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Qubit

In quantum computing, a qubit or quantum bit is the basic unit of quantum information—the quantum version of the classical binary bit physically realized with a two-state device. A qubit is a two-state quantum-mechanical system, one of the simplest quantum systems displaying the peculiarity of quantum mechanics. Examples include: the spin of the electron in which the two levels can be taken as spin up and spin down. In a classical system, a bit would have to be in the other. However, quantum mechanics allows the qubit to be in a coherent superposition of both states a property, fundamental to quantum mechanics and quantum computing; the coining of the term qubit is attributed to Benjamin Schumacher. In the acknowledgments of his 1995 paper, Schumacher states that the term qubit was created in jest during a conversation with William Wootters; the paper describes a way of compressing states emitted by a quantum source of information so that they require fewer physical resources to store. This procedure is now known as Schumacher compression.

A binary digit, characterized as 0 and 1, is used to represent information in classical computers. A binary digit can represent up to one bit of Shannon information, where a bit is the basic unit of information. However, in this article, the word bit is synonymous with binary digit. In classical computer technologies, a processed bit is implemented by one of two levels of low DC voltage, whilst switching from one of these two levels to the other, a so-called forbidden zone must be passed as fast as possible, as electrical voltage cannot change from one level to another instantaneously. There are two possible outcomes for the measurement of a qubit—usually taken to have the value "0" and "1", like a bit or binary digit. However, whereas the state of a bit can only be either 0 or 1, the general state of a qubit according to quantum mechanics can be a coherent superposition of both. Moreover, whereas a measurement of a classical bit would not disturb its state, a measurement of a qubit would destroy its coherence and irrevocably disturb the superposition state.

It is possible to encode one bit in one qubit. However, a qubit can hold more information. For a system of n components, a complete description of its state in classical physics requires only n bits, whereas in quantum physics it requires 2n−1 complex numbers. In quantum mechanics, the general quantum state of a qubit can be represented by a linear superposition of its two orthonormal basis states; these vectors are denoted as | 0 ⟩ = and | 1 ⟩ =. They are written in the conventional Dirac—or "bra–ket"—notation; these two orthonormal basis states, together called the computational basis, are said to span the two-dimensional linear vector space of the qubit. Qubit basis states can be combined to form product basis states. For example, two qubits could be represented in a four-dimensional linear vector space spanned by the following product basis states: | 00 ⟩ =, | 01 ⟩ =, | 10 ⟩ =, | 11 ⟩ =. In general, n qubits are represented by a superposition state vector in 2n dimensional Hilbert space. A pure qubit state is a coherent superposition of the basis states.

This means that a single qubit can be described by a linear combination of | 0 ⟩ and | 1 ⟩: | ψ ⟩ = α | 0 ⟩ + β | 1 ⟩ where α and β are probability amplitudes and can in general both be complex numbers. When we measure this qubit in the standard basis, according to the Born rule, the probability of outcome | 0 ⟩ with value "0" is | α | 2 {\displa

Delaware St. John

Delaware St. John is the collective name given to a series of three adventure games produced by Big Time Games, founded in 2004. Lighthouse Interactive was the retail publisher for these adventure games; the story follows the adventures of psychic ghost hunting detective Delaware St. John; the series author Bryan Wiegele self-published a prequel novel in PDF, which establishes how the primary characters Delaware and Kelly Bradford met. Bryan Wiegele had ideas for an advernture game series for some time. While working on Whiplash he realised he missed the adventure gaming genre and began to think of what he would do in his own game, he was bothered by the flaws within Inherent Evil, a game he had worked on, wanted to use the lessons learnt to make a better follow-up. In 2004 he fleshed out his concept for Big Time Games. One of the defining characteristics of the protagonist was for him to both be "a loner, a bit separated from society" and "likable, someone you could relate to"; the name "Delaware" was chosen as its oddness appealed to Wiegele, who felt it would match the oddness of his character.

Delaware St. John is a projected ten-title series. TCOMM's development began in November 2004 and was completed at the end of April 2005. Inspiration for the game's overall design include: The Beast Within and The 7th Guest. With a desire to have a movie-like score, Wiegele found the musician Todd Kinsley, who incidentally located the voice actors for the project; as Creative Director, Wiegele wrote and bug tested the game. A total of 11 people worked on the project in programming and game scripting roles; the 2D still frames of TCOMM were upgraded to full motion 3D for TTWNN. The third title saw the implementation of the 3D engine, though it was still played from first-person perspective. "Volume 1: The Curse of Midnight Manor was released on June 28, 2005 "Volume 2: The Town with No Name's original release date was on November 28, 2005, but it was released in December of that year. Retail release of the first two episodes by Lighthouse Interactive in various territories including North-America, United Kingdom and Ireland, Scandinavia, Australia/New Zealand, Spain, Poland and South Africa February 16, 2007.

