A ford is a shallow place with good footing where a river or stream may be crossed by wading, or inside a vehicle getting its wheels wet. A ford may occur or be constructed. Fords may be impassable during high water. A low water crossing is a low bridge that allows crossing over a river or stream when water is low but may be covered by deep water when the river is high. A ford is a much cheaper form of river crossing than a bridge, but it may become impassable after heavy rain or during flood conditions. A ford is therefore only suitable for minor roads. Most modern fords are shallow enough to be crossed by cars and other wheeled or tracked vehicles. In New Zealand, fords are a normal part of major roads, until 2010, along State Highway 1 on the South Island's east coast; as most inter-city domestic passengers travel by air and as much cargo goes by sea, long distance road traffic is low and fords are thus a practical necessity for crossing seasonal rivers. In dry weather, drivers become aware of a ford by crunching across outwash detritus on the roadway.
A Bailey bridge may be built off the main line of the road to carry emergency traffic during high water. At places where the water is shallow enough, but the material on the riverbed will not support heavy vehicles, fords are sometimes improved by building a submerged concrete floor. In such cases a curb is placed on the downstream side to prevent vehicles slipping off, as growth of algae will make the slab slippery. Fords may be equipped with a post indicating the water depth, so that users may know if the water is too deep to attempt to cross; some have an adjacent footbridge. A road running below the water level of a stream or river is known as a "watersplash", it is a common name for a ford or stretch of wet road in some areas, sometimes used to describe tidal crossings. They have become a common feature in rallying courses. There are enthusiasts who seek out and drive through these water features, recording details on dedicated websites. There are many old fords known as watersplashes in the United Kingdom.
Examples are at Brockenhurst in Hampshire, Wookey in Somerset, Swinbrook in Oxfordshire. Some of these are being replaced by bridges as these are a more reliable form of crossing in adverse weather conditions; the Dean Ford in Kilmarnock, Ayrshire, is mentioned in the deeds of Dean Castle, gifted to the local people. The ford has had to be maintained as a property boundary feature, despite several cars a year being washed away. Not just a British phenomenon, some spectacular versions of the watersplash feature can be found in diverse locations. Australia has the Gulf Savannah, others may be found in Canada, South Africa, Finland, they are found on some Tennessee backroads, where they are referred to as "underwater bridges". In Israel and part of the British areas under the mandate a low water crossing or watersplash had been known as "Irish bridge" in reference to the Anglo–Irish war; the names of many towns and villages are derived from the word'ford'. Examples include Oxford; the German word Furt and the Dutch voorde are cognates with the same meaning, all deriving from Proto-Indo-European *pértus'crossing'.
This is the source of Gaulish ritus, which underlies such names as Chambord and Niort. Towns such as Maastricht and Utrecht formed at fords; the ending tricht, drecht, or trecht is derived from the Latin word traiectum, meaning "crossing". Thus the name Utrecht the Roman fort of Traiectum, is derived from "Uut Trecht", meaning "downstream crossing"; the Afrikaans form was taken into South African English as drift and led to place names like Rorke's Drift. In Slavic languages, the word brod comes from the linguistic root that means "river-crossing" or "place where a river can be crossed". Although today "brod" in the Croatian language means "ship", Slavonski Brod in Croatia, as well as Makedonski Brod in Macedonia and other place names containing "Brod" in Slavic countries, where "brod" is still the word for ford, are named after fords; because in historic times a ford was a strategic military point, many famous battles were fought at or near fords. Battle of Xiaoyao Ford, 215–217 Battle of Fulford, 1066 Battle of Jacob's Ford, 1179 Battle of Imjin River, 1592 Battle of the Yellow Ford, 1598 Battle of Newburn Ford, 1640 Battle of the Boyne, 1690 Battle of Matson's Ford, 1777 Battle of Brandywine, 1777 Battle of Minisink, 1779 Battle of Cowan's Ford, 1781 Battle of Assaye, 1803 Battle of Blackburn's Ford, 1861 Battle of Kelly's Ford, 1863 Battle of Buffington Island, 1863 Battle of Chancellorsville, 1863 Battle of Byram's Ford, 1864 Battle of Morton's Ford, 1864 Battle of Rorke's Drift, 1879 Battle of Cut Knife, 1885 Achilles Fights the River, Trojan War, as found in The Illiad, by Homer, Book 21, line 1 The Defence of Duffer's Drift, 1900 First Battle of Beruna, Narnian year 1000 Second Battle of Beruna, Narnian year 2303 First Battle of the Fords of
Coalport is a village in Shropshire, England. It is located on the River Severn in a mile downstream of Ironbridge, it lies predominantly on the north bank of the river. The settlement was planned as a canal–river interchange and a complete "new town" by ironmaster William Reynolds, who between 1788 and 1796 built warehouses, workshops and workers accommodation in Coalport, he directed the construction of the Shropshire Canal, linking the East Shropshire Coalfield with the River Severn — the terminus being Coalport Wharf between the Brewery Inn and Coalport Bridge. Coalport at this time was much larger, it forms part of the civil parish of the Gorge and is the southeastern corner of the borough of Telford and Wrekin. The famous bridge of cast iron was built in 1818 and unlike its more famous neighbour at Ironbridge, still takes vehicular traffic, albeit limited to a single line of traffic, a 3-tonne weight limit and a height restriction of 6 ft 6in, it was restored and strengthened in 2004. The bridge links Coalport with Broseley, a small town a mile away.
