Politics of Canada
The politics of Canada function within a framework of parliamentary democracy and a federal system of parliamentary government with strong democratic traditions. Canada is a monarchy, in which the Monarch is head of state. The country has a multi-party system in many of its legislative practices derive from the unwritten conventions of. Such members, in the government caucus, and junior or lower-profile members of opposition caucuses, are known as backbenchers, backbenchers can, exert their influence by sitting in parliamentary committees, like the Public Accounts Committee or the National-Defence Committee. Smaller parties like the Quebec nationalist Bloc Québécois, and the Green Party of Canada have been able to exert their own influence over the political process, far-right politics has never been a prominent force in Canadian society. Thus in 1931, the British Parliament passed the Statute of Westminster, giving recognition to the autonomy of Canada. Similarly, the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council in Britain continued to make the decision on criminal appeals until 1933.
Name Canada Type of government Westminster style federal parliamentary democracy within a constitutional monarchy, National holiday Canada Day, July 1. Constitution Westminster system, based on unwritten conventions and written legislation, suffrage Citizens aged 18 years or older. Only two adult citizens in Canada cannot vote, the Chief Electoral Officer, and the Deputy Chief Electoral Officer, the Governor General is eligible to vote, but abstains due to constitutional convention. Citizens residing outside of Canada for a greater than 5 years are excluded from voting beginning 2015. Description of national flag A red maple leaf centred on a Canadian pale, head of state Elizabeth II, Queen of Canada. Viceroy David Lloyd Johnston, Governor General of Canada, head of government Prime Minister Justin Trudeau. Cabinet Ministers chosen by the Prime Minister and appointed by the Governor General to lead various ministries and agencies, the Governor General is appointed by the monarch on the advice of the Prime Minister for a non-specific term, though it is traditionally approximately five years.
Following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party in the House of Commons is usually designated by the Governor General to become Prime Minister, the bicameral Parliament of Canada consists of three parts, the monarch, the Senate, and the House of Commons. Currently, the Senate, which is described as providing regional representation, has 105 members appointed by the Governor General on the advice of the Prime Minister to serve until age 75. It was created with equal representation from each of Ontario, the Maritime region, however, it is currently the product of various specific exceptions and compromises, meaning that regional equality is not observed, nor is representation-by-population. The normal number of senators can be exceeded by the monarch on the advice of the Prime Minister, the House of Commons currently has 338 members elected in single-member districts in a plurality voting system, meaning that members must attain only a plurality rather than a majority
Quebec is the second-most populous province of Canada and the only one to have a predominantly French-speaking population, with French as the sole provincial official language. Quebec is Canadas largest province by area and its second-largest administrative division and it shares maritime borders with Nunavut, Prince Edward Island, and Nova Scotia. Quebec is Canadas second-most populous province, after Ontario, most inhabitants live in urban areas near the Saint Lawrence River between Montreal and Quebec City, the capital. Approximately half of Quebec residents live in the Greater Montreal Area, the Nord-du-Québec region, occupying the northern half of the province, is sparsely populated and inhabited primarily by Aboriginal peoples. Even in central Quebec at comparatively southerly latitudes winters are severe in inland areas, Quebec independence debates have played a large role in the politics of the province. Parti Québécois governments held referendums on sovereignty in 1980 and 1995, in 2006, the House of Commons of Canada passed a symbolic motion recognizing the Québécois as a nation within a united Canada.
These many industries have all contributed to helping Quebec become an economically influential province within Canada, early variations in the spelling of the name included Québecq and Kébec. French explorer Samuel de Champlain chose the name Québec in 1608 for the colonial outpost he would use as the seat for the French colony of New France. The province is sometimes referred to as La belle province, the Province of Quebec was founded in the Royal Proclamation of 1763 after the Treaty of Paris formally transferred the French colony of Canada to Britain after the Seven Years War. The proclamation restricted the province to an area along the banks of the Saint Lawrence River, the Treaty of Versailles ceded territories south of the Great Lakes to the United States. After the Constitutional Act of 1791, the territory was divided between Lower Canada and Upper Canada, with each being granted an elected legislative assembly, in 1840, these become Canada East and Canada West after the British Parliament unified Upper and Lower Canada into the Province of Canada.