In France, the first two titles were bundled together. Work on the third game commenced on February 11, 2006. "Volume 3: The Seacliff Tragedy would be released in June 2007 in Europe and July 2007 in North America. The Seacliff Tragedy began shipping to retail stores across the U. S. and Canada on July 24, 2007. "Volume 4: Asylum of the Lost is under development but does not have a release date yet. Bryan Wiegele and Simon Rosati set up a Kickstarter campaigns in order to fundraise for the fourth game in the series, but did not meet its goal; the developers wanted to make the game a 14+ hour experience, with in real-time 3D graphics, have it available on all systems. The second campaign reflected supporters' desires to keep the game's format consistent with the previous entries by scaling back the scope and rebudgeting; the third campaign scaled back the game to 6 hours at $10,000 and removed pay for the writing, game scripting and overall production of the game, with money only going toward artists creating the assets.

In doing this the developers were able to minimise development costs while producing a product worthy of the series. 6 days before the campaigns' end date, a large backer changed their pledge due to their financial situation changing, which led to the project falling below its goal. The "Delaware St. John: A Chance Meeting" novel was self-published on September 24, 2010 by series author Bryan Wiegele via free downloadable PDF; this novel provides insight as to how Delaware and Kelly met as well as the telling of events leading up to the game, "Volume 1: The Curse of Midnight Manor". Wiegele states: "When I conceived the Delaware St. John games I envisioned a series of games that followed behind Delaware and the mysteries that came to him. In addition I prepared the outline for a series of books that focused on what happened between these events that focused on more of the characters around him; the stories posted on the website hinted at this but never established the happenings taking place between the games."

The series centres around the plucky Delaware, the mysteries that he ventures into. Gameplay consists of inventory challenges, while the titles have in-built hint systems; the ultimate conclusion of the 10-part narrative will see the true purpose of Delaware's powers be revealed, which results in a final confrontation between good and evil. Gameboomers praised the title's excellent graphics and musical score. Adventure Spiele felt. Aventura Y Cía felt the game's "modest proposal". Gamezebo thought. One reviewer at Just Adventure gave the game an A on good faith that they would follow it up with impressive sequels, though noted it would appeal to players who wanted a good scare and an intriguing mystery. A second reviewer at Just Adventure re-evaluated the game as a C when reviewing Volume 3. Adventure Spiele enjoyed the title's tense atmosphere. One reviewer at Just Adventure deemed the experience "spooky, investigative fun with great artwork". A second reviewer at Just Adventure re-evaluated the game as a B- when reviewing Volume 3.

Gameboomers thought the title was more polished that previous volumes. Adventure Spiele felt. 4Play

Mootsinyane

Mootsinyane is a community council located in the Mohale's Hoek District of Lesotho. Its population in 2006 was 9,995; the community of Mootsinyane includes the villages of Anone, Bompolasi, Boritsa, Fika-la-Tšoene, Ha'Mamaqabe, Ha Beka, Ha Khoai, Ha Lebele, Ha Leketa, Ha Lekhafola, Ha Lengau, Ha Make, Ha Makhalanyane, Ha Makoae, Ha Malephane, Ha Matoli, Ha Mocheko, Ha Moena, Ha Moena, Ha Moena, Ha Mohapi, Ha Mohlomi, Ha Mokhoele, Ha Mokoto, Ha Molibeli, Ha Mothiba, Ha Nkieane, Ha Ntee, Ha Pholo, Ha Pita, Ha Raisa, Ha Ralikhomo, Ha Ramokhongoana, Ha Ramonethi, Ha Ramothobi, Ha Ramothobi, Ha Ramothobi, Ha Raqoatha, Ha Sebothama, Ha Seliane, Ha Sentšo, Ha Sethunya, Ha Setulo, Ha Shalane, Ha Thabo, Ha Tsela, Ha Tsela, Ha Tsietsi, Khokhotsaneng, Letlapeng, Lithipeng, Litšoeneng, Marakong, Matolong, Matsatsaneng, Mohloareng, Motse-Mocha, Motse-Mocha, Phuthing, Sebataolong, Sekoaing, Taung, Thaba-Bosiu, Tlaling, Tsekong and Tšieng. Google map of community villages