The bridge extends Coalport across the river to an area known as Preens Eddy. On this southern side of the bridge is the Woodbridge Inn and the former Coalport West railway station; the Telford and Wrekin borough boundary runs through Preens Eddy - the Woodbridge Inn for instance lies in the Shropshire Council area. Coalport was home to an important pottery founded in 1795 by John Rose, it produced Coalport porcelain. The building it was produced in is now a youth hostel and café. Production moved across the canal to the buildings which are now the Coalport China Museum. Production moved to Staffordshire in 1926, although the Coalport name was retained as a brand, the company subsequently became part of the world-famous Wedgwood group; the easternmost part of Coalport was, at one time, served by two railway stations. Coalport East was a terminus of a branch from Wellington on the northern river bank. Coalport West was a through station on the Severn Valley Railway on the southern bank; the station building is a private residence.
Two converted ex-British Railways coaches have been placed between the platforms to provide holiday accommodation. The Tar Tunnel, a former source of natural bitumen, is near the Coalport Canal, is open to the public at certain times; the Memorial Bridge is a footbridge spanning the River Severn. It was built with funds raised by public subscription in 1922, is in memorial to those who died in the First World War; the Coalport Canal runs through the village and aided the settlement's development. The Hay Inclined Plane was completed in 1793 and is one of the country's major industrial monuments and the best preserved and most spectacular of its kind, it enabled canal barges and narrowboats to be transferred from the bottom of the Severn gorge to the top, up a 1 in 4 gradient on wheeled cradles, operated by a team of just four men. It was the equivalent of 27 canal locks and could transport six barges per hour in this fashion, an operation that would have taken over three hours using a traditional lock system.
The canal was superseded by rail transport and fell into neglect, silting up and becoming overgrown and was infilled in the 1920s. It was not until the late 1970s that it was restored, with further restoration in the 1990s; the Hay Inclined Plane is now part of the Blists Hill museum, part of the Ironbridge Gorge Museum Trust that operates Blists Hill Victorian Town, just half a mile up the hill. There are three public houses open in Coalport — the Brewery Inn, the Shakespeare and the Woodbridge. Industrial revolution Ironbridge Gorge Museum Trust The Iron Bridge Listed buildings in The Gorge Cossons, Neil; the Iron Bridge: Symbol of the Industrial Revolution. Phillimore & Co Ltd. Cragg, Roger. Civil Engineering Heritage: Wales and West England. Thomas Telford Ltd. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list Lewis, Peter R.. Disaster on the Dee: Robert Stephenson's Nemesis of 1847. Tempus. Bridge strengthening
West Midlands (region)
The West Midlands is one of nine official regions of England at the first level of NUTS for statistical purposes. It covers the western half of the area traditionally known as the Midlands, it contains Birmingham and the larger West Midlands conurbation, the third most populous in the United Kingdom. The City of Coventry is located within the West Midlands county, but is separated from the conurbation to the west by several miles of green belt; the region contains 6 shire counties which stretch from the Welsh Border to the East Midlands. The region is geographically diverse, from the urban central areas of the conurbation to the rural western counties of Shropshire and Herefordshire which border Wales; the longest river in the UK, the River Severn, traverses the region southeastwards, flowing through the county towns of Shrewsbury and Worcester, the Ironbridge Gorge, a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Staffordshire is home to the industrialised Potteries conurbation, including the city of Stoke-on-Trent, the Staffordshire Moorlands area, which borders the southeastern Peak District National Park near Leek.
