In the music industry, a single is a type of release a song recording of fewer tracks than an LP record or an album. This can be released for sale to the public in a variety of different formats. In most cases, a single is a song, released separately from an album, although it also appears on an album; these are the songs from albums that are released separately for promotional uses such as digital download or commercial radio airplay and are expected to be the most popular. In other cases a recording released. Despite being referred to as a single, singles can include up to as many as three tracks; the biggest digital music distributor, iTunes Store, accepts as many as three tracks less than ten minutes each as a single, as does popular music player Spotify. Any more than three tracks on a musical release or thirty minutes in total running time is either an extended play or, if over six tracks long, an album; when mainstream music was purchased via vinyl records, singles would be released double-sided.
That is to say, they were released with an A-side and B-side, on which two singles would be released, one on each side. Moreover, only the most popular songs from a released album would be released as a single. In more contemporary forms of music consumption, artists release most, if not all, of the tracks on an album as singles; the basic specifications of the music single were set in the late 19th century, when the gramophone record began to supersede phonograph cylinders in commercially produced musical recordings. Gramophone discs were manufactured in several sizes. By about 1910, the 10-inch, 78 rpm shellac disc had become the most used format; the inherent technical limitations of the gramophone disc defined the standard format for commercial recordings in the early 20th century. The crude disc-cutting techniques of the time and the thickness of the needles used on record players limited the number of grooves per inch that could be inscribed on the disc surface, a high rotation speed was necessary to achieve acceptable recording and playback fidelity.
78 rpm was chosen as the standard because of the introduction of the electrically powered, synchronous turntable motor in 1925, which ran at 3600 rpm with a 46:1 gear ratio, resulting in a rotation speed of 78.26 rpm. With these factors applied to the 10-inch format and performers tailored their output to fit the new medium; the 3-minute single remained the standard into the 1960s, when the availability of microgroove recording and improved mastering techniques enabled recording artists to increase the duration of their recorded songs. The breakthrough came with Bob Dylan's "Like a Rolling Stone". Although CBS tried to make the record more "radio friendly" by cutting the performance into halves, separating them between the two sides of the vinyl disc, both Dylan and his fans demanded that the full six-minute take be placed on one side, that radio stations play the song in its entirety; as digital downloading and audio streaming have become more prevalent, it has become possible for every track on an album to be available separately.
The concept of a single for an album has been retained as an identification of a more promoted or more popular song within an album collection. The demand for music downloads skyrocketed after the launch of Apple's iTunes Store in January 2001 and the creation of portable music and digital audio players such as the iPod. In September 1997, with the release of Duran Duran's "Electric Barbarella" for paid downloads, Capitol Records became the first major label to sell a digital single from a well-known artist. Geffen Records released Aerosmith's "Head First" digitally for free. In 2004, Recording Industry Association of America introduced digital single certification due to significant sales of digital formats, with Gwen Stefani's "Hollaback Girl" becoming RIAA's first platinum digital single. In 2013, RIAA incorporated on-demand streams into the digital single certification. Single sales in the United Kingdom reached an all-time low in January 2005, as the popularity of the compact disc was overtaken by the then-unofficial medium of the music download.
Recognizing this, On 17 April 2005, Official UK Singles Chart added the download format to the existing format of physical CD singles. Gnarls Barkley was the first act to reach No.1 on this chart through downloads alone in April 2006, for their debut single "Crazy", released physically the following week. On 1 January 2007 digital downloads became eligible from the point of release, without the need for an accompanying physical. Sales improved in the following years, reaching a record high in 2008 that still proceeded to be overtaken in 2009, 2010 and 2011. Singles have been issued in various formats, including 7-inch, 10-inch, 12-inch vinyl discs. Other, less common, formats include singles on Digital Compact Cassette, DVD, LD, as well as many non-standard sizes of vinyl disc; the most common form of the vinyl single is the 45 or 7-inch. The names are derived from its play speed, 45 rpm, the standard diameter, 7 inches; the 7-inch 45 rpm record was released 31 March 1949 by RCA Victor as a smaller, more durable and higher-fidelity replacement for the 78 rpm shellac discs.
