Jean Fourastié was a French economist, notable for having coined the expression Trente Glorieuses to describe the period of prosperity that France experienced from the end of World War II until the 1973 oil crisis. Fourastié received his elementary and secondary education at the private Catholic College of Juilly from 1914 to 1925. In 1930, he graduated from the prestigious École Centrale Paris, in 1933 received a degree from the École Libre des Sciences Politiques. In 1936, he received a doctor of law degree. Following his studies, he entered the civil service as a tax official until 1951. In 1941, he headed the insurance program at Conservatoire National des Arts et Métiers. Following the war, he began his career as an economic advisor, with a strong liberal, pro-European stance, while at the same time becoming one of the most recognized academic experts on industrial society. In 1945, Jean Monnet—often regarded as the father of the European Union—asked Fourastié to serve as an economic advisor on the Commissariat général du Plan, a body of domestic policy experts under the authority of the Prime Minister of France.
He served four terms as president of the workforce modernization commission, in 1961 he was chosen as a member of the "1985 working group" of the commissariat. Fourastié was recruited in 1948 as vice president of the scientific and technical committee of the European Economic Cooperation Organization. From 1954 to 1957, he led the European Coal and Steel Community's study group on the conditions and effects of technical progress in the steel industry. In 1957 he was appointed as a United Nations expert for the Mexican government and to the economic commission for Latin America. Fournastié was a professor at the Institut d'Etudes Politiques de Paris until his retirement in 1978, he became professor at the VIth section of the École Pratique des Hautes Études in 1951, from 1960 he held the chair of Economics and Industrial Statistics at CNAM. In 1966, Fourastié became an editor of Le Figaro and until 1968 he presented the monthly program "Quart d'heure" on French television. In 1968, he was elected to the French Academy of Moral and Political Sciences, became its president in 1978.
In 1981, he was named president of the central administrative commission of the French Institute. Le Contrôle de l'État sur les sociétés d'assurances. Paris, Faculté de Droit, 1937, 275 p. Le Nouveau Régime juridique et technique de l'assurance en France. Paris, L'Argus, 1941, 282 p. La Comptabilité. Paris, Presses Universitaires de France, 1943, 128 p. Coll. Que sais-je? Comptabilité générale conforme au plan comptable général. Paris, Librairie générale de droit et de jurisprudence, 1944, 271 p. L'Économie française dans le monde, avec la collaboratioun de Henri Montet. Paris, Presses universitaires de France, 1945, 136 p. Coll. Que sais-je? N° 191 Les Assurances au point de vue économique et social. Paris, Payot, 1946, 132 p.. Esquisse d'une théorie générale de l'évolution économique contemporaine, Presses Universitaires de France, 1947, 32 p. Note sur la philosophie des sciences, Presses Universitaires de France, 1948, 36 p. Le Grand Espoir du XXe siècle. Progrès technique, progrès économique, progrès social.
Paris, Presses Universitaires de France, 1949, 224 p. - Réed 1989 collection Tel Gallimard La Civilisation de 1960. Paris, Presses universitaires de France, 1947. 120 p.. Ed. remaniée en 1953 sous le titre: La Civilisation de 1975, en 1974, sous le titre: La Civilisation de 1995 et en 1982 sous le titre: La Civilisation de 2001. 11e éd.: 1982. Le progrès technique et l'évolution économique, Institut d'Études Politiques de Paris, les cours de Droit, 1951-52, 249 p. Machinisme et bien-être. Paris, Ed. de Minuit, 1951, 256 p. La Productivité Paris, Presses universitaires de France, 1952, 120 p.. La prévision économique et la direction des entreprises. Paris, Presses universitaires de France, 1955, 152 p. Productivité, prix et salaires, Paris, O. E. C. E. 1957, 115 p. Pourquoi nous travaillons. Paris, Presses universitaires de France, 1959, 128 p.... La Grande Métamorphose du XXe siècle. Essais sur quelques problèmes de l'humanité d'aujourd'hui. Paris, Presses universitaires de France, 1961, 224 p. La Planification économique en France, avec la collaboration de Jean-Paul Courthéoux.
