Quebec Biker war

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Quebec Biker War
Date 1994 - 2002
Location Greater Montreal, Quebec, Canada
Caused by Drug-trade criminal dispute
Resulted in Crackdown by police services
Parties to the civil conflict

borders Hells Angels

  • Rockers Montreal

borders Rock Machine
The Alliance

  • Pelletier Clan
  • Local drug dealers

Support:

Lead figures
Fred Faucher
Jacques Parizeau (1994-1996)
Lucien Bouchard (1996-2001)
Bernard Landry (after 2001)
Casualties
Death(s) ~150
Arrested ~100

The Quebec Biker War (French: Guerre des motards; "Bikers' War") refers to the violent turf war that began in 1994 and continued until late 2002 in Montreal, Quebec, Canada between the Quebec branch of the Hells Angels and the Rock Machine. In March 2002, the American journalist Julian Rubinstein wrote about the biker war: "Considering how little attention the story has attracted outside Canada, the toll is staggering: 162 dead, scores wounded. The victims include an 11-year-old boy killed by shrapnel from one of the more than 80 bombs bikers have planted around the province. Even the New York Mafia in its heyday never produced such carnage, or so terrorized civilians."[1]

Origins[edit]

In the early 1980s, a major biker gang in Quebec was the SS, a white supremacist biker gang led by Maurice Boucher and Salvatore Cazzetta, who dominated organized crime in the Pointe-aux-Trembles district of Montreal.[2] A rift emerged between the two at the time of the Lennoxville massacre in 1985 as Cazetta vowed never to work with the Hell's Angels and founded the Rock Machine in 1986 with his brother Giovanni.[2] Boucher by contrast after serving a 40-month prison sentence for raping a 16-year old girl joined the Hell's Angels and ultimately became the leader of the Quebec branch.[2] Boucher was impressed by the Lennoxville massacre, which for him proved that the Angels were sufficiently ruthless for his tastes, and joined the Angels upon released from his prison.[3] As the Laval chapter of the Hells Angels had been liquidated, and the leaders of the Sorel chapter fleeing Canada upon learning that they were also targeted, Boucher who become the new president of the Sorel chapter rose quickly up the ranks.[3]

The war began as the Hells Angels in Quebec began to make a push to establish a monopoly on street-level drug sales in the province in 1993. In Quebec, most of the illegal drugs were imported by the Mafia while being distributed by the biker gangs to various street level drug dealers.[4] The journalist André Cédillot, an expert on biker gangs in Quebec, stated in an interview: "The Mafia were in charge of importation and the Hells Angels were the distributors. Internationally, the Mafia has a better reputation than Hells Angels because the Colombians don't trust the Hells Angels, but they do trust the Mafia".[4] In Quebec, the power of the Mafia was limited by the fact it only open to those who are Sicilians or of Sicilian descent while by contrast the bikers were mostly French-Canadian.[2] The Italo-Canadian Cazzetta was not a member of the Mafia, but he did have a close relationship with the Montreal Mafia, and as a result of his Mafia ties, the Hell's Angels were unwilling to challenge the Rock Machine as long as he was leader.[5] Cazetta has often been described as controlling all of the organized crime in Montreal that was not controlled by the Mafia in the late 1980s-early 1990s.[6] The Hell's Angels had first entered Quebec in 1977, but the group was badly weakened by the Lennoxville massacre in March 1985 when five members of the Angels' chapter in Laval were liquidated by their colleagues.[7] Afterwards, the vacuum was filled by a number of Montreal-based organized crime groups, and it was not until 1993 that the Angels become a major force in Montreal organized crime again.[7] As part of a push to provide more members, in 1992 the Angels created a puppet club, the Rockers, which was a common tactic on the part of the Angels to provide more manpower.[8] When Cazetta was arrested on charges on importing cocaine into Canada in 1994, the Angels saw an opportunity to challenge the Rock Machine.[2] Cazetta spent 10 years in a U.S prison for attempting to smuggle 200 kilograms of cocaine into Canada.[6] A number of drug dealers and crime families resisted and established groups such as the "Alliance to fight the Angels".

The war begins[edit]

The war resulted in the bombings of many establishments and murders on both sides. It has claimed more than 150 lives,[9] including some innocent bystanders such as Daniel Desrochers, an 11-year-old boy who was fatally injured by shrapnel as he was playing near a jeep that was blown up.[10] The guerre des motards is considered to have began with the murder in Montreal of the drug dealer Maurice Lavoie on 19 October 1994 who was gunned down in his car while his girlfriend was wounded.[11] Lavoie had previously been buying his wares from the Pelletier Clan associated with the Rock Machine, had recently switched to the Hell's Angels, and as a result the Pelletier Clan hired a criminal named Patrick Call to kill him.[11] On 28 October 1994, Sylvain Pelletier, the leader of the Pelletier Clan, was killed by the Hell's Angels, who threatened to murder any drug dealer who did not buy their supplies from them.[11] After these killings, an increasingly murderous struggle for the control of the drug trade in Montreal began between the Hell's Angels and the Rock Machine that would not end until 2002.[11] The favourite weapon of both biker gangs were dynamite stolen from mines and construction sites, a choice of weapons that was just likely to kill or injure the assassins as their targets as while as by-standers.[12]

After Pelletier was killed, the independent drug dealers of Montreal formed the "Alliance to fight the Angels" headed by his younger brother, Harold Pelletier, whose first act was an attempt to assassinate Boucher in November 1994.[13] Another member of the Pelletier Clan, Martin Simard, purchased enough stolen dynamite to fill a truck, which was left by Boucher's favorite restaurant by the Alliance member Martin Pellerin.[13] The plan was to set off the explosives by remote control when Boucher arrived, killing him and everybody else in the restaurant, but a Montreal parking officer noticed the truck was parked illegally and had it towed, unintentionally foiling the plot.[13] The Pelletier Clan and the Rock Machine was the most visible parts of the "Alliance to fight the Angels", but its most influential part was the ultra-secretive Dark Circle, a group of outwardly respectable Montreal businessmen who were secretly engaging in the drug trade.[14] What the Dark Circle all had in common was that all of them owned bars and/or restaurants from which drugs were sold, and drug money laundered; bars in particular being a business where transactions were often in cash lent themselves well to money laundering.[15] It was agreed that the Pelletier Clan and the Rock Machine would provide the muscle while the Dark Circle would provide the money.[14] The Dark Circle's leadership provided by a committee of 5 whose chairman was Michel Duclos, a Montreal school-teacher who also owned a bar that was a front for laundering the profits of the drug trade.[14]

