Rugby refers to the team sports rugby league and rugby union. Legend claims that rugby football was started about 1845 in Rugby School, Warwickshire, although forms of football in which the ball was carried and tossed date to medieval times. Rugby split into two sports in 1895 when twenty-one clubs split from the original Rugby Football Union, to form the Northern Union in the George Hotel, Northern England over the issue of payment to players, thus making rugby league the first code to turn professional and pay its players, rugby union turned professional in 1995. Both sports are run by their respective world governing bodies World Rugby and the Rugby League International Federation. Rugby football was one of many versions of football played at English public schools in the 19th century. Although rugby league used rugby union rules, they are now wholly separate sports. In addition to these two codes, both American and Canadian football evolved from rugby football. Following the 1895 split in rugby football, the two forms rugby league and rugby union differed in administration only.
Soon the rules of rugby league were modified. After 100 years, in 1995 rugby union joined rugby league and most other forms of football as an professional sport; the Olympic form of rugby is known as Rugby 7s. In this form of the game, each team has 7 players on the field at one time playing 7 minute halves; the rules and pitch size are the same as rugby union. The Greeks and Romans are known to have played many ball games, some of which involved the use of the feet; the Roman game harpastum is believed to have been adapted from a Greek team game known as "ἐπίσκυρος" or "φαινίνδα", mentioned by a Greek playwright and referred to by the Christian theologian Clement of Alexandria. These games appear to have resembled rugby football; the Roman politician Cicero describes the case of a man, killed whilst having a shave when a ball was kicked into a barber's shop. Roman ball games knew the air-filled ball, the follis. Episkyros is recognised as an early form of football by FIFA. In 1871, English clubs met to form the Rugby Football Union.
In 1892, after charges of professionalism were made against some clubs for paying players for missing work, the Northern Rugby Football Union called the Northern Union, was formed. The existing rugby union authorities responded by issuing sanctions against the clubs and officials involved in the new organization. After the schism, the separate clubs were named "rugby league" and "rugby union". Rugby union is both a professional and amateur game, is dominated by the first tier unions: New Zealand, Wales, South Africa, Argentina, Scotland and France. Second and third tier unions include Belgium, Canada, Fiji, Germany, Hong Kong, Kenya, the Netherlands, Romania, Samoa, Tonga, the United States and Uruguay. Rugby Union is administered by World Rugby, whose headquarters are located in Ireland, it is the national sport in New Zealand, Fiji, Tonga and Madagascar, is the most popular form of rugby globally. The Olympic Games have admitted the seven-a-side version of the game, known as Rugby sevens, into the programme from Rio de Janeiro in 2016 onwards.
There was a possibility sevens would be a demonstration sport at the 2012 London Olympics but many sports including sevens were dropped. In Canada and the United States, rugby union evolved into gridiron football. During the late 1800s, the two forms of the game were similar, but numerous rule changes have differentiated the gridiron-based game from its rugby counterpart, introduced by Walter Camp in the United States and John Thrift Meldrum Burnside in Canada. Among unique features of the North American game are the separation of play into downs instead of releasing the ball upon tackling, the requirement that the team with the ball set into a set formation for at least one second before resuming play after a tackle, the allowance for one forward pass from behind the site of the last tackle on each down, the evolution of hard plastic equipment, a smaller and pointier ball, favorable to being passed but makes drop kicks impractical, a smaller and narrower field measured in customary units instead of metric, a distinctive field with lines marked in five-yard intervals.