Paris, Presses universitaires de France, 1963, 208 p. Les Conditions de l'esprit scientifique. Paris, Gallimard, 1966, 256 p.. Les 40 000 heures. Paris, Gonthier-Laffont, 1965. 247 p.. Essais de morale prospective. Paris, Gonthier. Paris, A. Michel, 1970, 167 p. Prévision, prospective, Cours de l'Institut d'Études Politiques de Paris. 1973-74. Paris, Les cours de droit, 1974, 113 p.. L'Église a-t-elle trahi? Dialogue entre Jean Fourastié et René Laurentin. Paris, Beauchesne, 1974, 192 p. Pouvoir d'achat, prix et salaires, avec la collaboration de Jacqueline Fourastié. Paris, Gallimard, 1977, 223 p.. La réalité économique. Vers la révision des idées dominantes en France, avec la collaboration de Jacqueline Fourastié, Paris, R. Laffont, 1978, 365 p. (Réédité en 1986, Hachette
Heavy industry is industry that involves one or more characteristics such as large and heavy products. Because of those factors, heavy industry involves higher capital intensity than light industry does, it is often more cyclical in investment and employment. Transportation and construction along with their upstream manufacturing supply businesses have been the bulk of heavy industry throughout the industrial age, along with some capital-intensive manufacturing. Traditional examples from the mid-19th century through the early 20th included steelmaking, artillery production, locomotive erection, machine tool building, the heavier types of mining. From the late 19th century through the mid-20th, as the chemical industry and electrical industry developed, they involved components of both heavy industry and light industry, soon true for the automotive industry and the aircraft industry. Modern shipbuilding is considered heavy industry. Large systems are characteristic of heavy industry such as the construction of skyscrapers and large dams during the post–World War II era, the manufacture/deployment of large rockets and giant wind turbines through the 21st century.
Many East Asian countries rely on heavy industry as key parts of their overall economies. This reliance on heavy industry is a matter of government economic policy. Among Japanese and Korean firms with "heavy industry" in their names, many are manufacturers of aerospace products and defense contractors to their respective countries' governments such as Japan's Fuji Heavy Industries and Korea's Hyundai Rotem, a joint project of Hyundai Heavy Industries and Daewoo Heavy Industries. In 20th-century communist states, the planning of the economy focused on heavy industry as an area for large investments to the extent of painful opportunity costs on the production–possibility frontier; this was motivated by fears of failing to maintain military parity with foreign capitalist powers. For example, the Soviet Union's manic industrialization in the 1930s, with heavy industry as the favored emphasis, sought to bring its ability to produce trucks, artillery and warships up to a level that would make the country a great power.
China under Mao Zedong pursued a similar strategy culminating in the Great Leap Forward of 1958–1960, an attempt to industrialize and collectivize. This industrialization attempt failed to create industrialization and instead caused the Great Chinese Famine, in which 25-30 million people died prematurely. Heavy industry is sometimes a special designation in local zoning laws; this allows industries with heavy impacts to be sited with forethought. For example, the zoning restrictions for landfills take into account the heavy truck traffic that will exert expensive wear on the roads leading to the landfill. Definition of'Heavy Industry' according to Investopedia.com
Light industry is industries that are less capital-income intensive than heavy industry and is more raw material-oriented than business-oriented, as it produces smaller consumer goods. Most light industry products are produced for end users rather than as intermediates for use by other industries. Light industry facilities have less environmental impact than those associated with heavy industry. For that reason zoning laws are more to permit light industry near residential areas. One definition states that light industry is a "manufacturing activity that uses moderate amounts of processed materials to produce items of high value per unit weight". Light industries require fewer raw materials and power. While light industry causes little pollution compared to heavy industry, some light industry can cause significant pollution or risk of contamination. For example, electronics manufacturing, itself a light industry, can create harmful levels of lead or chemical wastes in soil without proper handling of solder and waste products.
Food industry Paper making Plastic Leather industry TextilesHousehold electric appliances Kitchen and dining products Beauty and personal care Home textiles Cleaning and storage Clock and eyewear Gardening and entertainment Baby goods Household sundries Advertising and packaging
A market is one of the many varieties of systems, procedures, social relations and infrastructures whereby parties engage in exchange. While parties may exchange goods and services by barter, most markets rely on sellers offering their goods or services in exchange for money from buyers, it can be said that a market is the process by which the prices of goods and services are established. Markets facilitate enable the distribution and resource allocation in a society. Markets allow any trade-able item to be priced. A market emerges more or less spontaneously or may be constructed deliberately by human interaction in order to enable the exchange of rights of services and goods. Markets supplant gift economies and are held in place through rules and customs, such as a booth fee, competitive pricing, source of goods for sale. Markets can differ by products or factors sold, product differentiation, place in which exchanges are carried, buyers targeted, selling process, government regulation, subsidies, minimum wages, price ceilings, legality of exchange, intensity of speculation, concentration, exchange asymmetry, relative prices and geographic extension.