In November 1994, a disgruntled member of the Hell's Angels, Dany Kane, a protege of a senior Angels' leader David "Wolf" Carroll, contracted the Interpol office in Ottawa, saying he wanted to sell information to the police.[16] Carroll had founded the Angels' chapter in Halifax in 1984, and moved to Montreal in 1990 to assist the president of the Montreal chapter, Maurice Boucher, despite the fact his French was very limited.[17] It is generally believed that Carroll was in Montreal to assist the planned expansion of the Angels into Ontario, since he together with Walter "Nurget" Stadnick and Donald "Pup" Stockford were the only Anglos in the Quebec Angels' leadership.[18] Neither Stadnick and Stockford spoke French, and police wiretaps showed that when the leaders of the Angels met, interpreters were needed for them to participate..[18] At the request of Carroll, Kane had founded a puppet club for the Angels in Toronto called the Demon Keepers that was a fiasco, and seeking revenge, Kane had decided to work for the police. Interpol put Kane into contact with Staff Sergeant Jean-Pierre Lévesque of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP), who appointed Corporal Pierre Verdon of Montreal to be his handler.[16] At their first meeting on 4 November 1994, Kane told Verdon that the leader of the Angels in Quebec was Maurice "Mom" Boucher, whom he described as a highly dangerous man who was much feared by the other Angels, who was planning to murder anyone and everyone who might oppose him in his plans to take over the drug trade in Quebec.[19] Some of the information sold by Kane to the RCMP was self-serving and incorrect, as when he named another Angel as responsible for a murder that he himself had committed in 1995, but in general, Kane's information was accurate and is the main source of information about the biker war from the Angels' perspective.[20] Kane mentioned to Verdon that one of the Angels, an American living in Montreal, Scott Steinert, was willing to do anything to win the war, and had gone on a dynamite buying spree, adding that both Boucher and Steinert were furious about when they had learned about the dynamite-packed truck left by the restaurant.[13]

The Nomads and the death of Desrochers[edit]

On 24 June 1995, Boucher founded the Nomads, an elite chapter of the Angels, that unlike the other chapters had no geographical limit and were to operate all over Canada.[8] To join the Nomads required applicants to commit murders, which ensured that no undercover police agents could enter the Nomads chapter, and only the highest quality Angels who had proven themselves could join the Nomands.[8] Several members of the Angel's Montreal chapter-which was the oldest Angels chapter in Canada, being founded in 1977-resented the way in which the Nomads came to overshadow them as the premier Hell's Angels chapter in Canada, but none dared to challenge Boucher.[21]

In the most notorious incident of guerre des motards, on 9 August 1995, a drug dealer named Marc Dube was killed by a bomb planted in his jeep while the shrapnel badly injured a 11-year boy, Daniel Desrochers, who died of his wounds four days later.[11] Dube was leaving the Hell's Angels clubhouse in the Hochelaga-Maisonneuve neighborhood of Montreal at the time of his murder, and it remains unclear whatever it was the Angels or the Rock Machine who planted the bomb.[11] Kane in his reports to Verdon mentioned that Steinert, whom he described as an arrogant and aggressive bully, was after the death of Desrochers, acting very strangely.[22] Kane described Steinert as acting very worried, and expressing the fear that he might finally have go to prison or be deported from Canada, which led Kane to the conclusion that he was the one who planted the bomb that had killed Desrochers, and was now worried about a police crackdown (Steinert felt no guilt about the death of a child).[22] By October 1995, the police would list 30 murders committed in Montreal as being connected to the biker war.[13]

Despite the outrage, little was done to stop the carnage as the Service de police de la Ville de Montréal, which has long been notorious as the most corrupt police force in Canada, preferred to take bribes from both biker gangs and look the other way.[11] Those policemen unwilling to accept bribes from the bikers found themselves receiving death threats and their cars were torched by arsonists.[7] In 1998, one policeman who worked undercover in Montreal complained it was impossible to have charges filed against the bikers stick in court as judges, prosecutors, and jurors had all been bribed.[7] Benoît Roberge, a senior detective with the Service de police de la Ville de Montréal in charge of stopping guerre des motards, instead cultivated a close business relationship with a Hell's Angels leader named René Charlebois, selling him information.[11] Dany Kane, an informer for the RCMP in the Hell's Angels, told his handlers in 1995 that somebody in the senior ranks of the Montreal police was selling Boucher information as Boucher had often boosted to him that he knew everything that police knew about him.[23] Kane also told the RCMP that the Hell's Angels paid double a policeman's weekly salary for information, and that much of the Montreal police were working for them, causing him to ask that RCMP should never share information with the Montreal police least he be exposed.[24]

Intrigue and murder in Montreal[edit]

Reflecting the way that the Angels were winning the war, in October 1995, Harold Pelletier turned himself in to the Sûreté du Québec, confessing that on the night of 7 August 1983 he murdered a drug dealer named Michel Beaulieu who was behind in his payments to the Pelletier Clan, and asked that the police provide him with protection from the Angels in exchange for more information about his crimes.[25] Ultimately, Pelletier confessed to committing 17 murders between 1983-1995, for only he was only convicted of the murder of Beaulieu, which was classified as second degree murder, despite the fact Beaulieu was sleeping when Pelletier shot him after getting him drunk earlier in the evening of 7 August 1983, meaning by rights he should had been convicted of first degree murder given this was a premeditated killing.[26] In his plea bargain struck in June 1996 Pelletier was sentenced to life imprisonment with a promise that he receive full parole after 10 years served, in exchange for he told all he knew about the Montreal underworld.[26] The Crown justified the plea bargain with Pelletier-in which he received a remarkably lenient sentence with the Crown promising him in writing that he would be released after only 10 years in prison-given that he was guilty of 17 murders, under the grounds he was a "mine of information" about the underworld of Montreal.[27] Pelletier's motives for striking a plea bargain was that the "Alliance against the Angels" was collapsing with Alliance members defecting over to the Angels, and he wanted Crown protection from the Angels.[27] However, Pelletier violated the terms of his plea bargain, under which he promised not to commit any more crimes, when he was caught in 2002 attempting to bribe another prison inmate to kill a prisoner whom he disliked, causing the Crown to revoke its agreement, meaning that Pelletier was not released in June 2006 as was promised 10 years earlier.[27] Pelletier finally received full parole in December 2013 after he completed his high school equivalency degree, started attending Alcoholics Anonymous meetings, and had come to accept that violence was not the best solution to any problem and just because he was angry with someone that did not give him the right to murder them, which had been his previous attitude.[28]