Rugby league is both a professional and amateur game, administered on a global level by the Rugby League International Federation. In addition to amateur and semi-professional competitions in the United States, Lebanon, Serbia and Australasia, there are two major professional competitions—the Australasian National Rugby League and the Super League. International Rugby League is dominated by Australia and New Zealand. In Papua New Guinea it is the national sport. Other nations from the South Pacific and Europe play in the Pacific Cup and European Cup respectively. Distinctive features common to both rugby codes include the oval ball and throwing the ball forward is not allowed so that players can gain ground only
University of Ottawa
The University of Ottawa is a bilingual public research university in Ottawa, Canada. The main campus is located on 42.5 hectares in the residential neighbourhood of Sandy Hill, adjacent to Ottawa's Rideau Canal. The university offers a wide variety of academic programs, administered by ten faculties, it is a member of a group of research-intensive universities in Canada. The University of Ottawa is the largest English-French bilingual university in the world; the University of Ottawa was first established as the College of Bytown in 1848 by the first bishop of the Catholic Archdiocese of Ottawa, Joseph-Bruno Guigues. Placed under the direction of the Oblates of Mary Immaculate, it was renamed the College of Ottawa in 1861 and received university status five years through a royal charter. On 5 February 1889, the university was granted a pontifical charter by Pope Leo XIII, elevating the institution to a pontifical university; the University was reorganized on July 1, 1965, as a corporation, independent from any outside body or religious organization.
As a result, the civil and pontifical charters were kept by the newly created Saint Paul University, federated with the university. The remaining civil faculties were retained by the reorganized university; the school is co-educational and enrolls over 35,000 undergraduate and over 6,000 post-graduate students. The university has more than 195,000 alumni; the university's athletic teams are members of U Sports. The university was established on 26 September 1848 as the College of Bytown by the first Roman Catholic bishop of Ottawa, Joseph-Bruno Guigues, he entrusted administration to the Missionary Oblates of Mary Immaculate. The college was located in Lower Town, housed in a wooden building next to the Notre-Dame Cathedral Basilica. However, space became an issue for administrators, triggering two moves in 1852 and a final move to Sandy Hill in 1856; the Sandy Hill property was donated by Louis-Theodore Besserer, where he offered a substantial parcel from his estate for the college. The college was renamed College of Ottawa in 1861, following the city's name change from Bytown to Ottawa.
In 1866, the college received its first charter, as well as university status, making it the final institution in Canada to receive a Royal Charter from London before the British North America Act, 1867 made education a provincial responsibility. By 1872 the university had begun to confer undergraduate degrees, with master's degrees coming in 1875 and doctoral degrees in 1888. On 5 February 1889, the university was granted a pontifical charter from Pope Leo XIII, elevating the university to a pontifical university; the university faced a crisis when fire destroyed the main building on 2 December 1903. After the fire, the university hired New York architect A. O. Von Herbulis to design its replacement, Tabaret Hall, it was among the first Canadian structures to be fireproof, built of reinforced concrete. Women first enrolled in 1919. In the fall of 1939, a Canadian Officer Training Corp was established at the university, with training beginning in January 1940; the Canadian Officers' Training Corps, University of Ottawa Contingent, which comprised a company and three platoons in 1939, was authorized to become a battalion in 1940.
By 1941, the unit swelled to 550 men. An air force Officers' Training Corp was created in 1942 and a naval Officers' training corp in 1943. Participation in one of the three corps became mandatory for all students over 18, although they were not obliged to participate in the actual war at the end of their studies. During this time, the Royal Canadian Air Force used parts of the university's grounds for training and the university constructed barracks to house members of the Canadian Women's Army Corps. In total 1,158 students and alumni of the university enrolled the Canadian Forces during the Second World War, of which 50 died overseas; the unit was disbanded during the unification of the Armed Forces in 1968. The Ottawa architecture firm of Burgess, McLean & MacPhadyen designed the Eastern Ontario Institute of Technology, opened its new Rideau Campus on a 12-acre city owned Lees Avenue site in 1964. After being unused for a number of years, the midcentury academic complex was sold to the University of Ottawa in January 2007.
The university was reorganized on 1 July 1965 as a corporation independent from any outside body or religious organization, becoming publicly funded. As a result, the civil and pontifical charters were transferred to the newly created Saint Paul University, federated with the corporation, while the remaining civil faculties were retained by the reorganized university. In 1970, 100 Laurier East became property of the University of Ottawa, acquired at a cost of $1,120,900. Named Juniorat du Sacré-Coeur, the property became the university's oldest building after it was acquired. At a cost of $28,000, it was built by Joseph Bourque, a Hull contractor and church builder, completed in 1894; the Juniorat du Sacré-Coeur provided classical education for young men who wished to pursue a religious life and join the Order of the Oblates of Mary Immaculate. The building was expanded in 1937, an expansion, indistinguishable from the original structure; the huge cross that used to dominate the top of the building was removed after its purchase, leaving only small references to the building's religious history as the Juniorat du Sacré-Coeur.