The geographic boundaries of a market may vary for example the food market in a single building, the real estate market in a local city, the consumer market in an entire country, or the economy of an international trade bloc where the same rules apply throughout. Markets can be worldwide, see for example the global diamond trade. National economies can be classified as developed markets or developing markets. In mainstream economics, the concept of a market is any structure that allows buyers and sellers to exchange any type of goods and information; the exchange of goods or services, with or without money, is a transaction. Market participants consist of all the buyers and sellers of a good who influence its price, a major topic of study of economics and has given rise to several theories and models concerning the basic market forces of supply and demand. A major topic of debate is how much a given market can be considered to be a "free market", free from government intervention. Microeconomics traditionally focuses on the study of market structure and the efficiency of market equilibrium.
However, it is not always clear how the allocation of resources can be improved since there is always the possibility of government failure. A market is one of the many varieties of systems, procedures, social relations and infrastructures whereby parties engage in exchange. While parties may exchange goods and services by barter, most markets rely on sellers offering their goods or services in exchange for money from buyers, it can be said that a market is the process by which the prices of goods and services are established. Markets enables the distribution and allocation of resources in a society. Markets allow any trade-able item to be priced. A market sometimes emerges more or less spontaneously or may be constructed deliberately by human interaction in order to enable the exchange of rights of services and goods. Markets of varying types can spontaneously arise whenever a party has interest in a good or service that some other party can provide. Hence there can be a market for cigarettes in correctional facilities, another for chewing gum in a playground, yet another for contracts for the future delivery of a commodity.
There can be black markets, where a good is exchanged illegally, for example markets for goods under a command economy despite pressure to repress them and virtual markets, such as eBay, in which buyers and sellers do not physically interact during negotiation. A market can be organized as an auction, as a private electronic market, as a commodity wholesale market, as a shopping center, as a complex institution such as a stock market and as an informal discussion between two individuals. Markets vary in form, scale and types of participants as well as the types of goods and services traded; the following is a non exhaustive list: Food retail markets: farmers' markets, fish markets, wet markets and grocery stores Retail marketplaces: public markets, market squares, Main Streets, High Streets, souqs, night markets, shopping strip malls and shopping malls Big-box stores: supermarkets and discount stores Ad hoc auction markets: process of buying and selling goods or services by offering them up for bid, taking bids and selling the item to the highest bidder Used goods markets such as flea markets Temporary markets such as fairs Physical wholesale markets: sale of goods or merchandise to retailers.
Design can have different connotations in different fields of application, but there are two basic meanings of design: as a verb and as a noun. Design is the intentional creation of a plan or specification for the construction of an object or system or for the implementation of an activity or process. Design can refer to such a plan or specification or to the created object, etc. and features of it such as aesthetic, economic or socio-political. The process of creating a design can be brief or lengthy and complicated, involving considerable research, reflection, interactive adjustment and re-design. In some cases, the direct construction of an object without an explicit prior plan is considered to be a design activity. "Everyone designs who devises courses of action aimed at changing existing situations into preferred ones."More formally design has been defined as follows: a specification of an object, manifested by an agent, intended to accomplish goals, in a particular environment, using a set of primitive components, satisfying a set of requirements, subject to constraints.
It defines the specifications, parameters, activities and how and what to do within legal, social, environmental and economic constraints in achieving that objective."Here, a "specification" can be manifested as either a plan or a finished product, "primitives" are the elements from which the design object is composed. The person designing is called a designer, a term used for people who work professionally in one of the various design areas specifying which area is being dealt with. A designer's sequence of activities is called a design process while the scientific study of design is called design science. Another definition of design is planning to manufacture an object, component or structure, thus the word "design" can be used as a verb. In a broader sense, design is an applied engineering that integrates with technology. While the definition of design is broad, design has a myriad of specifications that professionals utilize in their fields. Major examples of design are architectural blueprints, engineering drawings, business processes, circuit diagrams, sewing patterns Substantial disagreement exists concerning how designers in many fields, whether amateur or professional, alone or in teams, produce designs.
Kees Dorst and Judith Dijkhuis, both designers themselves, argued that "there are many ways of describing design processes" and discussed "two basic and fundamentally different ways", both of which have several names. The prevailing view has been called "the rational model", "technical problem solving" and "the reason-centric perspective"; the alternative view has been called "reflection-in-action", "evolutionary design", "co-evolution", "the action-centric perspective". The rational model was independently developed by Herbert A. Simon, an American scientist, Gerhard Pahl and Wolfgang Beitz, two German engineering design theorists, it posits that: designers attempt to optimize a design candidate for known constraints and objectives, the design process is plan-driven, the design process is understood in terms of a discrete sequence of stages. The rational model is based on a rationalist philosophy and underlies the waterfall model, systems development life cycle, much of the engineering design literature.
