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Quasispecies model

The quasispecies model is a description of the process of the Darwinian evolution of certain self-replicating entities within the framework of physical chemistry. A quasispecies is a large group or "cloud" of related genotypes that exist in an environment of high mutation rate, where a large fraction of offspring are expected to contain one or more mutations relative to the parent; this is in contrast to a species, which from an evolutionary perspective is a more-or-less stable single genotype, most of the offspring of which will be genetically accurate copies. It is useful in providing a qualitative understanding of the evolutionary processes of self-replicating macromolecules such as RNA or DNA or simple asexual organisms such as bacteria or viruses, is helpful in explaining something of the early stages of the origin of life. Quantitative predictions based on this model are difficult because the parameters that serve as its input are impossible to obtain from actual biological systems; the quasispecies model was put forward by Manfred Eigen and Peter Schuster based on initial work done by Eigen.

When evolutionary biologists describe competition between species, they assume that each species is a single genotype whose descendants are accurate copies. In evolutionary terms, we are interested in the behavior and fitness of that one species or genotype over time; some organisms or genotypes, may exist in circumstances of low fidelity, where most descendants contain one or more mutations. A group of such genotypes is changing, so discussions of which single genotype is the most fit become meaningless. If many related genotypes are only one mutation away from each other genotypes in the group can mutate back and forth into each other. For example, with one mutation per generation, a child of the sequence AGGT could be AGTT, a grandchild could be AGGT again, thus we can envision a "cloud" of related genotypes, mutating, with sequences going back and forth among different points in the cloud. Though the proper definition is mathematical, that cloud speaking, is a quasispecies. Quasispecies behavior exists for large numbers of individuals existing at a certain range of mutation rates.

In a species, though reproduction may be accurate, periodic mutations will give rise to one or more competing genotypes. If a mutation results in greater replication and survival, the mutant genotype may out-compete the parent genotype and come to dominate the species. Thus, the individual genotypes may be seen as the units on which selection acts and biologists will speak of a single genotype's fitness. In a quasispecies, mutations are ubiquitous and so the fitness of an individual genotype becomes meaningless: if one particular mutation generates a boost in reproductive success, it can't amount to much because that genotype's offspring are unlikely to be accurate copies with the same properties. Instead, what matters is the connectedness of the cloud. For example, the sequence AGGT has 12 possible single point mutants AGGA, AGGG, so on. If 10 of those mutants are viable genotypes that may reproduce, we would consider that sequence a well-connected node in the cloud. If instead only two of those mutants are viable, the rest being lethal mutations that sequence is poorly connected and most of its descendants will not reproduce.

The analog of fitness for a quasispecies is the tendency of nearby relatives within the cloud to be well-connected, meaning that more of the mutant descendants will be viable and give rise to further descendants within the cloud. When the fitness of a single genotype becomes meaningless because of the high rate of mutations, the cloud as a whole or quasispecies becomes the natural unit of selection. Quasispecies represents the evolution of high-mutation-rate viruses such as HIV and sometimes single genes or molecules within the genomes of other organisms. Quasispecies models have been proposed by Jose Fontanari and Emmanuel David Tannenbaum to model the evolution of sexual reproduction. Quasispecies was shown in compositional replicators and was suggested to be applicable to describe cell's replication, which amongst other things requires the maintenance and evolution of the internal composition of the parent and bud; the model rests on four assumptions: The self-replicating entities can be represented as sequences composed of a small number of building blocks—for example, sequences of RNA consisting of the four bases adenine, guanine and uracil.

New sequences enter the system as the result of a copy process, either correct or erroneous, of other sequences that are present. The substrates, or raw materials, necessary for ongoing replication are always present in sufficient quantity. Excess sequences are washed away in an outgoing flux. Sequences may decay into their building blocks; the probability of decay does not depend on the sequences' age. In the quasispecies model, mutations occur through errors made in the process of copying existing sequences. Further, selection arises because different types of sequences tend to replicate at different rates, which leads to the suppression of sequences that replicate more in favor of sequences that replicate faster. However, the quasispecies model does not predict the ultimate extinction of all but the fastest replicating sequence. Although the sequences that replicate more cannot sustain their abundance level by themselves