The property now houses the university's department of Visual Arts. It is located at the corner near the Rideau Canal. In 1974, a new policy mandated by the Government of O
McGill Redmen and Martlets
The McGill Team and McGill Martlets are the athletic teams that represent McGill University in Montreal, Canada. The name "Redmen" was first published in 1928 as "Red Men" and was used to describe the red uniforms worn by McGill sports teams. According to McGill historian Stanley Frost, the name may have been a nod to McGill's Scottish roots, since Celts were known as "Red Men" for their red hair. Subsequent 1950s McGill team logos featured Aboriginal Canadian iconography and reports by news sources in the 1950s which refer to the "McGill Indians" in their sports reporting. Furthermore, a McGill women's team was referred to as the "Squaws" in the 1960s. Stereotyped Indigenous iconography was on McGill jerseys and helmets until 1992. In a 2018 referendum organized by McGill's student union, 78.8% of 5,856 participating students voted in favour of changing the teams' name. On April 12, 2019, McGill announced that "McGill University’s men’s varsity teams will cease to be called the Redmen." The new name will be announced in 2020-2021 season and in the meanwhile the team will be known as the McGill Team.
Since 2005, the mascot for both the Redmen and Martlet teams has been Marty the Martlet. The mascot made its first appearance at the 2005 Redmen football Homecoming game, where it was presented to the McGill Athletics Department by the Student Organization for Alumni Relations; the McGill Redmen U Sports football team is one of the oldest in all of Canada, having begun organized competition in 1874. The team has appeared in three Vanier Cup national championships, in 1969, 1973 and 1987, with the Redmen winning the title in the 1987 game. McGill plays out of Percival Molson Memorial Stadium, where the Canadian Football League's Montreal Alouettes play. After their 2005 suspension, the team struggled with three losing seasons, including two winless seasons in 2007 and 2008; the program showed signs of hope as the Redmen won three games in 2009, but soon sank back down to futility with consecutive winless campaigns in 2010 and 2011. On March 3, 1875 the first organized indoor game was played at Montreal's Victoria Skating Rink by James George Aylwin Creighton and several McGill University students.
In 1877, several McGill students, including Creighton, Henry Joseph, Richard F. Smith, W. F. Robertson, W. L. Murray codified seven ice hockey rules; the McGill University Hockey Club – re-christened "The Redmen" – was founded in 1877, arguably making the McGill Redmen the first and oldest ice hockey club in the world. The university operates women's teams in U Sports; the teams play at McGill's McConnell Arena. The men's team has won championships in 1883, 1903, 1905, 1912, 1918, 1921, 1930, 1931, 1933, 1934, 1935, 1936, 1937, 1938, 1939, 1946, 2006, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011 and 2012, including the 2012 CIS University Cup national championship; the women's team has won championships in 1985, 2003, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009 and 2010. On November 15, 2003, Kim St. Pierre was the first woman in CIS history to be credited with a win in a men's regular season game; this occurred when the McGill Redmen defeated the Ryerson Rams by a score of 5–2. Lacrosse was played to a limited extent at McGill as early as 1873.
The 15-man McGill Lacrosse Club of 1898 was led by F. L. Thompson, R. H. Craig, A. J. Grant. Numerous American clubs, including Brooklyn, Staten Island and Harvard, challenged that McGill Lacrosse Club, but it was impossible to accept on account of approaching exams. McGill's lacrosse tradition was not re-established until 2001, when a McGill freshman organized a student lacrosse club. In 2002 the team gained Level-3 varsity club status at McGill, joined the Canadian University Field Lacrosse Association, Canada's premier league founded in 1985. In 2007 the team's status was elevated to a Level-2 varsity team by McGill Athletics. McGill has twice won Canada's national championship, the Baggataway Cup, in 2012 and 2015. McGill competes in the CUFLA East versus Bishop's, Nipissing, Ottawa and Queen's Universities. Four-time recipient of the Harry Griffith's Award in 2007, 2008, 2012 and 2015, the Redmen have won eight CUFLA East conference titles in 2007, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015, 2016 and 2017.