This territory was redivided into the Provinces of Quebec and Ontario at Confederation in 1867, each became one of the first four provinces. In 1898, the Canadian Parliament passed the first Quebec Boundary Extension Act that expanded the provincial boundaries northward to include the lands of the aboriginal peoples. This was followed by the addition of the District of Ungava through the Quebec Boundaries Extension Act of 1912 that added the northernmost lands of the Inuit to create the modern Province of Quebec. In 1927, the border between Quebec and Newfoundland and Labrador was established by the British Judicial Committee of the Privy Council. Located in the part of Canada, and part of Central Canada. Its topography is very different from one region to another due to the composition of the ground, the climate. The Saint Lawrence Lowland and the Canadian Shield are the two main regions, and are radically different
Papineau (electoral district)
Papineau is a federal electoral district in Montreal, Canada, that has been represented in the House of Commons of Canada from 1948 to 1988 and since 2004. Its population in 2006 was 101,019, justin Trudeau, who is currently Prime Minister of Canada and Leader of the Liberal Party, has represented the riding since the 2008 federal election. The name of the riding comes from a street in the Villeray neighbourhood, at nine square kilometres, it covers the second smallest area of any federal riding in Canada, after Toronto Centre. Linguistically, 45% of residents list French as their mother tongue, 8% list English, the total immigrant population is 40 per cent. The district includes the neighbourhoods of Villeray and Park Extension, the southeast corner of the riding borders the Outremont riding, which is held by Tom Mulcair, the leader of the New Democratic Party. Papineau, despite its size, is a very divided riding. The riding spans the former linguistic divide of the city, Saint Laurent Boulevard, south of the riding is the neighbourhood of Park Extension, which is very Liberal.
The central part of the riding, around Villeray, was Bloc Québécois territory for almost two decades before swinging heavily to the NDP in the 2011 federal election, and François-Perreault district, in the south of Saint-Michel, is considered as swing territory between the Liberals and the NDP. The district of Saint-Michel, which is part of neighbouring Saint-Léonard—Saint-Michel riding to the northeast of Papineau, except for the years 2006 to 2008, when it was held by Vivian Barbot of the Bloc, the seat has been in Liberal hands since 1953. The electoral district of Papineau was created in 1947 from parts of the Hochelaga, Mercier, St. James, the riding was abolished in 1987 when it was redistributed between the Papineau—Saint-Michel and Saint-Denis ridings. In 2003, a new Papineau riding was created from parts of the Papineau—Saint-Michel riding and this riding gained territory from Outremont and Saint-Léonard—Saint-Michel during the 2012 electoral redistribution. This riding has elected the following Members of Parliament, Note, Social Credit vote is compared to Ralliement créditiste vote in the 1968 election.
Note, Ralliement créditiste vote is compared to Social Credit vote in the 1963 election, Note, NDP vote is compared to CCF vote in 1958 election. List of Canadian federal electoral districts Past Canadian electoral districts Census Profile, Riding history 1948-1988 from the Library of Parliament Riding history 2004-present from the Library of Parliament 2011 Results from Elections Canada Campaign expense data from Elections Canada
Martin Cauchon, PC is a Canadian lawyer and politician in Quebec Canada. He is a former Liberal Cabinet Minister in the government of Jean Chrétien, Cauchon was born in La Malbaie and studied law at the University of Ottawa and the University of Exeter. He worked as a lawyer from 1985 to 1993, and from 2004 to present, Cauchon is currently a partner with the law firm of Heenan Blaikie, a major inter-provincial Canadian law firm. He is a Vice-Chairman of the Canada China Business Council and he unsuccessfully ran for the leadership of the Liberal Party of Canada in 2013. Cauchon first ran for office in the 1988 federal election when he challenged Prime Minister Brian Mulroney in the riding of Charlevoix. In the 1993 federal election Cauchon once again sought a seat in the Canadian House of Commons, in this election he was elected in the Montreal riding of Outremont, he was re-elected in the 1997 and 2000 elections. Cauchon was appointed Secretary of State for the Federal Office of Regional Development - Quebec by Prime Minister Jean Chrétien in 1996 and he became a full cabinet minister in 1999 when he was given the position of Minister of National Revenue.