Herbert Lankester

Herbert Lankester lwas an English medical missionary. He led the Church Missionary Society for thirty years, his research shifted the role of medical missionaries from agents of religion to agents of health care, leading to the twentieth century model of medical missionaries. Lankester was born in Elm Park Gardens, London and lived most of his life in England, it is unknown. Though his parents had no medical background, he grew up studying medicine on his own, it is believed. In early childhood, his mother battled multiple chronic diseases. Lankester wanted to help his mother get healthy, it is believed that she died while he was in his early teens and that he was brought up by his father. Without any siblings, most of Lankester's time was spent studying medicine. Lankester served as a leader for the Church Missionary Society examining board in addition to his role as a secretary, he retired in 1926 after serving there for 30 years During this period, he served as Secretary of the Auxiliary Committee on Medical Missions, Society Physician, Home Secretary and General Secretary.

He published numerous papers as the Honorary Secretary of Committee. In Occasional Paper 1, Lankester wrote an Appeal to the Medical Mission Auxiliary Fund Committee. Lankester worked as a researcher, he enjoyed studying why people became ill. He read every book of medicine, available at the time. Lankester was involved with researching health care, he was interested in seeing how to better supply medicine to those who needed it around the world. As a long time London resident, Lankester focused his work on rural England. According to records, he supplied medical aid to the London countryside, he set up a tent on the side of one of the main roads outside a small village. He treated many different local people as well as people, he had no real way of promoting his medical services beyond word of mouth. He treated people with a range of illnesses including smallpox, yellow fever, typhoid and diphtheria, he started work in England and branched out to other countries. Lankester did not work with other medical missionaries, preferring to work independently.

His greatest individual medical mission was a three-month stay in the London countryside. Lankester was one of the most trusted medical missionaries. Instead of clergymen traveling the countryside, he wanted public perception of medical missionaries to be heroes spreading health and the Gospel. Lankester traveled across London communicating about medical missionaries, he had trouble conveying. He is best known for the studying and research he conducted, as well as his supply of medicine and vaccines to those in the near-London countryside. Arumugam, Thiru. Nineteenth Century American Medical Missionaries in Jaffna, Ceylon: with Special Reference to Samuel Fisk Green. MV Publications, South Asian Studies Centre, 2009. Grundmann, Christoffer H. Sent to Heal!: Emergence and Development of Medical Missions. Centre for Contemporary Christianity, 2014. Lankester, Herbert. "AMD - Secure Access Management". Churchmissionarysociety.amdigital.co.uk. Retrieved 2018-05-11. Connor, Jennifer. Guardians of Medical Knowledge: The Genesis of the Medical Library Association.

Lanham,Md./London: Medical Library Association/Scarecrow Press, 2000. Convention, Student Volunteer Movement for Foreign Missions. International. Students and the Modern Missionary Crusade: Addresses Delivered Before the Fifth International Convention of the Student Volunteer Movement for Foreign Missions, Tennessee, February 28-March 4, 1906. Student Volunteer Movement for Foreign Missions. Pp. 499–

2nd Moscow International Film Festival

The 2nd Moscow International Film Festival was held from 9 to 23 July 1961. The Grand Prix was shared between the Japanese film The Naked Island directed by Kaneto Shindo and the Soviet film Clear Skies directed by Grigori Chukhrai. Sergei Yutkevich Chinghiz Aitmatov Zoltán Várkonyi Luchino Visconti Sergei Gerasimov Karel Zeman Mehboob Khan Joshua Logan Leon Moussinac Roger Manwell Francisco Piña Walieddin Youssef Samih Jerzy Toeplitz Huang Guang Michael Tschesno-Hell Liviu Ciulei Borislav Sharaliev The following films were selected for the main competition: Grand Prix: The Naked Island by Kaneto Shindo Clear Skies by Grigori Chukhrai Special Golden Prize: Everybody Go Home by Luigi Comencini Golden Prizes: Professor Mamlock by Konrad Wolf We Were Young by Binka Zhelyazkova Silver Prizes: Alba Regia by Mihály Szemes Thirst by Mircea Drăgan The Haunted Castle by Kurt Hoffmann Director: Armand Gatti for Enclosure Actor: Peter Finch for The Trials of Oscar Wilde Actor: Bambang Hermanto for Warriors for Freedom Actress: Yu Lan for A Revolutionary Family Director of photography: Boguslaw Lambach for Tonight a City Will Die Decorator Bill Constable and costume designer Terence Morgan for The Trials of Oscar Wilde Moscow International Film Festival: 1961 at Internet Movie Database