The team has achieved a record of 97–11–1 since 2011 versus Canadian opponents. The hybrid Canadian-box-American-field lacrosse program is geographically diverse with student-athletes recruited from across Canada and the US; the team plays home games in McGill's Percival Molson Memorial Stadium. The soccer program at McGill operates for a big part of the school year. On top of the regular U Sports fall season there is a Quebec indoor season, which runs from January to mid March. Preparation for the U Sports season starts with try-outs in mid-August and several preseason games against NCAA teams. McGill's sailing program was founded in 1949, the first regattas took place in Northern New England. Today, the team competes in the New England Intercollegiate Sailing Association, which itself is a part of the Intercollegiate Sailing Association and in the Canadian Intercollegiate Sailing Association; the team trains out of the Royal St. Lawrence Yacht Club throughout the fall and competes in dinghies such as the collegiate 420 and the Flying Junior.
The baseball team plays in the Canadian Collegiate Baseball Association. They have won seven national championships, have appeared in two national finals. In the 2016 CCBA National Tournament, held at Ahuntsic Park in Montreal, the Redmen went 2–1 in pool play, advancing to the semi-finals where they defeated the Saint Mary's Huskies by a score of 21–0, defeated th
Bishop's University is a small liberal arts college in Lennoxville, a borough of Sherbrooke, Canada. It is one of three universities in the province of Quebec that teach in English; the university shares a campus with its neighbour, Champlain College Lennoxville, an English-language public college. It remains one of Canada's few undergraduate universities, is linked with three others in the Maple League. Established in 1843 as Bishop's College and affiliated with the University of Oxford and the University of Cambridge in 1853, the school remained under the Anglican church's direction from its founding until 1947. Since that time, the university has been a non-denominational institution. Bishop's University has graduated fifteen Rhodes Scholars, it is ranked number one in Canada for student satisfaction by Maclean's magazine. Bishop's College was established by Bishop George Jehoshaphat Mountain on December 9, 1843, in Lennoxville, for the education of members of the Church of England and erected into a university in 1853.
The school was founded by Bishop Mountain, the third Anglican bishop of Quebec, as a liberal arts college. In 1845, instruction began, in 1854, the first degrees were granted. In 1845, the Reverend Jasper Hume Nicolls, a Fellow of Queen's College, Oxford was appointed first principal of Bishop's College. In 1853, he and Bishop Mountain obtained the Royal Charter through which the college became a university, he led Bishop's for 32 years, through several financial crises. A faculty of medicine, known as Bishop's Medical Faculty, was established in Montreal in 1871, closed in 1905 when it amalgamated with McGill University. A short-lived Faculty of Law was established in Sherbrooke in 1880, to close in 1888, it granted only fifteen degrees. The Church of England controlled the university until 1947. Since 1947, a corporation and appointed trustees have been responsible for its business affairs, a senate has dealt with academic matters; this bicameral model of governance was based on the 1906 provincial University of Toronto Act, which established a system dividing university government into a senate to set academic policy, a board of governors to oversee financial policy and other matters.
The president, appointed by the board, was to perform institutional leadership and provide a link between the senate and the board of governors. In the early part of the twentieth century, professional education expanded beyond the traditional fields of theology and medicine, while graduate training based on the German-inspired American model of specialized course work and the completion of a research thesis was introduced; the policy of university education initiated in the 1960s responded to population pressure and the belief that higher education was a key to social justice and economic productivity for individuals and for society. On December 9, 1993, a Sesquicentennial Convocation was held in Centennial Theatre. Governor General of Canada Ray Hnatyshyn presented the Coat of Arms and Flag and signed and presented the Letters Patent of Bishop's University. Undergraduate, Bishop's University offers graduate courses and M. A. and M. Ed. degrees in education and M. Sc. in computer science and physics.