The region encompasses five Areas of Outstanding Natural Beauty, the Wye Valley, Shropshire Hills, Cannock Chase, Malvern Hills, parts of the Cotswolds. Warwickshire is home to the towns of Stratford upon Avon, birthplace of writer William Shakespeare, the birthplace of Rugby football and Nuneaton, birthplace to author George Eliot; the official region contains the ceremonial counties of Herefordshire, Staffordshire, West Midlands and Worcestershire. There is some confusion in the use of the term "West Midlands", as the name is used for the much smaller West Midlands county and conurbation, in the central belt of the Midlands and on the eastern side of the West Midlands Region, it is still used by various organisations within that area, such as West Midlands Police and West Midlands Fire Service. The highest point in the region is Black Mountain, at 703 metres in west Herefordshire on the border with Powys, Wales; the region contains five Areas of Outstanding Natural Beauty, including the Shropshire Hills, Malvern Hills and Cannock Chase, parts of the Wye Valley and Cotswolds.
The Peak District national park stretches into the northern corner of Staffordshire. Served by many lines in the urban areas such as the West Coast Main Line and branches; the Welsh Marches Line and the Cotswold Line transect the region as well as the Cross Country Route and Chiltern Line. There are plans to reopen the Honeybourne Line. Numerous notable roads pass with most converging around the central conurbation; the M5, which connects South West England to the region, passes through Worcestershire, near to Worcester, through the West Midlands county, past West Bromwich, with its northern terminus at its junction with the M6 just south of Walsall. The M6, which has its southern terminus just outside the southeast of the region at its junction with the M1, which connects the region to North West England, passes Rugby and Nuneaton in Warwickshire and Birmingham, Stafford and Stoke-on-Trent in Staffordshire; the M6 toll provides an alternative route to the M6 between Coleshill and Cannock, passing north of Sutton Coldfield and just south of Lichfield.
The M40 connects the region through South East England to London, with its northern terminus at its junction with the M42. The M42 connects the M5 at Bromsgrove, passing around the south and east of Birmingham, joining the M40 and M6, passing Solihull and Castle Bromwich, to Tamworth, northeast of Birmingham; the M50 connects the M5 from near Tewkesbury to Ross-on-Wye in the southwest. The M54 connects Wellington in the west, to the M6 near Cannock; the A5 road traverses the region northwest-southeast, passing through Shrewsbury, Cannock and Nuneaton. The longest elevated road viaduct in the UK is the 3 miles section from Gravelly Hill to Castle Bromwich on the M6, opened on 24 May 1972; the section of the A45 in Coventry from Willenhall to Allesley in 1939 was one of the UK's first large planned road schemes. Princes Square in Wolverhampton had Britain's first automatic traffic lights on 5 November 1927. On 13 January 2012, 34-year-old Ben Westwood of Wednesfield, was caught by the police, when speeding at 180 mph, in an Audi RS5 with a Lamborghini engine, from Wolverhampton up to Stafford on the M6, back again.
He was travelling so fast that he was outpacing the Central Counties Air Operations Unit Eurocopter helicopter. He and the vehicle had been in fifteen smash and grab raids and he was jailed for nine years at Wolverhampton Crown Court in August 2012; as part of the transport planning system, the Regional Assembly is under statutory requirement to produce a regional transport strategy to provide long term planning for transport in the region. This involves region wide transport schemes such as those carried out by Highways England and Network Rail. Within the region, the local transport authorities carry out transport planning through the use of a local transport plan which outlines their strategies and implementation programme; the most recent LTP is that for the period 2006–11. In the West Midlands region, the following transport authorities have published their LTP online: Herefordshire, Shropshire U. A. Staffordshire and Wrekin U. A. Warwickshire, West Midlands and Worcestershire; the transport authority of Stoke-on-Trent U.