After getting over a fright caused by the killing of Desrochers, Steinert was living high at this time, buying in December 1996 the mansion built for the Lavigueur family in the 1980s, on Laval's expensive Île aux Pruches (part of the Hochelaga Archipelago), where he was married in lavish style.[29] Steinert was the biggest pimp in Montreal, owning the Sensations escort service, whose office in Montreal was destroyed in a case of arson in August 1996 by the Rock Machine.[30] A deportation order was served on Steinert, who was born in Milwaukee, ordering him to leave Canada by 14 November 1996, but his lawyer was able to void the deportation order, arguing that Steinert had just married a Canadian woman by whom he had a child with, making it inhumane to send him back to the United States.[31] Besides for getting married at the Lavigueur mansion, Steinert used the estate to make a pornographic film entitled The Babe Angel, starring himself and 9 of his prostitutes.[32]

On 28 March 1997, Kane's lover, the Hell's Angel Aime Simard together with the Rocker Gregory Wooley murdered a Rock Machine member Jean-Marc Caissy as he was entering a Montreal arena to play hockey with his friends.[33] After being arrested, the macho Simard agreed to work for the RCMP as he was terrified of his homosexuality being exposed. Simard gave Crown's evidence that a Haitian immigrant named Gregory Wooley who was working as Boucher's bodyguard was also serving as an assassin for the Angels, saying that despite being black that Wooley was accepted by the otherwise all-white Angels as he was their best killer.[33] Wooley had founded a street gang of fellow Haitian immigrants, based in the north end of Montreal in the poor neighborhood of St. Michel where many Haitians lived, initially known as the Crack Down Posse (CDP), and was renamed the Syndicate in 1998.[34] The CDP wore blue gang colors that are closely modeled after the hats and clothing worn by the Crips gang in the United States.[34] The CDP started with engaging in extortion rackets and robbing local convenience stores known as dépanneurs before moving on to serve as the drug dealers and killers for the Angels, becoming well known in Montreal for doing the "dirty work" that even the Angels did not want to do.[34] Wooley was also a member of the Rockers, the Angels' puppet club in Montreal, and though he could never hope to join the Angels proper as a black man, he maintained very close ties with them.[35] For reasons that remain unclear, Wooley had no qualms about serving as the bodyguard for the white supremacist Boucher. However, Simard proved to be a poor witness on the stand and Wooley's trial for first degree murder ended with his acquittal.[36] Afterwards, the Crown disallowed Simard, saying that he failed to fulfill his side of the bargain as Wooley was still a free man, and in 1999 ended its protection for him, placing him in the general prison population.[36] The Angels put out a jailhouse contract on Simard's life, and in 2003 he was murdered by his fellow inmates who stabbed him to death with homemade knives, inflicting over 187 stab wounds, at the federal prison he was being held at in Saskatchewan.[36]

At the same, the Great Nordic Biker War was taking place, and the Rock Machine was impressed with the way that the Scandinavian branches of the Bandidos held their own against the Scandinavian branches of the Hell's Angels.[37] In June 1997, the three leaders of the Rock Machine, Fred Faucher, Johnny Plescio, and Robert "Tout Tout" Léger went to Stockholm to seek support from the Swedish branch of the Bandidos, but were expelled by the Swedish police, who declared that they did not Canadian bikers in their country.[38]

Two members of the Angels who came into conflict with Boucher were Steinert and another Angel, Donald Magnussen.[39] David "Wolf" Carroll, one of the Nomads, charged the two were working for the police, noting that the Crown was completely unsuccessful in its efforts to deport Steinert back to the United States, which led him to the conclusion that Steinert must be working for the police.[29] Kane, who was anxious to distract attention from himself, did everything to encourage Carroll in this line of thinking, saying Steinert must be the police "mole" in the ranks of the Angels.[29] Contributing to the suspicions about Steinert and Magnussen was that a shipment of drugs from Montreal to Thunder Bay containing 69 pounds of marijuana and 200 Ecstasy pills sent by the duo to be sold to drug dealers in northern Ontario was intercepted by the RCMP thanks to a tip-off from Kane, who accused Steinert and Magnussen of the tip-off.[40] In the summer of 1997, the bodies of Steinert and Magnussen were found floating in the St. Lawrence river, with their hands tied behind their backs, and their heads bashed into a bloody mush after being repeatedly struck with baseball bats.[41]

In 1997, an imprisoned Hell's Angel, Denis Houle, was the victim of an unsuccessful assassination attempt when a Rock Machine member opened fire on him from beyond the prison fence.[42] The resulting investigation first alerted the public to the existence of the Dark Circle, and it was reported the Hell's Angels would pay well for information identifying just who were the members of the Dark Circle.[43] Over the next two years, two members of the Dark Circle were murdered by the Angels while a third only escaped when the Angels shot and killed the wrong Serge Hervieux.[43] Hervieux who was killed was a 38 year old father of two who was only killed because the Angels had mistaken him for his employer, a Serge Brunneau who was a member of the Dark Circle.[43] The year 1997 saw 27 murders committed that were connected to the biker war.[41]

Attacking the Crown[edit]

Stéphane "Godasse" Gagné, a petty criminal from the Hochelaga-Maisonneuve district of Montreal who joined the Angels, wanted desperately to join the Nomads, regarded as the elite of the Hell's Angels, and to do so agreed to murder prison guards for Maurice "Mom" Boucher, the leader of the Hell's Angels in Quebec.[11] On 26 June 1997, Gagné, and another Hell's Angels biker André “Toots” Tousignant murdered the prison guard Diane Lavigne, gunning her down on the streets of Montreal while riding a motorcycle.[11] On 8 September 1997, Gagné and a fellow biker Paul “Fon Fon” Fontaine gunned down the prison guard Pierre Rondeau.[11] Gagné agreed to turn Crown's evidence after he was arrested in December 1997, and in his confession he named Tousignant and Fontaine as his fellow killers.[44] Fontaine, a full patch Hell's Angel and a Nomad, fled to Mexico after Gagné implicated him where he lived for a number of years, and at some point he returned to Canada.[44] In 2004, he was arrested in Quebec City, where he was living under the assumed name Jean Goyer, and in October 2008, he went on trial in Montreal, and was convicted in February 2009 of one count of first degree murder for killing Rondeau.[44] Tousignant, a "prospect" for the Nomads who agreed to testify for the Crown after being arrested following Gagné's confession, was found murdered, being shot twice and his body then set afire.[45] The body of Tousignant was found buried in a shallow grave in the Eastern Townships on 27 February 1998 and his murder has never solved.[44] Boucher is currently serving two life sentences for ordering these murders of the prison guards in 1997.[11]

The height of the violence[edit]