The first 45
Doris Day is an American actress and animal welfare activist. After she began her career as a big band singer in 1939, her popularity increased with her first hit recording "Sentimental Journey". After leaving Les Brown & His Band of Renown to embark on a solo career, she recorded more than 650 songs from 1947 to 1967, which made her one of the most popular and acclaimed singers of the 20th century. Day's film career began during the latter part of the Classical Hollywood Film era with the 1948 film Romance on the High Seas, its success sparked her twenty-year career as a motion picture actress, she starred in a series of successful films, including musicals and dramas. She played the title role in Calamity Jane, starred in Alfred Hitchcock's The Man Who Knew Too Much with James Stewart, her most successful films were the bedroom comedies she made co-starring Rock Hudson and James Garner, such as Pillow Talk and Move Over, respectively. She co-starred in films with such leading men as Clark Gable, Cary Grant, David Niven, Rod Taylor.
After her final film in 1968, she went on to star in the CBS sitcom The Doris Day Show. She was one of the top ten singers between 1951 and 1966; as an actress, she became the biggest female film star in the early 1960s, ranked sixth among the box office performers by 2012. In 2011, she released her 29th studio album, My Heart, which became a UK Top 10 album featuring new material. Among her awards, Day has received the Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award and a Legend Award from the Society of Singers. In 1960, she was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Actress, in 1989 was given the Cecil B. DeMille Award for lifetime achievement in motion pictures. In 2004, she was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom by President George W. Bush followed in 2011 by the Los Angeles Film Critics Association's Career Achievement Award, she is one of the last surviving stars of the Golden Age of Hollywood. Doris Mary Ann Kappelhoff was born on April 3, 1922, in Cincinnati, the daughter of Alma Sophia, a housewife, William Joseph Kappelhoff, a music teacher and choir master.
All of her grandparents were German immigrants. For most of her life, Day believed she had been born in 1924 and reported her age accordingly; the youngest of three siblings, she had two older brothers: Richard and Paul, two to three years older. Due to her father's alleged infidelity, her parents separated, she developed an early interest in dance, in the mid-1930s formed a dance duo with Jerry Doherty that performed locally in Cincinnati. A car accident on October 13, 1937, injured her right leg and curtailed her prospects as a professional dancer. While recovering from an auto accident, Day started to sing along with the radio and discovered a talent she did not know she had. Day said: "During this long, boring period, I used to while away a lot of time listening to the radio, sometimes singing along with the likes of Benny Goodman, Duke Ellington, Tommy Dorsey, Glenn Miller, but the one radio voice I listened to above others belonged to Ella Fitzgerald. There was a quality to her voice that fascinated me, I'd sing along with her, trying to catch the subtle ways she shaded her voice, the casual yet clean way she sang the words."Observing her daughter sing rekindled Alma's interest in show business, she decided Doris should have singing lessons.
She engaged Grace Raine. After three lessons, Raine told Alma that young Doris had "tremendous potential". Years Day said that Raine had the biggest effect on her singing style and career. During the eight months she was taking singing lessons, Day had her first professional jobs as a vocalist, on the WLW radio program Carlin's Carnival, in a local restaurant, Charlie Yee's Shanghai Inn. During her radio performances, Day first caught the attention of Barney Rapp, looking for a girl vocalist and asked if Day would like to audition for the job. According to Rapp, he had auditioned about 200 singers. While working for Rapp in 1939, she adopted the stage surname "Day", at Rapp's suggestion. Rapp felt that "Kappelhoff" was too long for marquees, he admired her rendition of the song "Day After Day". After working with Rapp, Day worked with bandleaders Jimmy James, Bob Crosby, Les Brown. While working with Brown, Day scored her first hit recording, "Sentimental Journey", released in early 1945, it soon became an anthem of the desire of World War II demobilizing troops to return home.