Bishop's offers several programs from five academic divisions: Each division seeks to provide a well-rounded education for all its students. The average class size as of fall 2-17 was 34.7 in first- and second-year courses and 18.9 in upper-year courses. In 2004, Bishop's joined the Université de Sherbrooke in creating SIXtron, a joint spin-off of technology based in Montreal, focused on developing scalable and cost-effective, amorphous silicon carbide -based thin film coatings for the solar industry. In 2009, the Psychological Health and Well-Being Laboratory was founded as an initiative to produce and share knowledge regarding how to enhance the psychological health and well-being of individuals and the communities that they live in; the research cluster is headed by Dr. Heather Lawford, it is one of the others examining Social and Cultural Identities. As of 2018, Bishop's has a total of 2,867 students; the student body represents every Canadian province and territory along with 18 U. S. states and more than 50 countries.
The Williams School of Business is the business school at Bishop's University. It is accredited under the Network of International Business Schools and claims multiple first place victories in international business case competitions, it offers courses through a bachelor of business administration or bachelor of arts major in business. A cooperative education program is offered. 22% of Bishop's University students are enrolled in the Williams School of Business. The Williams School of Business offers the following concentrations under the BBA: The Bishop's campus is located on 500 acres of land at the junction of the Saint Francis and Massawippi rivers in the Eastern Townships region of Quebec; the site of Bishop's College, a grassy knoll at the confluence of two rivers, provided a natural setting where architecture would be viewed as an integral but subsidiary part of the scenic vista. Known as'Oxford on the Massawippi' for its architectural style, the campus is influenced by the Gothic Revival period and is home to some of Quebec's most historic buildings, including St. Mark's chapel.
Construction on campus began with "Old Arts" in 1846 and continues today with the University's most recent building, the Library Learning Commons, in 2017. The campus provided the setting for the films Lost and Delirious and The
Football Canada is the governing body for amateur Canadian football. It is Canada's representative member of the International Federation of American Football, the world's governing body for American football, although it focuses on the Canadian form of the game. Football Canada is headquartered in Ontario; the organization now known as Football Canada was founded on June 12, 1880 as the Canadian Rugby Football Union, revived on February 7, 1884 and re-organized as the Canadian Rugby Union on December 19, 1891. The CRU was founded to govern a sport which at the time had rules similar to the rugby football being played in the United Kingdom. In 1909, Albert Grey, 4th Earl Grey Governor General of Canada, donated a trophy to the CRU to be awarded for the Rugby Football Championship of Canada; this trophy became known as the Grey Cup. By this time however, the rules being played in Canada were vastly different from the rules used in countries that were part of the International Rugby Board. In the years that followed, the CRU made numerous rule changes that resulted in a game reasonably similar to the American one, but unrecognizable to a rugby union enthusiast.
Despite the divergence, the sport continued to be referred to as rugby for many years, the CRU did not change its name despite the obvious confusion. By the 1940s, another development was to cause further changes to the CRU's mandate, it was now clear that two of its member leagues, the Interprovincial Rugby Football Union in eastern Canada and the Western Interprovincial Football Union in the West were far more competitive than other circuits. By the 1950s, the two major unions had become professional, in 1956 formed the Canadian Football Council as an umbrella organization. In 1958, the CFC seceded from the CRU and became the Canadian Football League, which assumed control of the Grey Cup; as an organization with no direct jurisdiction over the professional clubs and having become a distinct sport from rugby union by this time, the CRU changed its name to the Canadian Amateur Football Association in 1967. The CAFA changed its name again, to Football Canada in 1986. In French, its name had long been Football Canada.
As of 2005 Football Canada is responsible for running amateur football in Canada, including the national amateur football championships. It is trying to foster closer working relationships with both the CFL and the National Football League. British Columbia Provincial Football Association Football Alberta Football Saskatchewan Football Manitoba Ontario Football Alliance Football Quebec Football New Brunswick Football Prince Edward Island Football Newfoundland and Labrador Football Canada Cup Flag Football National Championships 6 Nations Challenge Women's Challenge Cup Men's Junior National Team Senior National Team Senior Flag Football National TeamWomen's Women's National Team Senior Flag Football National Team First played in 2014, the annual International Bowl series is a collaboration between Football Canada and USA Football featuring a series of exhibition games between the rival football nations in Texas in January and February; the event built on the previous International Bowl format of Team Team World.