Throughout the guerre des motards, the more powerful and better organized Hell's Angels consistently held the upper hand over the Rock Machine, which had previously controlled all of the non-Mafia organized crime in Quebec.[46] In 1998, Jacques Lemieux of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police told The Economist that the Hell's Angels were seeking control of the drug trade, automobile theft, prostitution, smuggling, illegal gambling and extortion rackets in Quebec.[47] In the same interview, Detective Lemieux said: "“Bikers seem a lot more active in Canada than elsewhere, and a lot more violent in Quebec.”[48]

On 23 August 1998, a team of Rock Machine killers consisting consisting of Frédéric Faucher, Gerald Gallant, and Marcel Demers rode by in their motorcycles and gunned down Paolo Cotroni in his drive-way.[49] Cotroni was a member of the Calabrian 'Ndrangheta Cotroni crime family who were the rivals of the Sicilian Mafia Rizzuto crime family.[49] Cotroni was killed partly to gain the favor of the Rizzutos and partly because he was a friend of Boucher.[49] On 8 September 1998, Johnny Plescio, a founding member of the Rock Machine was at his Laval home watching television when his cable was severed.[50] Getting up to see what was wrong with his television, 27 bullets went though Plescios's living room window, 16 of which struck him.[50] At Plescio's funeral, a flower arrangement appeared bearing the word Bandidos, which was the first sign that the Bandidos biker gang of Texas was taking an interest in the Rock Machine.[50]

Disaster struck the Dark Circle, when one of their number, Salvatore Brunnettii, a restaurateur, bar owner and drug dealer, defected to the Hell's Angels and gave them a list of who were the other members of the Dark Circle.[21] Jean Rosa, a 32 year old businessman who lived in a middle class suburb of Montreal was found shot down in front of his Pontiac Grand Prix on his drive-way on the morning of 25 September 1998, and died of blood loss at the hospital later that day.[43] Rosa was a member of the Dark Circle, and his neighbors were shocked to learn that respectable Rosa was in fact a gangster whose home had been purchased with the profits from the drug trade, as the bar that Rosa owned was a front for laundering drug money.[43] At about 8 pm on 22 October 1998, a Montreal businessman Pierre Bastien who owned a successful bar, had just parked his car on the drive-way at his suburban home, and as he went to open the rear door of his automobile for his 8 year old daughter, he was shot in the head at point blank range.[51] Bastien was also a member of the Dark Circle and his bar was just a front for laundering drug money.[51] To save their lives, several other members of the Dark Circle turned themselves into the police and confessed to their crimes, saying that they would be safer in prison than they would be as free men.[21] At least one member of the Dark Circle who went to prison was later offered full parole for good behavior, which he declined, saying the Angels would kill him for certain if he got out of prison, and it was his wish to spend the rest of his life in prison.[21] Another member of the Dark Circle, a restaurateur and bar owner named Claude Joannette by contrast followed Brunnettii in defecting over to the Angels, agreeing to launder drug money for them in exchange for his life.[52]

On 27 November 1998, Boucher was acquitted of ordering the murder of the two prison guards in 1997, and afterwards become a folk-hero in Quebec, with people in the poor neighborhood of Hochelaga-Maisonneuve in Montreal cheering Boucher and his fellow Angels as they rode their Harley-Davidson motorcycles down the streets like it was a royal procession.[53] On the night of 27 November 1998, to celebrate his acquittal, Boucher attended a boxing match in Verdun with his fellow Nomads, with the audience cheering him as he took his seat and hundreds of people lining up to get his autograph.[53] Boucher become a celebrity in Quebec, despite or perhaps because of the violence of the biker war, with many polls showing that he was one of the most popular and best loved man in la belle province with much of the Quebec media offering fawning coverage of the charismatic Boucher.[53] The Crown was stunned by Boucher's popularity with ordinary Québecois with many police officers and prosecutors saying this reflected the moral decay of Québecois society.[53]

In the summer of 1999, a bizarre incident occurred on the streets of Montreal when Wooley was riding his Harley-Davidson motorcycle while wearing his Rocker patch on his vest was pulled over for speeding.[35] The constable who pulled over Wooley, Michel Bureau, claimed he was frightened when he noticed that Wooley had something under his vest, saying that knew Wooley was an especially violent man as he was the only black outlaw biker in Montreal, and offered to drop the fine if Wooley would show him what was under his vest.[54] When Wooley refused, Constable Bureau said it didn't matter if Wooley was carrying drugs, he was willing to drop the charges just as long as Wooley showed him what was under his vest.[54] When Wooley informed Bureau that he was not under arrest, and that it was none of his business what he had under his vest, Bureau called for back-up to and thus it took five officers to arrest Wooley for speeding.[54] No guns or drugs were found on Wooley, through a handgun was found lying on the streets close to the arrest scene, which Wooley's lawyers claimed was planted by the police.[54] Later, the judge threw out all of the charges, ruling that this was not a routine pull-over, and suggested the stop-over was an unusually clumsy attempt on the part of the police to entrap Wooley.[54] During his time in jail while awaiting the charges, Wooley was involved in three different fights with the other inmates and in an attempt to smuggle PCP into the jail, finally being separated from the other inmates under the grounds he was too violent.[33]

In one of the most notorious incidents of the biker war, on 26 August 1999, two Rockers entered a car rental agency in the Saint Leonard neighborhood of Montreal and asked to see "Serge".[55] The "Serge" they wanted to see was Serge Brunneau, the owner of the agency and a member of the Dark Circle.[55] But one of his employees, a Serge Hervieux, told them "Je suis Serge" "("I am Serge"), at which point they opened fire with their Magnum .357 handguns, putting four bullets into the unfortunate Hervieux, killing him instantly while Brunneau hid under his desk.[55] Hervieux, a married man with two children, was the wrong Serge as he had no involvement with organized crime.[55] Besides for killing the wrong man, the killers, Jean-Richard "Race" Larivière and Eric "Pif" Fournier, also failed to set afire their get-way car, a stolen Chrysler Intrepid, leaving behind in the trunk a mass of evidence incriminating them, not the least of which was that their fingerprints were over the papers listing the address of the car rental agency.[56] Despite killing the wrong man, both men were promoted to full patch Rockers, making them well on their way to finally becoming Hell's Angels.[57] Despite a promise from the police that the violence would stop, on 1 October 1999, one of the leaders of the Rock Machine, Tony Plescio, was gunned down in the parking lot of a Montreal McDonald's where he was taking his family to dinner.[58] On 1 May 2000, a drug dealer working for the Rock Machine, Patrick Turcotte, was gunned down in the back leaving a store renting pornographic videos by a man riding a blue van using a Beretta handgun equipped with a silencer.[59] Turcotte's killers, two Rockers named Pierre "Peanut" Laurin and Paul "Schtrompf" Brisebois, were rewarded by being promoted to becoming prospects for the Hell's Angels.[59]