This song is still associated with Day, she rerecorded it on several occasions, including a version in her 1971 television special. During 1945–46, Day had six other top ten hits on the Billboard chart: "My Dreams Are Getting Better All the Time", "'Tain't Me", "Till The End of Time", "You Won't Be Satisfied", "The Whole World is Singing My Song", "I Got the Sun in the Mornin'". In the 1950s she became one of the highest paid singers in America. While singing with the Les Brown band and for nearly two years on Bob Hope's weekly radio program, she toured extensively across the United States, her popularity as a radio performer and vocalist, which included a second hit record "My Dreams Are Getting Better All the Time", led directly to a career in films. In 1941, Day appeared as a singer in three Soundies with the Les Brown band, her performance of the
James Maitland Stewart was an American actor and military officer, among the most honored and popular stars in film history. With a career spanning 62 years, Stewart was a major Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer contract player, known for his distinctive drawl and down-to-earth persona, which helped him portray American middle-class men struggling in crisis. Many of the films in which he starred have become enduring classics. Stewart was nominated for five Academy Awards, winning one for The Philadelphia Story, received an Academy Lifetime Achievement award in 1985. In 1999, Stewart was named the third-greatest male screen legend of the Golden Age of Hollywood by the American Film Institute, behind Humphrey Bogart and Cary Grant; the American Film Institute has named five of Stewart's films to its list of the 100 best American films made. He had a noted military career and was a World War II and Vietnam War veteran and pilot, who rose to the rank of Brigadier General in the United States Air Force Reserve, becoming the highest-ranking actor in military history.
In 1985, Stewart was promoted to Major General, reserve list by President Ronald Reagan, was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom. James Maitland Stewart was born on May 20, 1908, in Indiana, the son of Elizabeth Ruth and Alexander Maitland Stewart, who owned a hardware store. Stewart was raised as a Presbyterian, he was descended from veterans of the American Revolution, the War of 1812, the American Civil War. The eldest of three children, young Jimmy was expected to one day inherit his father's store and continue a business, in the family for three generations, his mother was an excellent pianist. When his father once accepted a gift of an accordion from a guest, Stewart learned to play the instrument, which became a fixture offstage during his acting career; as the family grew, music continued to be an important part of family life. Stewart attended Mercersburg Academy prep school, graduating in 1928, he was active in a variety of activities. He played on the football and track teams, was art editor of the KARUX yearbook, a member of the choir club, glee club, John Marshall Literary Society.
During his first summer break, Stewart returned to his hometown to work as a brick loader for a local construction company and on highway and road construction jobs where he painted lines on the roads. Over the following two summers, he took a job as an assistant with a professional magician, he made his first appearance as Buquet in the play The Wolves. A shy child, Stewart spent much of his after-school time in the basement working on model airplanes, mechanical drawing, chemistry—all with a dream of going into aviation, it was a dream enhanced by the legendary 1927 flight of Charles Lindbergh, whose progress 19-year-old Stewart stricken with scarlet fever, was avidly following from home, foreshadowing his starring movie role as Lindbergh 30 years later. However, he abandoned visions of being a pilot when his father insisted that instead of the United States Naval Academy he attend Princeton University. Stewart enrolled at Princeton in 1928 as a member of the class of 1932, he excelled at studying architecture, so impressing his professors with his thesis on an airport design that he was awarded a scholarship for graduate studies, but he became attracted to the school's drama and music clubs, including the Princeton Triangle Club.
His acting and accordion talents at Princeton led him to be invited to the University Players, an intercollegiate summer stock company in West Falmouth, Massachusetts, on Cape Cod. The company had been organized in 1928 and would run until 1932, with Joshua Logan, Bretaigne Windust and Charles Leatherbee as directors. Stewart performed in bit parts in the Players' productions in Cape Cod during the summer of 1932, after he graduated; the troupe had included Henry Fonda and Margaret Sullavan. Stewart and Fonda became close friends over the summer of 1932 when they shared an apartment with Joshua Logan and Myron McCormick; when Stewart came to New York at the end of the summer stock season, which had included the Broadway tryout of Goodbye Again, he shared an apartment with Fonda, who had by finalized his divorce from Sullavan. Along with fellow University Players Alfred Dalrymple and Myron McCormick, Stewart debuted on Broadway in the brief run of Carry Nation and a few weeks – again with McCormick and Dalrymple – as a chauffeur in the comedy Goodbye Again, in which he had two lines.