According to the rationalist philosophy, design is informed by research and knowledge in a predictable and controlled manner. Typical stages consistent with the rational model include the following: Pre-production design Design brief or Parti pris – an early statement of design goals Analysis – analysis of current design goals Research – investigating similar design solutions in the field or related topics Specification – specifying requirements of a design solution for a product or service. Problem solving – conceptualizing and documenting design solutions Presentation – presenting design solutions Design during production Development – continuation and improvement of a designed solution Testing – in situ testing of a designed solution Post-production design feedback for future designs Implementation – introducing the designed solution into the environment Evaluation and conclusion – summary of process and results, including constructive criticism and suggestions for future improvements Redesign – any or all stages in the design process repeated at any time before, during, or after production.
Each stage has many associated best practices. The rational model has been criticized on two primary grounds: Designers do not work this way – extensive empirical evidence has demonstrated that designers do not act as the rational model suggests. Unrealistic assumptions – goals are unknown when a design project begins, the requirements and constraints continue to change; the action-centric perspective is a label given to a collection of interrelated concepts, which are antithetical to the rational model. It posits that: designers use creativity and emotion to generate design candidates, the design process is improvised, no universal sequence of stages is apparent – analysis and implementation are contemporary and inextricably linkedThe action-
Computing is any activity that uses computers. It includes developing hardware and software, using computers to manage and process information and entertain. Computing is a critically important, integral component of modern industrial technology. Major computing disciplines include computer engineering, software engineering, computer science, information systems, information technology; the ACM Computing Curricula 2005 defined "computing" as follows: "In a general way, we can define computing to mean any goal-oriented activity requiring, benefiting from, or creating computers. Thus, computing includes designing and building hardware and software systems for a wide range of purposes; the list is endless, the possibilities are vast." and it defines five sub-disciplines of the computing field: computer science, computer engineering, information systems, information technology, software engineering. However, Computing Curricula 2005 recognizes that the meaning of "computing" depends on the context: Computing has other meanings that are more specific, based on the context in which the term is used.
For example, an information systems specialist will view computing somewhat differently from a software engineer. Regardless of the context, doing computing well can be complicated and difficult; because society needs people to do computing well, we must think of computing not only as a profession but as a discipline. The term "computing" has sometimes been narrowly defined, as in a 1989 ACM report on Computing as a Discipline: The discipline of computing is the systematic study of algorithmic processes that describe and transform information: their theory, design, efficiency and application; the fundamental question underlying all computing is "What can be automated?" The term "computing" is synonymous with counting and calculating. In earlier times, it was used in reference to the action performed by mechanical computing machines, before that, to human computers; the history of computing is longer than the history of computing hardware and modern computing technology and includes the history of methods intended for pen and paper or for chalk and slate, with or without the aid of tables.
Computing is intimately tied to the representation of numbers. But long before abstractions like the number arose, there were mathematical concepts to serve the purposes of civilization; these concepts include one-to-one correspondence, comparison to a standard, the 3-4-5 right triangle. The earliest known tool for use in computation was the abacus, it was thought to have been invented in Babylon circa 2400 BC, its original style of usage was by lines drawn in sand with pebbles. Abaci, of a more modern design, are still used as calculation tools today; this was the first known calculation aid - preceding Greek methods by 2,000 years. The first recorded idea of using digital electronics for computing was the 1931 paper "The Use of Thyratrons for High Speed Automatic Counting of Physical Phenomena" by C. E. Wynn-Williams. Claude Shannon's 1938 paper "A Symbolic Analysis of Relay and Switching Circuits" introduced the idea of using electronics for Boolean algebraic operations. A computer is a machine that manipulates data according to a set of instructions called a computer program.
The program has an executable form. The same program in its human-readable source code form, enables a programmer to study and develop a sequence of steps known as an algorithm; because the instructions can be carried out in different types of computers, a single set of source instructions converts to machine instructions according to the central processing unit type. The execution process carries out the instructions in a computer program. Instructions express, they trigger sequences of simple actions on the executing machine. Those actions produce effects according to the semantics of the instructions. Computer software or just "software", is a collection of computer programs and related data that provides the instructions for telling a computer what to do and how to do it. Software refers to one or more computer programs and data held in the storage of the computer for some purposes. In other words, software is a set of programs, procedures and its documentation concerned with the operation of a data processing system.