On January 15,2002, he became Minister of Justice, as justice minister, Cauchon argued in cabinet in favour of same-sex marriage and the decriminalization of marijuana. Liberal leader Michael Ignatieff originally sided with Coderre in opposing Cauchon return, the controversy over the nomination led to Coderres resignation as the Liberals Quebec Lieutenant and Defence Critic, saying he no longer had the moral authority to continue. In the federal election held on May 2,2011, Cauchon was unsuccessful in his bid to unseat Mulcair. The NDPs support in Quebec, and throughout most of Canada, had surged in the weeks of the campaign, at the expense of the Liberals. The NDP won 59 seats in Quebec and replaced the Liberals as the Official Opposition in the House of Commons, Ignatieff had failed in his bid to win re-election and resigned as party leader days later. Cauchon was a Chrétien loyalist and opposed Paul Martins attempt to force Chrétien to retire, when Chrétien announced his resignation, Cauchon was touted as a possible candidate to succeed him but did not end up running in the 2003 leadership election.
Cauchon refused to back Martins leadership bid, and decided to support John Manley, Martin was elected leader and did not include Cauchon in his cabinet. Following this he announced he would not seek re-election in the 2004 federal election, Cauchon was considered a potential candidate in both the 2006 and 2009 Liberal leadership elections, however in both cases he announced he would not run. In 2006, he endorsed former Ontario Premier Bob Rae who placed third, at the Liberal Partys 2012 biennial convention, Cauchon hosted a hospitality suite leading to speculation that he was interested in running for leader in the 2013 leadership election. In December 2012, it was reported that Cauchon was planning an entry into the race after some Liberals feared the top tier of contenders were supporting right-wing policies. On the last weekend before the cutoff on January 14,2013
Montreal West, Quebec
Montreal West is an on-island suburb in southwestern Quebec, Canada on the Island of Montreal. Montreal West is a small, close-knit community made up primarily of single-family dwellings, the town is largely composed of young families, and has a population of 5,184, as of the 2006 census. The towns area is 1.6 km², about 66% of the population of Montreal West speak English as their first language. The core business area of Montreal West is located on Westminster Avenue between Milner and Curzon, following a change of government and a 2004 referendum in which the population voted to de-merge by a wide margin, Montreal West was reconstituted as an independent city on January 1,2006. The Town of Montreal West is served by its mayor, Beny Masella, the towns various codes and ordinances are upheld by its Public Security Department, consisting of a Lieutenant with a team of By-Law Enforcement Constables under his supervision. 1897 - William Smithson Lingley 1898 - Charles McClatchie 1899 - B. W, grigg 1900 - J. J.
Kirkpatrick 1901 - Walter C. Flyfe 1902 - Edward J. Bedbrook 1903 - C. C, the riding is known as Notre-Dame-de-Grâce—Westmount and its Member of Parliament is Liberal Marc Garneau. Provincially, Montreal West again shares a riding with Notre-Dame-de-Grâce, the riding is known as Notre-Dame-de-Grâce and its Member of National Assembly is Liberal Kathleen Weil. Montreal West is notable for having Quebecs highest rated Anglophone public high school and it has two Anglophone elementary schools, Elizabeth Ballantyne Elementary School and Edinburgh Elementary School which offers French immersion. These schools are part of the English Montreal School Board, the town has a public childrens library located in Elizabeth Ballantyne school. A library for all age groups is located on Westminster Avenue, Montreal West is serviced by six Société de transport de Montréal bus lines. Each of these connects to a corresponding Montreal Metro station, the Montréal-Ouest Train Station services the area. Trains that run through this station connect passengers to downtown Montreal on one end, bus routes servicing Montreal-West, Montreal West includes three medium-sized churches.
One is United, one is Anglican, and the final is Presbyterian, the Montreal West United Church rents space to a Pentecostal service. Canada Day is the largest community event of the year in Montreal West, residents organize a parade route that mainly runs down the main street of Westminster and ends at Strathern Park. Floats represented in the parade include organizations and clubs located in town, in some years, there have been water fights between sidelined residents and members of the parade. Water fights during these years have seen water balloons and super soaker water guns, organizers have tried to minimize these activities in recent years so as not to detract from the parade itself, with varying success. Following the parade, residents converge on Strathern Park for a giant picnic/BBQ, many childrens games and activities go on at the park, as well as in the nearby Percival park
For others with the same name, see Jean Marchand Jean Marchand, PC, CC was a well-known French Canadian public figure, trade unionist and politician in Quebec, Canada. During the 1949 Asbestos Strike in Quebec, Marchand led the workers as secretary of the Catholic Workers Confederation of Canada. It was during this time that he met Pierre Trudeau, Marchand was approached to be a Liberal candidate in the federal election of 1963, but disagreements scuttled a run that year. In the 1965 federal election, Marchand along with Gérard Pelletier, dubbed the Three Wise Men in English, and les trois colombes in French, they were seen as destined to shake Canadian politics. Trudeau and Pelletier were provided safe ridings in Montreal while Marchand won a fight in Quebec City for his riding. Marchand was given a post in the government of Prime Minister Lester B. Pearson promptly after winning the election, after Charles de Gaulles infamous cry of Vive le Québec Libre, the Cabinet met to decide the response.