A. publishes a joint local transport plan in partnership with
A motte-and-bailey castle is a fortification with a wooden or stone keep situated on a raised earthwork called a motte, accompanied by an enclosed courtyard, or bailey, surrounded by a protective ditch and palisade. Easy to build with unskilled forced, but still militarily formidable, these castles were built across northern Europe from the 10th century onwards, spreading from Normandy and Anjou in France, into the Holy Roman Empire in the 11th century; the Normans introduced the design into England and Wales following their invasion in 1066. Motte-and-bailey castles were adopted in Scotland, the Low Countries and Denmark in the 12th and 13th centuries. By the end of the 13th century, the design was superseded by alternative forms of fortification, but the earthworks remain a prominent feature in many countries. A motte-and-bailey castle was made up of two structures, a motte, a type of mound – artificial – topped with a wooden or stone structure known as a keep; the term "motte and bailey" is a modern one, is not medieval in origin.
The word "motte" is the French version of the Latin mota, in France the word motte was an early word for a turf. The word "bailey" comes from basse-cour, referring to a low yard. In medieval sources, the Latin term castellum was used to describe the bailey complex within these castles. One contemporary account of these structures comes from Jean de Colmieu around 1130, describing the Calais region in northern France. De Colmieu described how the nobles would build "a mound of earth as high as they can and dig a ditch about it as wide and deep as possible; the space on top of the mound is enclosed by a palisade of strong hewn logs, strengthened at intervals by as many towers as their means can provide. Inside the enclosure is a citadel, or keep, which commands the whole circuit of the defences; the entrance to the fortress is by means of a bridge, rising from the outer side of the moat and supported on posts as it ascends, reaches to the top of the mound." At Durham Castle, contemporaries described how the motte-and-bailey superstructure arose from the "tumulus of rising earth" with a keep rising "into thin air, strong within and without" with a "stalwart house...glittering with beauty in every part".
Mottes were made out of earth and flattened on top, it can be hard to determine whether a mound is artificial or natural without excavation. Some were built over older artificial structures, such as Bronze Age barrows; the size of mottes varied with these mounds being 3 metres to 30 metres in height, from 30 to 90 metres in diameter. This minimum height of 3 metres for mottes is intended to exclude smaller mounds which had non-military purposes. In England and Wales, only 7% of mottes were taller than 10 metres high. A motte was protected by a ditch around it, which would have been a source of the earth and soil for constructing the mound itself. A keep and a protective wall would be built on top of the motte; some walls would be large enough to have a wall-walk around them, the outer walls of the motte and the wall-walk could be strengthened by filling in the gap between the wooden walls with earth and stones, allowing it to carry more weight. Smaller mottes could only support simple towers with room for a few soldiers, whilst larger mottes could be equipped with a much grander building.
Many wooden keeps were designed with bretèches, or brattices, small balconies that projected from the upper floors of the building, allowing defenders to cover the base of the fortification wall. The early 12th-century chronicler Lambert of Ardres described the wooden keep on top of the motte at the castle of Ardres, where the "first storey was on the surface of the ground, where were cellars and granaries, great boxes, tuns and other domestic utensils. In the storey above were the dwelling and common living-rooms of the residents in which were the larders, the rooms of the bakers and butlers, the great chamber in which the lord and his wife slept... In the upper storey of the house were garret rooms... In this storey the watchmen and the servants appointed to keep the house took their sleep". Wooden structures on mottes could be protected by skins and hides to prevent them being set alight during a siege; the bailey was an enclosed courtyard overlooked by the motte and surrounded by a wooden fence called a palisade and another ditch.