The New Yorker commented, "Mr. James Stewart's chauffeur... comes on for three minutes and walks off to a round of spontaneous applause." The play was a moderate success. Many Broadway theaters had been converted to movie houses and the Depression was reaching bottom. "From 1932 through 1934", Stewart recalled, "I'd only worked three months. Every play I got into folded." By 1934, he was given more substantial stage roles, including the modest hit Page Miss Glory and his first dramatic stage role in Sidney Howard's Yellow Jack, which convinced him to continue his acting career. However and Fonda, still roommates, were both struggling. In the fall of 1934, Fonda's success in The Farmer Takes. Stewart attracted the interest of MGM scout Bill Grady who saw Stewart on the opening night of Divided by Three, a glittering première with many luminaries in attendance, including Irving
A phonograph record is an analog sound storage medium in the form of a flat disc with an inscribed, modulated spiral groove. The groove starts near the periphery and ends near the center of the disc. At first, the discs were made from shellac. In recent decades, records have sometimes been called vinyl records, or vinyl; the phonograph disc record was the primary medium used for music reproduction throughout the 20th century. It had co-existed with the phonograph cylinder from the late 1880s and had superseded it by around 1912. Records retained the largest market share when new formats such as the compact cassette were mass-marketed. By the 1980s, digital media, in the form of the compact disc, had gained a larger market share, the vinyl record left the mainstream in 1991. Since the 1990s, records continue to be manufactured and sold on a smaller scale, are used by disc jockeys and released by artists in dance music genres, listened to by a growing niche market of audiophiles; the phonograph record has made a notable niche resurgence in the early 21st century – 9.2 million records were sold in the U.
S. in 2014, a 260% increase since 2009. In the UK sales have increased five-fold from 2009 to 2014; as of 2017, 48 record pressing facilities remain worldwide, 18 in the United States and 30 in other countries. The increased popularity of vinyl has led to the investment in new and modern record-pressing machines. Only two producers of lacquers remain: Apollo Masters in California, MDC in Japan. Phonograph records are described by their diameter in inches, the rotational speed in revolutions per minute at which they are played, their time capacity, determined by their diameter and speed. Vinyl records may be scratched or warped if stored incorrectly but if they are not exposed to high heat, carelessly handled or broken, a vinyl record has the potential to last for centuries; the large cover are valued by collectors and artists for the space given for visual expression when it comes to the long play vinyl LP. The phonautograph, patented by Léon Scott in 1857, used a vibrating diaphragm and stylus to graphically record sound waves as tracings on sheets of paper, purely for visual analysis and without any intent of playing them back.
In the 2000s, these tracings were first scanned by audio engineers and digitally converted into audible sound. Phonautograms of singing and speech made by Scott in 1860 were played back as sound for the first time in 2008. Along with a tuning fork tone and unintelligible snippets recorded as early as 1857, these are the earliest known recordings of sound. In 1877, Thomas Edison invented the phonograph. Unlike the phonautograph, it could both record and reproduce sound. Despite the similarity of name, there is no documentary evidence that Edison's phonograph was based on Scott's phonautograph. Edison first tried recording sound on a wax-impregnated paper tape, with the idea of creating a "telephone repeater" analogous to the telegraph repeater he had been working on. Although the visible results made him confident that sound could be physically recorded and reproduced, his notes do not indicate that he reproduced sound before his first experiment in which he used tinfoil as a recording medium several months later.
The tinfoil was wrapped around a grooved metal cylinder and a sound-vibrated stylus indented the tinfoil while the cylinder was rotated. The recording could be played back immediately; the Scientific American article that introduced the tinfoil phonograph to the public mentioned Marey and Barlow as well as Scott as creators of devices for recording but not reproducing sound. Edison invented variations of the phonograph that used tape and disc formats. Numerous applications for the phonograph were envisioned, but although it enjoyed a brief vogue as a startling novelty at public demonstrations, the tinfoil phonograph proved too crude to be put to any practical use. A decade Edison developed a improved phonograph that used a hollow wax cylinder instead of a foil sheet; this proved to be both a better-sounding and far more useful and durable device. The wax phonograph cylinder created the recorded sound market at the end of the 1880s and dominated it through the early years of the 20th century. Lateral-cut disc records were developed in the United States by Emile Berliner, who named his system the "gramophone", distinguishing it from Edison's wax cylinder "phonograph" and American Graphophone's wax cylinder "graphophone".