Kane was not a Nomad, but in early 2000, he began to work as a chauffeur for a Nomad, Normand Robitaille, driving him all over Montreal as Robitaille met with other Hell's Angels and occasionally the Mafia.[60] Kane reported to his RCMP handlers that Robitaille had told him during one of their car rides that he, Boucher, and Robert Savard, one of the most notorious loan sharks in Montreal, were going to start an internet company that would allow all of the pawnshops of Quebec to sell their wares on-line in exchange for a monthly fee.[60] However, the twist to the plan was that any pawnshop owner who refused to list his products with the planned company would have his business burned down.[61] Robitaille added that Angels were already been sent around to warn pawnshop owners that they would either list with the planned company or see their businesses destroyed by arsonists.[62]

On 17 April 2000, Normand Hamel, one of the Nomads, was killed when attempting to flee from Rock Machine assassins in a Laval parking lot while he and his wife were taking his son to the doctor.[63] Hamel was the most senior Hell's Angel to be killed in the biker war.[63] Boucher himself showed up at the crime scene to investigate Hamel's killing, and later the same night, a Nomad, Normand Bélanger, speaking in his cell-phone that the police had tapped was heard to say that Hamel's murder was "part of the game we play", but also "pretty disgusting", saying his wife and son should had not had seen his murder.[63] On 27 April 2000, Boucher's friend, André "Dédé" Desjardins, one of the most infamous construction union officials in Quebec, well known for engaging in extortion in the 1970s who had latterly turned to loan sharking, was killed by the Rock Machine.[64] Desjardins, the "King of Construction", had been the president of the Fédération des travailleurs et travailleuses du Québec union in the 1970s, where he attracted much attention in 1974 when his union committed vandalism that had cost the sub-contractors on the James Bay project some $30 million dollars as part of an extortion attempt, leading to the Cliche commission that found the construction industry in Quebec was systematically corrupt with the construction unions all controlled by the Mafia.

On 12 May 2000, the Angels tried to kill the two Rock Machine members, Tony Duguay and Denis Boucher, suspected of killing Hamel, leading to wild car crash, during which Duguay took bullet wounds to his arms, right hand and thigh.[63] Tony Duguay, the Rock Machine member who was convicted of killing Hamel in 2006 was acquitted in 2016 when it was established that the eye "witness" who gave the testimony that had convicted him had been fed information incriminating him by Detective Benoît Roberge, the senior anti-biker detective with the Montreal police who was secretly working for the Hell's Angels, and that the "witness" had not seen Duguay killing Hamel as he had testified during his trial.[65] The witness stated in 2016 that everything he said at Duguay's trial was perjury, claiming that Detective Roberge had forced him to perjure himself.[66] In July 2000, Boucher's plans to set an internet company were detailed when Robert "Bob" Savard, the loan shark who charged 52% interest on the loans he made to the desperate and needy, was gunned down by the Rock Machine, leaving the Déjeuners Eggstra! restaurant in the north end of Montreal.[67] Savard's dinner companion, Normand Descoteaux, a hockey player turned loan shark, was also a target, but he survived by grabbing a waitress and using her as an involuntary human shield, ensuring that she took four bullets meant for him.[68] . A striking sign of the way in which the Hell's Angels had become part of the mainstream of Quebec society occurred at the wedding of the Nomad René Charlebois on 5 August 2000, which was attended by Jean-Pierre Ferland and Ginette Reno, two of the best loved folk singers in French-Canada, who both received a million dollars for singing at Charlebois's wedding.[69] Both Ferland and Reno posed for photographs with Boucher for the Montreal tabloid Allô Police at the wedding, saying they both honored to meet such an outstanding man like Boucher.[69] In particular, Reno, who has a very matronly and respectable image in Quebec, produced shock by her willingness to pose for photographs with the convicted rapist Boucher, who in 1984 had held a gun to the head of a 16 year old girl, threatening to kill her on the spot if she did not have sex with him.[69] Both Ferland and Reno later claimed that they were unaware that the Hell's Angels are one of the most feared criminal syndicates in Quebec, saying they would never had attended the wedding if they had known, and rather unconvincing denied that being paid a million dollars had anything to do with their willingness to perform at Charlebois's wedding.[69] A few days after Charlebois's wedding, Kane was found dead in the garage of his home, apparently a suicide.[60] Found on his body was a rambling and confusing suicide note full of spelling mistakes and grammatical errors containing his reflections on morality, the ethics of betraying his biker friends for the Crown, and finally saying he was deeply confused about his sexuality, saying he was not certain if he was gay or just bisexual, which had apparently driven him to take his life.[60]

On 13 September 2000, Michel Auger, the journalist covering guerre des motards for Le Journal de Montréal was shot in the back five times while getting out of his car in the parking lot of Le Journal de Montréal.[11] After his attempted assassination, which was seen as an attack on the freedom of the press by the bikers, 1, 200 journalists marched down the streets of Montreal in a rally two days later in a show of protest.[11] The increased media coverage of crime in Montreal caused by the attempted murder of Auger caused the Rizzuto crime family, regarded as the most powerful Mafia family in Canada with close connections to the Bonanno crime family of New York, to seek a truce between the warring biker gangs.[11] On 26 September 2000, Vito Rizzuto held a meeting at an Italian restaurant named Bleu Martin attended by both Maurice "Mom" Boucher, the leader of Hell's Angels in Quebec, and Frédéric "Fred" Faucher, the leader of the Rock Machine, in an attempt to impose a truce.[11] On 8 October 2000 to celebrate Thanksgiving, Boucher and Faucher had dinner together at Bleu Martin and while a photographer from Allô Police recorded the scene, the leaders of the Hell's Angels and the Rock Machine exchanged handshakes, hugged and broke bread together (a common symbol in French-Canada of reconciliation).[69] To seal the truce, the biker leaders then went to the Super-Sexe, the most exclusive and expensive strip club in Montreal on the Rue Sainte-Catherine with the photographers from Allô Police covering their visit.[69] One of the Angels present, Normand Robitaille, joked to two policemen waiting outside the Super-Sexe with notepads covering who was going to the strip club that with the truce in effect, the police budget was to be cut quite drastically.[69]