Program software performs the function of the program it implements, either by directly providing instructions to the computer hardware or by serving as input to another piece of software. The term was coined to contrast with the old term hardware. In contrast to hardware, software is intangible. Software is sometimes used in a more narrow sense, meaning application software only. Application software known as an "application" or an "app", is a computer software designed to help the user to perform specific tasks. Examples include enterprise software, accounting software, office suites, graphics software and media players. Many application programs deal principally with documents. Apps may be published separately; some users need never install one. Application software is contrasted with system software and middleware, which manage and integrate a computer's capabilities, but
Information technology is the use of computers to store, retrieve and manipulate data, or information in the context of a business or other enterprise. IT is considered to be a subset of communications technology. An information technology system is an information system, a communications system or, more speaking, a computer system – including all hardware and peripheral equipment – operated by a limited group of users. Humans have been storing, retrieving and communicating information since the Sumerians in Mesopotamia developed writing in about 3000 BC, but the term information technology in its modern sense first appeared in a 1958 article published in the Harvard Business Review. We shall call it information technology." Their definition consists of three categories: techniques for processing, the application of statistical and mathematical methods to decision-making, the simulation of higher-order thinking through computer programs. The term is used as a synonym for computers and computer networks, but it encompasses other information distribution technologies such as television and telephones.
Several products or services within an economy are associated with information technology, including computer hardware, electronics, internet, telecom equipment, e-commerce. Based on the storage and processing technologies employed, it is possible to distinguish four distinct phases of IT development: pre-mechanical, electromechanical, electronic; this article focuses on the most recent period, which began in about 1940. Devices have been used to aid computation for thousands of years initially in the form of a tally stick; the Antikythera mechanism, dating from about the beginning of the first century BC, is considered to be the earliest known mechanical analog computer, the earliest known geared mechanism. Comparable geared devices did not emerge in Europe until the 16th century, it was not until 1645 that the first mechanical calculator capable of performing the four basic arithmetical operations was developed. Electronic computers, using either valves, began to appear in the early 1940s.
The electromechanical Zuse Z3, completed in 1941, was the world's first programmable computer, by modern standards one of the first machines that could be considered a complete computing machine. Colossus, developed during the Second World War to decrypt German messages, was the first electronic digital computer. Although it was programmable, it was not general-purpose, being designed to perform only a single task, it lacked the ability to store its program in memory. The first recognisably modern electronic digital stored-program computer was the Manchester Baby, which ran its first program on 21 June 1948; the development of transistors in the late 1940s at Bell Laboratories allowed a new generation of computers to be designed with reduced power consumption. The first commercially available stored-program computer, the Ferranti Mark I, contained 4050 valves and had a power consumption of 25 kilowatts. By comparison the first transistorised computer, developed at the University of Manchester and operational by November 1953, consumed only 150 watts in its final version.
Early electronic computers such as Colossus made use of punched tape, a long strip of paper on which data was represented by a series of holes, a technology now obsolete. Electronic data storage, used in modern computers, dates from World War II, when a form of delay line memory was developed to remove the clutter from radar signals, the first practical application of, the mercury delay line; the first random-access digital storage device was the Williams tube, based on a standard cathode ray tube, but the information stored in it and delay line memory was volatile in that it had to be continuously refreshed, thus was lost once power was removed. The earliest form of non-volatile computer storage was the magnetic drum, invented in 1932 and used in the Ferranti Mark 1, the world's first commercially available general-purpose electronic computer. IBM introduced the first hard disk drive as a component of their 305 RAMAC computer system. Most digital data today is still stored magnetically on hard disks, or optically on media such as CD-ROMs.
Until 2002 most information was stored on analog devices, but that year digital storage capacity exceeded analog for the first time. As of 2007 94% of the data stored worldwide was held digitally: 52% on hard disks, 28% on optical devices and 11% on digital magnetic tape, it has been estimated that the worldwide capacity to store information on electronic devices grew from less than 3 exabytes in 1986 to 295 exabytes in 2007, doubling every 3 years. Database management systems emerged in the 1960s to address the problem of storing and retrieving large amounts of data and quickly. One of the earliest such systems was IBM's Information Management System, still deployed more than 50 years later. IMS stores data hierarchically, but in the 1970s Ted Codd proposed an alternative relational storage model based on set theory and predicate logic and the familiar concepts of tables and columns; the first commercially available relational database management system was available from Oracle in 1981. All database management systems consist of a number of components that together allow the data they store to be accessed simultan