Canada's under-18 team for the International Bowl is selected from the top players and coaches at the prior summer's Football Canada Cup. Football Canada offers coaches training through the National Coaching Certification Program for flag and tackle football. NCCP Streams Community Sport Competition-Introduction Competition-Development As part of its NCCP program, Football Canada's Safe Contact module teaches Safe Contact Tackling and Blocking as well as concussion education. In 2014, the organization partnered with the Canadian Football League to further refine the program; these are the CRU champions before the dedication of the Grey Cup. 1892 – Osgoode Hall defeated Montreal 1893 – Queen's University defeated Montreal 1894 – Ottawa University defeated Queen's University 1895 – Toronto University defeated Montreal 1896 – Ottawa University defeated Toronto University 1897 – Ottawa University defeated Hamilton 1898 – Ottawa defeated Toronto University, Ottawa defeated Ottawa University 1899 – No game.
1900 – Ottawa defeated Brockville 1901 – Ottawa University defeated Argonauts 1902 – Ottawa defeated Ottawa University 1903 – No game. 1904 – No game. 1905 – Toronto University defeated Ottawa 1906 – Hamilton defeated McGill University 1907 – Montreal defeated Peterborough 1908 – Hamilton defeated Toronto University The 1909 game was the first game for the Grey Cup. See the article'List of Grey Cup champions' for the complete Grey Cup listing. Source: Ottawa Citizen, November 28, 1910, page 8. Canadian Football U Sports football U Sports Canadian Colleges Athletic Association Canadian Junior Football League Quebec Junior Football League Rugby Canada Canadian Football League Comparison of Canadian and American football Official website
Ottawa Rough Riders
The Ottawa Rough Riders were a Canadian Football League team based in Ottawa, founded in 1876. One of the oldest and longest lived professional sports teams in North America, the Rough Riders won the Grey Cup championship nine times, their most dominant era was a period in which they won five Grey Cups. The team's fortunes waned in the 1980s and 1990s and they ceased operations following the 1996 season. Five years a new CFL team known as the Ottawa Renegades was founded, though they suspended operations in 2006; the Ottawa Redblacks, who own the Rough Riders intellectual properties, joined the league in 2014. Founded: 1876 Folded: 1996 Formerly known as: Ottawa Football Club, Ottawa Rough Riders, Ottawa Senators. Nickname: The Red and Black Home stadium: Frank Clair Stadium called Lansdowne Park until 1993 Uniform colours: Red and white Helmet design: Black background with a face of a Rough Rider with a log driver's pike in the background. Ontario Rugby Football Union regular season championships: 3 — 1898, 1900, 1902 Quebec Rugby Football Union regular season championships: 1 — 1905 Eastern regular season championships: 19 — 1908, 1925, 1926, 1938, 1939, 1940, 1941, 1945, 1947, 1948, 1949, 1951, 1966, 1968, 1969, 1973, 1975, 1976, 1978 Canadian Dominion Football Championship appearances: 4 — 1898, 1900, 1902, 1905 Grey Cup finals appearances: 15 — 1925, 1926, 1936, 1939, 1940, 1941, 1948, 1951, 1960, 1966, 1968, 1969, 1973, 1976, 1981 The Ottawa Football Club was organized on Wednesday, September 20, 1876 where they won the first game they played on September 23 against the Aylmer Club at Jacques-Cartier Square.
The team's colours were cerise and navy blue. The club adopted the name Ottawa Rough Riders on Friday, September 9, 1898 and changed its team colours to red and black. Since red and black have been Ottawa's traditional sporting colours. Although in years the name was said to derive from logging, the team based its colours on Teddy Roosevelt's regiment in the Spanish–American War, with the date of the renaming, suggests that the name comes from the war; the team changed its nickname to Ottawa Senators from 1925 to 1930. Ottawa's first Canadian championship came in 1898; the Ottawa Football Club transferred from the Quebec Union to the Ontario League that season. The Riders defeated the Hamilton Tigers 15–8 for the Ontario championship defeated Toronto Varsity, the Intercollegiate champions 7–3 and defeated Ottawa College 11–1 to win the Canadian championship. In those days, Ottawa athletes played in multiple sports and the Riders had athletes famous in other sports, such as Harvey Pulford and Frank McGee.