In 2000, a Montreal Crown attorney (a prosecutor) complained to the media that "they [the bikers] kill with impunity", saying it almost impossible to convict members of either the Hell's Angels or the Rock Machine because of widespread corruption in the Quebec justice system.[70] The public's perception that the Quebec justice system was too incompetent and corrupt to stop the bikers finally spurred the Crown to act decisively against the bikers.[71] In a rare victory for the Crown, on 10 October 2000, a Montreal appeals judge undid double jeopardy, ruling that the Crown had presented credible evidence that the 1998 trial of Boucher was marred by intimation of the jury and that the judge's instructions to the jury were defective, and as such, Boucher should be retried for the murders of Lavigne and Rondeau.[44][69] Boucher's lawyer, Robert Lemieux, who was a celebrity in Quebec for his role defending members of the FLQ after the October Crisis of 1970, announced that his client had launched a $30 million lawsuit against the province of Quebec, alleging wrongful prosecution.[72] Unfortunately for Boucher, he had wrote up much of the letter of complaint himself, sparking widespread ridicule as his French was full of spelling and grammatical mistakes that one would expect from a man who dropped out of school in grade 9.[41]

The truce imposed by the Rizzutos lasted only a few weeks and was ended when the Rock Machine agreed join the Bandidos biker gang based in Texas.[73] In a sort of reversal take-over, Faucher arranged for the Rock Machine to "patch over" to join the Bandidos in a bid to "internationalize" the conflict by involving the Bandidos, who were based in Texas.[74] The Rock Machine was sponsored to "patch over" by the Swedish and French branches of the Bandidos while the American leadership disapproved, not wanting to be dragged into a war with the Hell's Angels.[74] On 29 December 2000, about 168 Ontario bikers rode over to Montreal for a mass "patch over" to join the Angels.[75] The Satan's Choice, the Para-Dice Riders, the Los Lobos, and a number of other Ontario outlaw biker gangs all abandoned their old patches for the "Death's Head" patch of the Angels, finally allowing the Angels to enter southern Ontario.[75] In a typical show of self-confidence, the photographers from Allô Police were invited to the Angels' bunker to record the "patch-over".[76] On 6 January 2001, a party was held in Kingston, Ontario where the Rock Machine formally "patched over" to become Bandidos.[74] Shortly afterwards, Faucher was charged with importing drugs into Canada, and replaced with Alain Brunette as the new president of the Canadian Bandidos.[77]

The Crown strikes back[edit]

The war eventually ended when public outcry over the deaths of innocent bystanders[78] resulted in police pressure including the incarceration of over 100 bikers.[79] On 28 March 2001, in Operation Carcajou (Wolverine), a joint investigation of the Hell's Angels by the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, the Ontario Provincial Police, and the Sûreté du Québec resulted in the arrests of Hell's Angels all over Canada with 138 being arrested in Quebec and 51 being arrested in Calgary on 30 March 2001.[11] When Hell's Angels named Éric Bouffard was arrested on 28 March 2001, photos were found in his home showing José Théodore, the goalie for the Montreal Canadiens, partying with the Angels at their Montreal South clubhouse, and Bouffard had Théodore's cell phone number.[52] The revelation that a popular hockey player like Théodore was a close friend of the Angels once again brought home how much the Angels had gone mainstream in Quebec, assorting with celebrities from the world of the arts and sports.[52] At the same time, it was revealed that several other members of the Théodore family had been arrested for loan sharking .[52] Another arrested during the 2001 raids was the Montreal restaurateur Salvatore Brunnettii. The police found evidence that Brunnettii had between December 2000-March 2001 laundered $70, 000 dollars in drug money for the Angels while at Brunnettii's home, the police found $3, 000 US dollars and $10, 000 Canadian dollars in his safe together with an illegal .38 calibre handgun.[80]

During their raids, the Sûreté du Québec arrested Charlebois at his estate outside of Montreal. Charlebois, who once been a poor criminal selling marijuana and smuggled cigarettes out of a cheap submarine sandwich restaurant in the east end of Montreal, was found to have $7, 000 in cash and five $1, 000 gambling chips from the Casino de Montréal at his estate together with a 1989 bottle of Château Haut-Brion worth $1, 325 and a 1990 bottle of Château Lafite.[81] Charlebois, a petty criminal selling drugs, smuggled cigarettes and stolen credit cards, had risen rapidly after joining the Rockers, the Hell's Angels and the Nomads in succession during the 1990s.[81] One of the Angels who escaped arrest was Carroll who fled Canada in March 2001 to Mexico and has not been seen or heard from since.[17] In 2014, the Interpol website stated: “Hells Angels have chapters in more than 20 countries and information suggests that Carroll has frequented a number (of them) including Brazil, Mexico, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, United States (as well as countries in South America and Europe).”[82]

In July 2001, Luis Elias Lekkes, the accountant for the Irish-Canadian gangster Gerry Matticks, a leader of the Irish West End Gang of Montreal, agreed to turn Crown's evidence after being arrested in March 2001.[83] After twice attempting to kill himself in prison, saying he was convinced that the Hell's Angels and/or the West End Gang had put out a jailhouse contract on his life, Lekkes agreed to testify for the Crown that the West End Gang controlled the port of Montreal, and in exchange for fees, allowed the Angels to smuggle all sorts of things both in and out of Montreal.[83] After Matticks was arrested, at his bail hearing, the Roman Catholic priest for the parish of St. Bruno, Father Marc Mignault, testified to his good character, stating he was a devout Catholic who gave generously to Catholic charities and was one of Montreal's most honest and respectable businessman.[84] Father Mignault in particular praised Matticks for donating thousands of chickens every Thanksgiving and Christmas to the poor of Montreal as evidence of his good heart.[84] The Crown Attorney, Robert Rouleau, by contrast noted that at one of Matticks's businesses was found a paper hidden in a fridge bearing the names "Guy" and "Mom", next to which were written the cell phone numbers for Guy Lepage and Boucher.[85] Lekkes signed a statement for the Crown stating that Matticks, who controlled the longshoreman's union at the Port of Montreal, had made profits of $22 million from smuggling drugs into the city and had sold the Angels at least 700 kilos of cocaine in the last two years.[86] Lekkes later testified at other trials in 2002 and 2003 that he regularly took briefcases containing about $500, 000 in cash from the Hell's Angels as payments to the West End Gang and that the chicken which Matticks was generous in donating to Catholic charities at Thanksgiving and Christmas times was stolen from container ships bringing chicken that was meant for export to grocery stores in Europe.[87] Inspired by Lekkes's example, John McLean, one of Mattick's lieutenants, agreed to turn Crown's evidence and to testify against Matticks's son Donald, in exchange for a 8 year prison sentence.[88] Lekkes received a 7 year prison sentence with the promise that he would receive a new identity and police protection for the rest of his life when he was released, and as a result Matticks pleaded guilty in 2002 rather than face extradition to the United States, where he was wanted on charges of smuggling cocaine.[83]