Berliner's earliest discs, first marketed in 1889, only in Europe, were 12.5 cm in diameter, were played with a small hand-propelled machine. Both the records and the machine were adequate only for use as a toy or curiosity, due to the limited sound quality. In the United States in 1894, under the Berliner Gramophone trademark, Berliner started marketing records of 7 inches diameter with somewhat more substantial entertainment value, along with somewhat more substantial gramophones to play them. Berliner's records had poor sound quality compared to wax cylinders, but his manufacturing associate Eldridge R. Johnson improved it. Abandoning Berliner's "Gramophone" tradem
The Doris Day Show
The Doris Day Show is an American sitcom, broadcast on the CBS Television network from September 1968 until March 1973, remaining on the air for five seasons and 128 episodes. The series is remembered for its multiple format and cast changes over the course of its five-year run; the show is remembered for Day's statement, in her autobiography Doris Day: Her Own Story, that her husband Martin Melcher had signed her to do the series without her knowledge, a fact she only discovered when Melcher died of heart disease on April 20, 1968. Day portrays a widowed mother of young sons Billy and Toby; when the series premieres, she has brought her boys home to her father's rural ranch in Cotina in Mill Valley, north of San Francisco, after living in New York City for most of her adult life. Other characters during this initial phase of the program include Doris's father Buck Webb and their naive hired ranch hand, LeRoy B. Simpson, their housekeeper is Aggie Thompson. The character was replaced by Juanita.
Lord Nelson is included in the opening credits cast as Lord Nelson, the family's sheepdog. Doris begins to commute from the ranch to San Francisco, where she starts working as an executive secretary at Today's World magazine. New workplace characters are added: McLean Stevenson plays her boss, Today's World editor Michael Nicholson, referred to as'Nick' by the other magazine executives. Pyle and Starke remain regular cast members, while Hampton appears in only one episode, his character now married and owning a gas station in Mill Valley. Lord Nelson still appears uncredited as the family sheepdog in most episodes this season. There is no longer any housekeeper at the ranch, no ranch hand was hired to replace Leroy. Doris tires of the commute between her work and the ranch and relocates herself, the boys, the dog to San Francisco, where they rent an apartment above an Italian restaurant owned and operated by married couple Louie and Angie Pallucci. At first Louie is angry with Angie for renting the apartment to a widow with children and a large pet, but he cherishes their new tenants after Billy and Toby praise his pizza.
Angie becomes one of Doris's best friends. Doris begins writing articles for the magazine under the auspices of Mr. Harvey, the assistant editor, but is still a secretary. All of the regular characters from the previous season remain, with the exception of Pyle's Buck, who appears in only two episodes. Hampton's character LeRoy appears in only one episode. In this season Doris' nemesis, Willard Jarvis, moves in next door, causing trouble for her and her family in a few episodes. Lord Nelson again is not included in the opening credits cast list, but appears uncredited in a handful of episodes this season; the fourth season sees a radical change in the series. Day's character becomes a swinging single career woman who goes by Miss instead of Mrs.). The entire cast from previous seasons, other than Day herself, the Palluccis, are gone. Doris Martin, still working for Today's World, now has a new editor, Cy Bennett, played by character actor John Dehner, she is now a full-time staff writer, an associate editor.
Jackie Joseph joins the cast as Doris' friend and Cy's secretary at Jackie Parker. Doris lives in the same apartment and the Palluccis, Angie in particular, are still on hand in the fourth season. In season 5, there is no mention of the Palluccis owning the building. In Season 4, Doris begins a romance with Dr. Peter Lawrence, which lasts until late into Season 5; that relationship is followed by one with old boyfriend Jonathan Rusk. The series continued with this format until it was canceled in 1973; the Doris Day Show was a family-based sitcom for its first three seasons. The drastic premise change for season four in 1971 may be attributed to the overall change in CBS's programming philosophy, with the network cancelling many rural based and family programs, replacing them with more urban, adult oriented programs. Todd Starke was born on December 1961, in Los Angeles. Credited as Tod Starke in the television series, "The Doris Day Show" as Toby Martin in seasons 1-3, Todd was killed in a motorcycle accident on May 4, 1983 at the age of 21.