The French-speaking ministers, led by Jean Marchand, wanted Prime Minister Lester B. Pearson to tell de Gaulle to go home, the English-speaking ministers, on the other hand, did not want to go that far, a public rebuke was sufficient. When Pearson retired in 1968, Marchand was seen as the most likely and strongest Quebec candidate to him as Liberal leader. However, he declined, claiming that his English was not good enough and it fell upon Trudeau to make a credible run by a French Canadian for the leadership of the Liberal party. Trudeau won the Liberal leadership and the 1968 federal election, in the Trudeau government, Marchand held a variety of posts. In October 1976, he resigned his seat in the House of Commons over a disagreement with the government position regarding the use of French language by air traffic controllers in Quebec. One month after his defeat, Marchand was appointed to the Senate by Trudeau and he resigned from the upper house in December 1983 in order to accept an appointment as president of the Canadian Transport Commission.
Marchand was appointed a Companion of the Order of Canada in 1986, under Pearson he was appointed Minister of Citizenship and Immigration, and of Manpower and Immigration by Prime Minister Pearson. Under Trudeau he held many senior portfolios, Jean Marchand – Parliament of Canada biography Order of Canada Citation
Laval is a Canadian city in southwestern Quebec, north of Montreal. It forms its own region of Quebec. It is the largest suburb of Montreal, the third largest municipality in the province of Quebec, Laval is geographically separated from the mainland to the north by the Rivière des Mille Îles, and from the Island of Montreal to the south by the Rivière des Prairies. Laval occupies all of Île Jésus as well as the Îles Laval, Laval constitutes region 13 of the 17 administrative regions of Quebec as well as a territory equivalent to a regional county municipality and census division with geographical code 65. It constitutes the judicial district of Laval, the first European Settlers were Jesuits in 1636 when they were granted a seigneury there. Agriculture first appeared in Laval in 1670, in 1675, François de Montmorency-Laval gained control of the seigneury. In 1702 a parish municipality was founded, and dedicated to Saint-François de Sales, beginning in 1845, after nearly 200 years of a rural nature, additional municipalities were created.
The only built-up area on the island, Sainte-Rose, was incorporated as a village in 1850, with the dawn of the 20th century came urbanization. Laval-des-Rapides became Lavals first city in 1912, followed by LAbord-à-Plouffe being granted village status three years later, laval-sur-le-Lac was founded in the same year on its tourist-based economy from Montrealers. Laval began to grow throughout the years, due to its proximity to Montreal that made it an ideal suburb. To deal with problems caused by urbanization, amalgamations occurred, LAbord-à-Plouffe amalgamated with Renaud, Laval was named after the first owner of Île Jésus, François de Montmorency-Laval, the first Roman Catholic Bishop of Quebec. At the time, Laval had a population of 170,000, Laval became a Regional County Municipality in 1980. Prior to that, it was the County of Laval, according to the 2011 Census of Canada, the population of Laval was an estimated 401,553, an 8.9 percent increase from the earlier census in 2006. Women constitute 51. 5% of the total population, children under 14 years of age total 17. 3%, while those of retirement age number 15. 6% resulting in a median age of 40.9 years.
The 2011 census found that French was the mother tongue of 60. 8% of the population. The next most common mother tongues were English, Italian, Spanish, Creoles, the citys longtime mayor, Gilles Vaillancourt, resigned on 9 November 2012, following allegations of corruption made against him in hearings of the provincial Charbonneau Commission. City councillor Basile Angelopoulos served as acting mayor until Alexandre Duplessis was selected in a vote on 23 November. Florent Gagné, a head of the Sûreté du Québec, will serve as the citys head trustee