Jessalyn Gilsig

Jessalyn Sarah Gilsig is a Canadian actress known for her roles in television series, e.g. as Lauren Davis in Boston Public, Gina Russo in Nip/Tuck, Terri Schuester in Glee, as Siggy Haraldson on the History Channel series Vikings. She was born on November 30, 1971 in Montreal, Canada, the daughter of Claire, a writer and translator, Toby Gilsig, an engineer, she began her acting in a voice work part at age 12 for a National Film Board of Canada production, Masquerade. She is Jewish. Gilsig attended McGill University in Montreal, from 1989 to 1993, graduating with a Bachelor of Arts degree in English in 1993, she pursued her acting studies further at Harvard University's Institute for Advanced Theater Training. Gilsig began her career as a voice actress, she has done voices in the films such as Masquerade, for television series such as Young Robin Hood. She moved to New York City in 1995. However, it was her association with David E. Kelley. After guest-starring in two episodes of Kelley's The Practice, Gilsig was cast in two episodes of another Kelley program, the short-lived Snoops.

Although the series was cancelled before Gilsig's episodes were broadcast, Kelley wrote the part of Lauren Davis in Boston Public for her, a series that premiered in September 2000 on FOX. Following her departure from Boston Public, Gilsig joined the cast of Nip/Tuck in 2003 as Gina Russo, a role she continued until 2008. In 2004, she appeared in five episodes of NYPD Blue, followed by four episodes of FOX's Prison Break in 2005. In addition to her extensive credits in television and theatre, Gilsig has appeared in film, beginning with a small role in the 1998 film The Horse Whisperer, she provided the speaking voice for Kayley in the animated film Quest for Camelot, with Andrea Corr performing the character's songs. In 2004 she appeared in Chicks with Sticks, as well as See This Movie, in one of the lead roles in the 2007 movie Flood. In 2007-2008 she had recurring roles in two television series, playing Shelley, the sister of Tami Taylor, on NBC's Friday Night Lights, Claire Bennet's biological mother, Meredith Gordon, on Heroes.

Gilsig went on to play the main role of Terri Schuester on the Fox show, from 2009-2012. In 2013, Gilsig was a series regular, portraying Siggy Haraldson, wife of Earl Haraldson and paramour of Ragnar Lothbrok's brother, Rollo, on the History Channel series Vikings until 2015. In 2017 she joined the cast of Scandal. Gilsig met and dated her future husband Bobby Salomon as a high school student - he was the football team quarterback she described as a "cool guy". Salomon, a film producer, moved to Hollywood in 2002, the two began dating again, they were married on January 2005 in a traditional Jewish wedding. Gilsig and Salomon have a daughter, born in September 2006. Gilsig filed for divorce from Salomon on September 8, 2010, citing irreconcilable differences, having been separated since 2009. In 2013 Gilsig became an American citizen. Rohan, Virginia. "Gilsig Goes'Public' And Grapples With Racism". Chicago Tribune. P. 8. Retrieved 27 October 2015. Stebbins, Sarah. "School Ties". InStyle. P. 272f. Retrieved 27 October 2015.

"Jessalyn Gilsig—Actor, Painter". Hollywood.com. 2015. Retrieved 27 October 2015. Jessalyn Gilsig on IMDb Jessalyn Gilsig at AllMovie Jessalyn Gilsig at the Internet Off-Broadway Database Jessalyn Gilsig at the TCM Movie Database Jessalyn Gilsig at Rotten Tomatoes Jessalyn Gilsig at TV Guide

Calatayud (DO)

