of present-day Pakistan are found in the Broad-foot's sappers company in 1835 at Quetta. This sappers company participated in the First Anglo-Afghan War also. Hazaras worked in the agriculture farms in Sindh and construction of Sukkur barrage. In his seminal book War and Migration, Alessandro Monsutti classifies the Hazara migration to Balochistan in the following phases: Following the Second Anglo-Afghan War, the first Hazaras came to Quetta to seek employment in British-run companies under the Raj.

They are thought to have worked on the building of roads and the Bolan Pass railway as well as enlisting in the British Army of India. At that time, there could have been no more than a few hundred Hazaras in Balochistan; the subjugation of Hazarajat by Abdur Rahman, between 1891 and 1893, triggered a mass exodus of Hazaras to Turkestan and Balochistan. The situation in Afghanistan returned to normal under the son of Abdur Rahman, he offered amnesty to the Hazaras but this proved to be of little help in improving the lot of the Hazara community in Afghanistan. In 1904, the 106th Hazara Pioneers, a separate regiment for the Hazaras formed by the British, offered greater careers prospects, social recognition and economic success; the regiment of Hazara Pioneers was disbanded in 1933. Deprived of this social and professional outlet, Hazaras went to settle in Quetta between the 1930s and 1960s, although the process of migration never dried up. Following the 1971 drought, Hazaras settled in Quetta or went to Iran in search of work.

Between 1973 and 1978, tensions over the Pashtunistan issue between Pakistan and the Afghan regime, were an additional factor in the Hazara migration since President Daoud Khan of Afghanistan saw the Hazara as Pakistan's allies. Following the Communist coup in April 1978 and the Soviet Union intervention in December 1979, the migratory movement assumed hitherto unprecedented dimensions. Hazaras have been active in the field of education in Pakistan. Many, private educational institutes are found in the area. A partial list of educational institutes is provided below. Hazara Town Hazara Democratic Party Persecution of Hazara people in Quetta General Mohammad Musa Khan Hazara