In the spring of 2002, Boucher was again brought to trial for the murders of Lavigne and Rondeau after having been acquitted in 1998. The Crown challenged the verdict, citing irregular aspects of the trial that suggested intimidation of the part of the Hell's Angels, and at the second trial, Gagne agreed to testify for the Crown in exchange for a lesser sentence.[89] France Charbonneau, widely viewed as the toughest Crown Attorney in Quebec, was assigned to prosecute Boucher.[90] Gagné, testified that Boucher wanted random murders of people working for the Quebec justice system in order to create such a climate of fear that no one would ever dare prosecute the Hell's Angels.[91] On 6 May 2002, Boucher was found guilty of two courts of first-degree murder and sentenced to life imprisonment with no chance of parole for the next 25 years.[92] André Bouchard, a Montreal police detective, told the media it was rumored that the American leadership of the Hell's Angels wanted Boucher dead, saying: "We're heard that they [the Hell's Angels leadership] in the United States got together and they said to take the fucker out. They say this is the guy who caused all the trouble."[93]

Aftermath[edit]

In May 2008, the career of the Canadian Foreign Minister Maxime Bernier was temporarily derailed when it emerged that his girlfriend Julie Couillard in 2007 was a former stripper who had been the lover of several Hell's Angels in the 1990s, forcing him to resign in June 2008.[94] Bernier left behind a NATO briefing document at Couillard's house, and the media demanded his resignation, saying it was inappropriate for a cabinet minister to be seeing a woman who was once married to a Hell's Angel and involved in a common-law relationship with another.[95] L'affaire Bernier-Couillard almost destroyed Bernier's career, though it does not appear that national security was threatened in any serious way.[95]

In April 2009, over 156 members of the Hells Angels were arrested in Quebec, New Brunswick, France and the Dominican Republic mostly in connection to crimes related to the Biker war as part of Operation SharQc. The arrests solved at least 22 murders committed between 1992 and 2009. Four Hells Angels bunkers were also seized by police including one in Sorel-Tracy that was firebombed in 2008.[96] Dozens of arrests were previously made earlier in the year as part of Operation Axe in February and Operation Baladeur in March.[97] On 13 March 2014, Detective Roberge pledged guilty in a Montreal courthouse to charges of breach of trust and of engaging in organized crime.[11] Roberge admitted to accepting $125,000 from the Hell's Angels in exchange for information and was sentenced to 8 years in prison.[98] In October 2015, the charges against the Hell's Angels arrested in Quebec in 2009 were dismissed following allegations that the Crown withheld evidence for too long, resulting in an internal investigation as to why the effort to convict the Hell's Angels failed.[11] Quebec Superior Court Judge James Brunton ruled that delay between the arrests in 2009 as part of Operation SharQc and 2015 violated the right to a speedy trial guaranteed by the Charter of Rights and Freedoms and dismissed all of the charges against the Hell's Angels arrested as part of Operation SharQc.[4]