The Riders and Ottawa College were the Canadian champions for the next several years, with the Riders defeating Brockville 17–10 in 1900, defeating Ottawa College 5–0 in 1902, College being the 1901 Canadian champions. The Riders moved back to the Quebec Union, winning the 1903 Quebec championship, in a year where there was no playoff for the Canadian title. In 1905, Ottawa won the Quebec title, only to lose to the Toronto Varsity team 11–9 in the Canadian championship; the club absorbed the Ottawa St. Pats when the Riders helped found the Interprovincial Rugby Football Union in 1907; the Riders would win the IRFU championship in 1909 over the Hamilton Tigers, but lost in the Canadian final in Toronto to Toronto Varsity. The Riders declined and became uncompetitive during the 1910s, attributed to the First World War, the lure of salaries in professional ice hockey meaning athletes chose hockey over football in Ottawa. During the decline of the Riders, another Ottawa team, Ottawa St. Brigids, was on an ascent.
St. Brigids, which played in the Ottawa City league, the Ontario league, was developing top talent. In 1923, St. Brigids and the Riders merged, with St. Brigids manager Jim McCaffery becoming the manager of the Riders. McCaffery would be a member of the Riders executive for several decades; the team won a time when they were known as the Ottawa Senators. In 1925, Ottawa defeated three-time defending champion. Ottawa defeated Winnipeg 24–1 in the championship, held in Ottawa, defeated Toronto Varsity 10–7 in Toronto in 1926; the team was led by top players such as Eddie Emerson, Joe Tubman, Joe Miller, Jess Ketchum, Jack Pritchard, Harold Starr and Don Young. The Riders went back into a decline after the championships. Again, another Ottawa team, the Ottawa Rangers, was developing talent and enjoying success, winning the Quebec title; the Riders absorbed the Rangers in 1933, getting Rangers stars Andy Tommy, Arnie Morrison and "Fat Quinn'. That same year the Riders added more talent, bringing in American imports "Windy" O'Neil and Lorne Johnson.
In 1935, the Riders added Roy Berry, who would be mysterious about his origins. The Riders defeated the Toronto Argonauts in the final two games of the Big Four schedule to deny Toronto the Big Four championship, the Argonauts protested that Berry was not who he said he was. In fact, it turned out that Berry was Bohn Hilliard who had played professional baseball, making him ineligible for Canadian football, he had kept his identity a secret from Ottawa officials. In 1936, the Riders won the Big Four title defeating the Hamilton Tigers 3–2; the team progressed to the Eastern final against the Sarnia Imperials. The Imperials won the game 26–20 in a frozen battle held at Toronto's Varsity Stadium. Since there was no western challenge that year, the Imperials became Canadian champions; the highlight of Rough R
Toronto Football Club referred to as Toronto FC, is a Canadian professional soccer team based in Toronto, Ontario. The team competes in Major League Soccer as a member of the Eastern Conference; the team plays. Toronto FC joined MLS in 2007 as an expansion team and was the first Canadian-based franchise in the league; the team is coached by Greg Vanney and operated by Maple Leaf Sports & Entertainment, which operates the USL League One affiliate team Toronto FC II, the Toronto Maple Leafs, the Toronto Raptors, the Toronto Argonauts, other teams. In 2017, Toronto FC won the domestic treble with the MLS Cup, Supporters' Shield and Canadian Championship, they are seven-time winners of the Canadian Championship and were runners-up of the 2018 CONCACAF Champions League. MLS awarded Toronto an expansion team in 2005. Maple Leaf Sports & Entertainment paid $10 million for the team; the name of the team was announced on May 11, 2006. The announcement followed an online consultation in which the public was invited to vote on the name during a limited period.