The bailey was kidney-shaped to fit against a circular motte, but could be made in other shapes according to the terrain. The bailey would contain a wide number of buildings, including a hall, kitchens, a chapel, stores, forges or workshops, was the centre of the castle's economic activity; the bailey was linked to the motte either by a flying bridge stretching between the two, or, more popularly in England, by steps cut into the motte. The ditch of the motte and the bailey joined, forming a figure of eight around the castle. Wherever possible, nearby streams and rivers would be dammed or diverted, creating water-filled moats, artificial lakes and other forms of water defences. In practice, there was a wide number of variations to this common design. A castle could have more than one bailey: at Warkworth Castle an inner and an outer bailey was constructed, or alternatively, several baileys could flank the motte, as at Windsor Castle
Hampton Loade is a hamlet in Shropshire, England along the Severn Valley. It is situated on the east bank of the River Severn at grid reference SO747864, is notable for the unusual current-operated Hampton Loade Ferry, a reaction ferry to the hamlet of Hampton on the west bank; the ferry is responsible for Hampton Loade's name, as Loade is derived from lode, an old English word for ferry. The village is in the post town district of Wolverhampton and local government district of Bridgnorth, 4 miles to the north, it is in the Ludlow parliamentary constituency and the West Midlands European parliament constituency. Hampton Loade station, on the preserved Severn Valley Railway, is located on the Hampton side of the river. There is an unusual bridge close to Hampton Loade: a small private roadway is suspended below two large waterpipe arches, used to pump water from the river to Chelmarsh Reservoir, by the South Staffordshire Water works; the hamlet is home to a satellite navigation error where the ferry is listed as a car ferry or a bridge on certain sat-nav systems.
Although there are now road signs in place warning of the error on approaching the village. The ferry has not been run prompting speculation that it is permanently closed; this has not been confirmed by any reliable news sources but according to the Severn Valley Railway it has ceased operation. On the night of 19 June 2007, the village of Hampton on the west bank suffered major damage as a result of a severe rainstorm; the one and only road into the village was washed away, large sections of nearby Severn Valley Railway track subsided. Hampton Loade: Village and Ferry Panoramas Views: Ferry across the Severn BBC
The A442 is a main road which passes through the counties of Worcestershire and Shropshire, in the West Midlands region of England. From Droitwich in Worcestershire it runs towards Kidderminster where it meets the A449 from Worcester; this section of road used to be the B4192 until the late 1970s when it was upgraded to A road status. At Kidderminster, it starts again and runs north-north-west into Shropshire, via Bridgnorth and Telford. Through Telford it is known as Queensway, the Eastern Primary, it ends. Before the A53 bypass around the village was built, the A442 continued through Hodnet and joined the A41 near Darliston, south of Whitchurch; this section of road however has now been downgraded: most of it is declassified, but part has been reclassified as part of B5065. However Googlemaps.com is still mistakenly listing the now declassified route as still being the A442. From Droitwich to Low Hill the road is ancient, as it is referred to in the Saxon charter for Whitlinge dated AD 980 as a stræte.
This road was maintained by a Droitwich turnpike trust established in 1755. North of Kidderminster it was a'way' in the Saxon bounds of Wolverley before being joined by the great street at Shatterford. At Shatterford, the Prior of Worcester was authorised to assart 100 acres of wood and heath "for the greater security of persons going through the said pass". From Shatterford the old course of the road goes through Romsley and Allum Bridge, to rejoin the present road at Quatt; the old tracks. The present road began life as a new turnpike built in the late 1820s by the Kidderminster turnpike trust, responsible for the road as far as Quatford since 1760. Bridgnorth only became the northern end of the road in 1821; the trust remained responsible for the road until 1873. North of Bridgnorth, the road formed part of the Newport turnpikes; the Trust was established in 1763, becoming their third district, when their Act was renewed in 1783. Beyond Sutton Cross in Sutton Maddock the turnpike continued through Shifnal to Woodcote, where it joined another turnpike.