Calatayud is a Spanish Denominación de Origen Protegida for wines located in the southwestern corner of the province of Zaragoza about 90 km from Zaragoza and covers over 5,600 ha, extending over 46 different municipalities, including Calatayud itself. It borders with the province of Soria in the west, it is in the Ebro River valley and is crisscrossed by many of the Ebro's tributaries including the Jalón, Manubles, Mesa and Ribota. The vineyards are found on the south facing slopes of the Sierra de la Virgen range at heights of between 550 m and 800 m above sea level; the climate is continental, the mean annual temperature does not exceed 13 °C, there is a good probability of frost during six months of the year. The mean annual rainfall is between 300 500 mm per annum. Most of the vines are planted in soils that are stoney, loose poor in nutrients and with a high lime content; the permeability is good so the roots nutrients they require. The authorised grape varieties are: Red: Garnacha Tinta, Mazuela, Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot and SyrahWhite: Macabeo, Malvasía, Moscatel de Alejandría, Garnacha Blanca, Sauvignon Blanc, Gewürztraminer DOP Calatayud official website Spanish wine: Wine regions and their wine Information about Spanish DOCa and DOP wine regions Food and wines from Spain website

Stevin Hoover

Stevin Ray Hoover is an American businessman, writer and former investment manager who wrote a Young Adult/Middle Grade novel entitled THE HANNAH CHRONICLES, published in 2010. Prior to becoming a full-time writer, Hoover, in 1989, founded Hoover Capital Management, Inc. a well respected investment management firm where he was CEO from 1989 to 2002. He founded and ran the Chestnut Fund LP, a hedge fund. Hoover was a regarded Boston-based investment manager whose reputation as a registered investment advisor was enhanced by the respect of other prominent investment advisors such as Peter Lynch. Hoover had a respected and successful 26-year history in the investment business. Stevin Hoover was born in 1948 in Franklin, located in Venango County in northwestern Pennsylvania, he lived in Franklin until 1966, when he left for the Millard School, a preparatory school located in Bandon, Oregon. The Millard School was a preparatory school for the service academies, in particular the United States Air Force Academy.

Hoover attended Franklin Area High School in Franklin and the Millard School in Bandon, which prepared him for entering the United States Air Force Academy, where he was a cadet from 1967 to 1969. He graduated from the University of Texas at Austin, where he received his BA in 1972 with concentrations in the classics and philosophy. Between 1973 and 1975, he studied German language at the Universitaet Hamburg, he attended Boston University School of Management, where he received his MBA in 1990. Hoover practiced an investment approach best described as "concentrated value."In 1998, Hoover married a Mississippi native and they have one daughter, Hannah Kathleen HOOVER, born on December 2, 1999. Before launching Hoover Capital Management in 1989, Hoover spent four years as a stockbroker in Germany, where he was a registered representative in the Hamburg, office of United States stock brokerage company Bache & Co. known in Germany as Bache Halsey Stuart Shields Model & Roland GmbH. This was followed by 11 years as a registered representative in Bache's Boston office.

Bache & Co was acquired by Prudential Financial in 1981 and became known as Prudential Bache Securities, Inc. renamed Prudential Securities, Inc. Wachovia acquired Prudential Securities, Inc. in 2003. Hoover hired John Christopher Wade in HCM's Kansas City, office to provide support services portfolio management software support. Wade had been employed by Advent Software Inc. of San Francisco and claimed knowledge of the Advent Portfolio Management systems. As such, Wade was tasked with maintaining portfolio performance and related data at Hoover Capital. In September 2001, Wade questioned whether Hoover might have been making transfers between entities controlled by Hoover and unrelated outside third parties that were not authorized. Taking documents that might have supported his tenuous case, Wade resigned and became a self-styled whistleblower. Attorneys representing Hoover and HCM defended the case and vigorously denied any wrongdoing, Wade was viewed as a disgruntled "snitch", hoping to help manufacture a case for a whistleblower reward.

The legal case against Hoover, HCM, Chestnut Fund LP remains the subject of ongoing debate, with many believing the case never should have been brought, as there were no clear improprieties. One analysis of Hoover's activities was made in 2004 by the U. S. Securities and Exchange Commission while attempting to enact certain regulatory changes to rules governing private investment vehicles. Between May 2008 and May 2010, Hoover divided his time between Ponte Vedra Beach, Mobile and Mississippi. Ponte Vedra Beach is best known as being the location of the Players Golf Championship at Sawgrass, the annual U. S. golf tournament with the largest purse on the Professional Golfers Association tour. In October 2007 Hoover began regular postings to a blog in his name, the blog was active as of the summer of 2012, he practices Bikram Hot Yoga. Stevin Hoover blog Bikram Yoga main website