The voting options were "Toronto Northmen", "Inter Toronto FC", "Toronto Reds", "Toronto FC". MLSE's strategy in choosing "Toronto FC" following this process was based on two reasons. Firstly, over 40 percent of the online vote supported the simple Toronto FC name during the consultation; the team has been called "TFC" and "the Reds" by the team. The "FC" in the team's name became the conventional initialism for football teams. Despite a long scoreless streak to start the team's history, Toronto FC began to establish itself as a team with significant fan support; the team's first win came on May 12, 2007 at BMO Field as Danny Dichio scored the team's first goal in the 24th minute of a 3–1 home win over the Chicago Fire. Though TFC slipped to the bottom of the MLS standings with a record of 6–17–7, the team built a foundation as the first Canadian team in MLS. In the team's second season in 2008, Toronto hosted the 2008 MLS All-Star Game; the team finished last in the Eastern Conference with a record of 9–13–8, but the enthusiastic fan base continued to fill BMO Field to capacity.
To determine the Canadian Soccer Association's representative in the CONCACAF Champions League, Toronto FC played in the inaugural Canadian Championship in 2008 competing for the Voyageurs Cup. TFC were the favourites to win the championship in its first year, but the Montreal Impact prevailed; the last-place New York Red Bulls defeated Toronto FC 5–0 in the final 2009 regular season game, leaving TFC one point out of the playoffs. Despite bringing in some high-profile talent, the Reds could not seem to field a consistent side. Dwayne De Rosario became an immediate scoring influence and Amado Guevara was a strong playmaker and established MLS veteran, but the Honduran's future at the Canadian team seemed murky with looming 2010 FIFA World Cup duties. Rookie goalkeeper Stefan Frei replaced Greg Sutton as a regular starter and became a fan favourite. TFC only scored two goals in the final 15 minutes of games all season. During the same 15-minute period, they gave up 16 goals, thus creating a −14 goal differential during the final 15 minutes.
In the 2009 Canadian Championship, Toronto FC required a four-goal victory over the Montreal Impact in the final game of the competition to nullify the Vancouver Whitecaps' +4 goal differential. Anything less would result in Vancouver winning the championship. Toronto FC went down 1–0 early, but overwhelmed an under-strength Impact side 6–1 on the back of a hat-trick by De Rosario. Guevara added scoring in the 69th and 92nd minute. Chad Barrett scored the decisive goal in the 82nd minute; the unlikely victory was dubbed by fans and media as the "Miracle in Montreal". Toronto FC subsequently participated in the 2009–10 CONCACAF Champions League, but lost 1–0 on aggregate to the Puerto Rico Islanders in the preliminary round of the tournament. After failing to qualify on the final day of the 2009 campaign, Maple Leaf Sports & Entertainment said anything short of a playoff spot in 2010 would be unacceptable. With that directive, former director of soccer Mo Johnston hired Preki and made wholesale changes to the roster to reflect the U.
S. Hall of Famer's plan to play a tough, defensive style. Despite scoring troubles, TFC played well at the start; the team struggled following the World Cup break. Sensing problems in the locker room and to try to salvage the season, MLSE dismissed both Johnston and Preki on September 14, naming Earl Cochrane interim director of soccer and Nick Dasovic interim coach; the players responded to Dasovic's more open flexible style, but it was not enough as the team was eliminated from playoff contention with three games left in the season. Off-field issues with season-seat holders over the 2011 season ticket package added to the fans' frustrations, forcing MLSE to hold a series of town hall meetings. Toronto FC played Honduran side C. D. Motagua in the preliminary round of the 2010–11 CONCACAF Champions League. TFC won 1–0 in the first leg on a goal by Chad Barrett, tied 2–2 in the second leg on goals by De Rosario and Barrett, qualifying for the group stage. Toronto FC won their first group stage match 2–1 against Mexican side Cruz Azul on August 17, 2010.
However, the team failed to qualify for the championship round after finishing in third place behind group winners Real Salt Lake and second place Cruz Azul. On November 3, 2010, MLSE announced the hiring of former