In 2015, the Sûreté du Québec alleged in an indictment that Boucher had continued to engage in organized crime from his prison cell, using his daughter Alexandra Mongeau as his messenger, and that his principle surrogate in Montreal was his former bodyguard, Gregory Woolley, who has been charged three times with first-degree murder.[6] In 2016, a former RCMP officer and an expert on biker gangs, Pierre de Champlain, told the media: "Since 2000, the Hells Angels have had complete control over Quebec, from Sept-Iles to Granby. No one wants to work against the Hells Angels independently because it's not in their interest."[2] Noting the funeral in Montreal in August 2016 of a biker killed in an automobile crash, Champlain noted it was attended by "...300 bikers but also 1,000 to 3,000 people who came out to watch. They wanted to see the parade, the coffin pulled by bikes. And we have to admit, it was spectacular."[2]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Rubinstein, Julian (March 2002). "Highway to Hell". Details. Retrieved 2016-11-30. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g Lejtenyi, Patrick (27 October 2016). "How the Hells Angels Conquered Canada". Vice. Retrieved 2016-11-30. 
  3. ^ a b Langton 2010, p. 91.
  4. ^ a b c Rose, Nick (6 October 2016). "How the Hells Angels Made a Massive Comeback in Quebec". Vice. Retrieved 2016-11-30. 
  5. ^ D'Alimonte, Michael (November 2016). "10 Of The Most Notorious Mobsters In The History Of Montreal". MTLblog. Retrieved 2016-11-30. 
  6. ^ a b c Obendrauf, Pierre (20 November 2015). "A who's who of the Montreal underworld: The Mafiosi, bikers and gangsters swept up in police raids". The National Post. Retrieved 2016-11-30. 
  7. ^ a b c d "Hells Angels, crime and Canada". The Economist. 26 March 1998. Retrieved 2016-11-30. 
  8. ^ a b c Cherry 2005, p. 17.
  9. ^ Biker gangs in Canada
  10. ^ Chad Skelton & Lori Culbert (July 30, 2004) "Police Fear B.C. Biker War". Originally published by Vancouver Sun. Retrieved November 2, 2011
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s Welton, Benjamin (24 July 2016). "10 Incidents of the Quebec Biker War". The Trebuchet. Retrieved 2016-11-30. 
  12. ^ "Hells Angels, crime and Canada". The Economist. 26 March 1998. Retrieved 2016-11-30. 
  13. ^ a b c d e Cherry 2005, p. 69.
  14. ^ a b c Cherry 2005, p. 15.
  15. ^ Langton 2010, p. 92.
  16. ^ a b Cherry 2005, p. 4.
  17. ^ a b Cherry 2005, p. 393.
  18. ^ a b Cherry 2005, p. 12.
  19. ^ Cherry 2005, p. 5.
  20. ^ Cherry 2005, p. 3.
  21. ^ a b c d Cherry 2005, p. 16. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "FOOTNOTECherry200516" defined multiple times with different content (see the help page). Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "FOOTNOTECherry200516" defined multiple times with different content (see the help page). Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "FOOTNOTECherry200516" defined multiple times with different content (see the help page).
  22. ^ a b Cherry 2005, p. 83.
  23. ^ Cherry 2005, p. 71.
  24. ^ Cherry 2005, p. 72.
  25. ^ Cherry 2005, p. 73-74.
  26. ^ a b Cherry 2005, p. 74-75.
  27. ^ a b c Cherry 2005, p. 75.
  28. ^ Cherry, Paul (5 December 2013). "Former Killer for Hire Granted Parole After 17 Years In Prison". The Montreal Gazette. Retrieved 2016-11-30. 
  29. ^ a b c Cherry 2005, p. 91.
  30. ^ Lavigne 1999, p. 85.
  31. ^ Lavigne 1999, p. 64.
  32. ^ Lavigne 1999, p. 90.
  33. ^ a b c Cherry 2005, p. 45.
  34. ^ a b c O'Connor 2011, p. 242.
  35. ^ a b Cherry 2005, p. 43.
  36. ^ a b c Cherry 2005, p. 282.
  37. ^ Edwards, Peter (2010). "The Bandido Massacre". Peter Edwards. Retrieved 2016-11-30. 
  38. ^ Edwards, Peter (2010). "The Bandido Massacre". Peter Edwards. Retrieved 2016-11-30. 
  39. ^ Cherry 2005, p. 90.
  40. ^ Cherry 2005, p. 89.
  41. ^ a b c Cherry 2005, p. 92.
  42. ^ Cherry 2005, p. 33-34.
  43. ^ a b c d e Cherry 2005, p. 34.
  44. ^ a b c d e O'Connor 2011, p. 208.
  45. ^ "Hells Angels, crime and Canada". The Economist. 26 March 1998. Retrieved 2016-11-30. 
  46. ^ Mick, Haley; Ha, Tu Thanh (10 April 2006). "Biker gangs' feuds leave bloody trail". The Globe and Mail. Retrieved 2016-11-30. 
  47. ^ "Hells Angels, crime and Canada". The Economist. 26 March 1998. Retrieved 2016-11-30. 
  48. ^ "Hells Angels, crime and Canada". The Economist. 26 March 1998. Retrieved 2016-11-30. 
  49. ^ a b c O'Connor 2011, p. 27.
  50. ^ a b c Cherry & 2005 124.
  51. ^ a b Cherry 2005, p. 35.
  52. ^ a b c d Cherry & 2005 164. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "FOOTNOTECherry2005164" defined multiple times with different content (see the help page). Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "FOOTNOTECherry2005164" defined multiple times with different content (see the help page). Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "FOOTNOTECherry2005164" defined multiple times with different content (see the help page).
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  54. ^ a b c d e Cherry 2005, p. 44.
  55. ^ a b c d Cherry 2005, p. 131.
  56. ^ Cherry 2005, p. 131-132.
  57. ^ Cherry 2005, p. 132.
  58. ^ Cherry 2005, p. 134.
  59. ^ a b Cherry 2005, p. 135.
  60. ^ a b c d Cherry 2005, p. 20.
  61. ^ Cherry 2005, p. 20-21.
  62. ^ Cherry 2005, p. 21.
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  64. ^ Appleby, Timonty; Tu, Tu Thanh (24 July 2000). "Bikers expand crime empire". The Globe and Mail. Retrieved 2017-11-30. 
  65. ^ Cherry, Paul (15 December 2016). "Man convicted of murdering a Hells Angel acquitted after informant admits lying". The Montreal Gazette. Retrieved 2016-11-30. 
  66. ^ Cherry, Paul (15 December 2016). "Man convicted of murdering a Hells Angel acquitted after informant admits lying". The Montreal Gazette. Retrieved 2016-11-30. 
  67. ^ Appleby, Timonty; Tu, Tu Thanh (24 July 2000). "Bikers expand crime empire". The Globe and Mail. Retrieved 2017-11-30. 
  68. ^ "Bernier's ex dined in 2006 with loan shark tied to bikers". CBC. 5 June 2008. Retrieved 2017-11-28. 
  69. ^ a b c d e f g h Cherry 2005, p. 96.
  70. ^ Langton 2010, p. 136.
  71. ^ Langton 2010, p. 135.
  72. ^ Cherry 2005, p. 97.
  73. ^ Mick, Haley; Ha, Tu Thanh (10 April 2006). "Biker gangs' feuds leave bloody trail". The Globe and Mail. Retrieved 2016-11-30. 
  74. ^ a b c Langton 2010, p. 171.
  75. ^ a b Cherry 2005, p. 23-24.
  76. ^ Cherry 2005, p. 28.
  77. ^ Langton 2010, p. 172.
  78. ^ McGill Tribune, Bikers, Bill C-95, Drugs and Mom Archived September 28, 2007, at the Wayback Machine.
  79. ^ York University, Organized Crime in Canada
  80. ^ Cherry 2005, p. 196.
  81. ^ a b Cherry 2005, p. 17-19.
  82. ^ Cherry, Paul (28 December 2014). "'Mom' Boucher's boys: Where are the Nomads now?". The Montreal Gazette. Retrieved 2016-11-30. 
  83. ^ a b c O'Connor 2011, p. 195.
  84. ^ a b Cherry 2005, p. 171.
  85. ^ Cherry 2005, p. 177.
  86. ^ Cherry 2005, p. 185-186.
  87. ^ Cherry 2005, p. 179-180.
  88. ^ Cherry 2005, p. 186-187.
  89. ^ "Mom Boucher guilty of murder". CBC. 6 May 2002. Retrieved 2016-11-30. 
  90. ^ Muise, Monique (5 November 2011). "Quebec Corruption Steep Learning Curve". The Edmonton Journal. Retrieved 2016-11-30. 
  91. ^ "Mom Boucher guilty of murder". CBC. 6 May 2002. Retrieved 2016-11-30. 
  92. ^ "Mom Boucher guilty of murder". CBC. 6 May 2002. Retrieved 2016-11-30. 
  93. ^ O'Connor 2011, p. 209.
  94. ^ Langton 2010, p. 254.
  95. ^ a b Langton 2010, p. 261.
  96. ^ Massive police raids target Quebec, N.B. Hells Angels
  97. ^ Dozens arrested in Quebec Hells Angels sweep
  98. ^ "Benoît Roberge, ex-cop, sentenced to 8 years for gangsterism". CBC. 4 April 2014. Retrieved 2016-11-30. 

Books and newspaper articles[edit]

  • Cherry, Paul The Biker Trials: Bringing Down the Hells Angels, Toronto: ECW Press, 2005.
  • Langton, Jerry Showdown: How the Outlaws, Hells Angels and Cops Fought for Control of the Streets, Toronto: John Wiley & Sons, 2010.
  • Lavigne, Yves Hells Angels At War, Toronto: HarperCollins, 1999.
  • O'Connor, D'Arcy Montreal's Irish Mafia: The True Story of the Infamous West End Gang, Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons, 2011.
  • Winterhalder, Edward, Out in Bad Standings: Inside the Bandidos Motorcycle Club - The Making of a Worldwide Dynasty, Blockhead City Press, 2005/Seven Locks Press, 2007 (ISBN 0-9771-7470-0)
  • Winterhalder, Edward, & De Clercq, Wil, The Assimilation: Rock Machine Become Bandidos – Bikers United Against the Hells Angels, ECW Press, 2008 (ISBN 1-5502-2824-2)