Doris Day as Doris Martin Philip Brown as Billy Martin Todd Starke as Toby Martin Denver Pyle as Buck Webb Lord Nelson as Lord Nelson James Hampton as LeRoy B. Simpson Fran Ryan as Aggie Thompson Naomi
Christopher Marlowe known as Kit Marlowe, was an English playwright and translator of the Elizabethan era. Marlowe was the foremost Elizabethan tragedian of his day, he influenced William Shakespeare, born in the same year as Marlowe and who rose to become the pre-eminent Elizabethan playwright after Marlowe's mysterious early death. Marlowe's plays are known for the use of their overreaching protagonists; some scholars believe that a warrant was issued for Marlowe's arrest on 18 May 1593. No reason was given for it, though it was thought to be connected to allegations of blasphemy—a manuscript believed to have been written by Marlowe was said to contain "vile heretical conceipts". On 20 May, he was brought to the court to attend upon the Privy Council for questioning. There is no record of their having met that day, he was commanded to attend upon them each day thereafter until "licensed to the contrary". Ten days he was stabbed to death by Ingram Frizer. Whether or not the stabbing was connected to his arrest remains unknown.
Marlowe was born in Canterbury to his wife Catherine. His date of birth is not known, but he was baptised on 26 February 1564, is to have been born a few days before. Thus, he was just two months older than his contemporary William Shakespeare, baptised on 26 April 1564 in Stratford-upon-Avon. Marlowe attended The King's School in Canterbury and Corpus Christi College, where he studied on a scholarship and received his Bachelor of Arts degree in 1584. In 1587, the university hesitated to award him his Master of Arts degree because of a rumour that he intended to go to the English college at Rheims to prepare for ordination as a Roman Catholic priest. However, his degree was awarded on schedule when the Privy Council intervened on his behalf, commending him for his "faithful dealing" and "good service" to the Queen; the nature of Marlowe's service was not specified by the Council, but its letter to the Cambridge authorities has provoked much speculation, notably the theory that Marlowe was operating as a secret agent working for Sir Francis Walsingham's intelligence service.
No direct evidence supports this theory, although the Council's letter is evidence that Marlowe had served the government in some secret capacity. Of the dramas attributed to Marlowe, Queen of Carthage is believed to have been his first, it was performed by the Children of the Chapel, a company of boy actors, between 1587 and 1593. The play was first published in 1594. Marlowe's first play performed on the regular stage in London, in 1587, was Tamburlaine the Great, about the conqueror Timur, who rises from shepherd to warlord, it is among the first English plays in blank verse, with Thomas Kyd's The Spanish Tragedy is considered the beginning of the mature phase of the Elizabethan theatre. Tamburlaine was a success, was followed with Tamburlaine the Great, Part II; the two parts of Tamburlaine were published in 1590. The sequence of the writing of his other four plays is unknown; the Jew of Malta, about the Jew Barabas' barbarous revenge against the city authorities, has a prologue delivered by a character representing Machiavelli.
It was written in 1589 or 1590, was first performed in 1592. It was a success, remained popular for the next fifty years; the play was entered in the Stationers' Register on 17 May 1594, but the earliest surviving printed edition is from 1633. Edward the Second is an English history play about the deposition of King Edward II by his barons and the Queen, who resent the undue influence the king's favourites have in court and state affairs; the play was entered into the Stationers' Register on 6 July five weeks after Marlowe's death. The full title of the earliest extant edition, of 1594, is The troublesome reigne and lamentable death of Edward the second, King of England, with the tragicall fall of proud Mortimer; the Massacre at Paris is a short and luridly written work, the only surviving text of, a reconstruction from memory of the original performance text, portraying the events of the Saint Bartholomew's Day Massacre in 1572, which English Protestants invoked as the blackest example of Catholic treachery.
It features the silent "English Agent", whom subsequent tradition has identified with Marlowe himself and his connections to the secret service. The Massacre at Paris is considered his most dangerous play, as agitators in London seized on its theme to advocate the murders of refugees from the low countries and, indeed, it warns Elizabeth I of this possibility in its last scene, its full title was The Massacre at Paris: With the Death of the Duke of Guise. Doctor Faustus, based on the German Faustbuch, was the first dramatised version of the Faust legend of a scholar's dealing with the devil. While versions of "The Devil's Pact" can be traced back to the 4th century, Marlowe deviates by having his hero unable to "burn his books" or repent to a merciful God in order to have his contract annulled at the end of the play. Marlowe's protagonist is instead carried off by demons, in the 1616 quarto his mangled corpse is found by several scholars. Doctor Faustus is a textual problem for scholars as two versions of the play exist: the 1604 quarto known as the A text, the 1616 quarto or B text.
Both were published after Marlowe's death. Scholars have disagreed which text is