This continuation is now classified as the A4169 road. The stretch beyond Sutton Cross was part of the Madeley turnpike district, going to the Bucks Head on Watling Street; this was turnpiked in 1764, continuing southeast to the New Inn on Rudge Heath, but that stretch of road was evidently not improved until the 1960s, when it was upgraded to become the B4176. The northern terminus was altered in 1827 when the road from Balls Hill in Dawley to Bucks Head was discontinued in favour of an alternative route to Watling Street; the course of the road was altered again when a new major road was built to take traffic through the built up area of Telford New Town in the 1970s. Some of the old routes have disappeared; the next section of the old route is from Watling Street to the smithy at Crudgington. The first part of this is now the A5223 road, but the new course of A442 rejoins the old one; this was turnpiked in 1725 with the Shrewsbury to Crackley Bank section of Watling Street. Further sections of the road are former turnpikes
In England, a civil parish is a type of administrative parish used for local government, they are a territorial designation, the lowest tier of local government below districts and counties, or their combined form, the unitary authority. Civil parishes can trace their origin to the ancient system of ecclesiastical parishes which played a role in both civil and ecclesiastical administration; the unit rolled out across England in the 1860s. A civil parish can range in size from a large town with a population of about 75,000 to a single village with fewer than a hundred inhabitants. Eight parishes have city status. A civil parish may be known as and confirmed as a town, neighbourhood or community by resolution of its parish council, a right reserved not conferred on other units of English local government. 35% of the English population live in a civil parish. As of 31 December 2015 there were 10,449 parishes in England; the most populous is Weston super Mare and those with cathedral city status are Chichester, Hereford, Ripon, Salisbury and Wells.
On 1 April 2014, Queen's Park became the first civil parish in Greater London. Before 2008 their creation was not permitted within a London borough. Wales was divided into civil parishes until 1974, when they were replaced by communities, which are similar to English parishes in the way they operate. Civil parishes in Scotland were abolished for local government purposes by the Local Government Act 1929, the Scottish equivalent of English civil parishes are community council areas, which were established by the Local Government Act 1973; the Parish system in Europe was established between the 8th and 12th centuries and in England was old by the time of the Conquest. These areas were based on the territory of one or more manors, areas which in some cases derived their bounds from Roman or Iron Age estates. Parish boundaries were conservative, changing little, after 1180'froze' so that boundaries could no longer be changed at all, despite changes to manorial landholdings - though there were some examples of sub-division.
The consistency of these boundaries, up until the 19th century is useful to historians, is of cultural significance in terms of shaping local identities, a factor reinforced by the adoption of parish boundaries unchanged, by successor local government units. There was huge variation in size between parishes, for instance Writtle in Essex was 13,568 acres while neighbouring Shellow Bowells was just 469 acres, Chignall Smealy 476 acres; until the break with Rome, parishes managed ecclesiastical matters, while the manor was the principal unit of local administration and justice. The church replaced the manor court as the rural administrative centre, levied a local tax on produce known as a tithe. In the medieval period, responsibilities such as relief of the poor passed from the Lord of the Manor to the parish's rector, who in practice would delegate tasks among his vestry or the monasteries. After the dissolution of the monasteries, the power to levy a rate to fund relief of the poor was conferred on the parish authorities by the Act for the Relief of the Poor 1601.
Both before and after this optional social change, local charities are well-documented. The parish authorities were consisted of all the ratepayers of the parish; as the number of ratepayers of some parishes grew, it became difficult to convene meetings as an open vestry. In some built up, areas the select vestry took over responsibility from the entire body of ratepayers; this innovation allowed governance by a self-perpetuating elite. The administration of the parish system relied on the monopoly of the established English Church, which for a few years after Henry VIII alternated between the Roman Catholic Church and the Church of England, before settling on the latter on the accession of Elizabeth I in 1558. By the 18th century, religious membership was becoming more fractured in some places, due for instance to the progress of Methodism; the legitimacy of the parish vestry came into question and the perceived inefficiency and corruption inherent in the system became a source for concern in some places.
For this reason, during the early 19th century the parish progressively lost its powers to ad hoc boards and other organisations, for example the loss of responsibility for poor relief through the Poor Law Amendment Act 1834. Sanitary districts covered England in Ireland three years later; the replacement boards were each entitled to levy their own rate in the parish. The church rate ceased to be levied in many parishes and became voluntary from 1868; the ancient parishes diverged into two distinct, nearly overlapping, systems of parishes during the 19th century. The Poor Law Amendment Act 1866 declared all areas that levied a separate rate: C of E ecclesiastical parishes, extra-parochial areas and their analogue, chapelries, to be "civil parishes". To have collected rates this means these beforehand had their own vestries, boards or equivalent bodies; the Church of England parishes, which cover more than 99% of England, became termed "ecclesiastical parishes" and the boundaries of these soon diverged from those of the Ancient Parishes in order to reflect modern circumstances.
After 1921 each ecclesiastical parish has been the responsibility of the parochial church councils. In the late 19th century, most of the ancient irregularities inheri