In the United Kingdom and in some Commonwealth countries, a Queen's Counsel during the reign of a queen, or King's Counsel during the reign of a king, is a lawyer, appointed by the monarch of the country to be one of "Her Majesty's Counsel learned in the law". The position originated in England; some Commonwealth countries have either abolished the position, or re-named it so as to remove monarchical connotations, for example, "Senior Counsel" or "Senior Advocate". Queen's Counsel is an office, conferred by the Crown, recognised by courts. Members have the privilege of sitting within the bar of court; the term is recognised as an honorific. As members wear silk gowns of a particular design, appointment as Queen's Counsel is known informally as taking silk and QCs are colloquially called silks. Appointments are made from within the legal profession on the basis of merit rather than a particular level of experience. However, successful applicants tend to be barristers, or advocates with 15 years of experience or more.
The Attorney General, Solicitor-General and King's Serjeants were King's Counsel in Ordinary in the Kingdom of England. The first Queen's Counsel Extraordinary was Sir Francis Bacon, given a patent giving him precedence at the Bar in 1597, formally styled King's Counsel in 1603; the new rank of King's Counsel contributed to the gradual obsolescence of the more senior serjeant-at-law by superseding it. The Attorney-General and Solicitor-General had succeeded the King's Serjeants as leaders of the Bar in Tudor times, though not technically senior until 1623 and 1813, respectively, but the King's Counsel emerged into eminence only in the early 1830s, prior to when they were few in number. It became the standard means to recognise a barrister as a senior member of the profession, the numbers multiplied accordingly, it became of greater professional importance to become a KC, the serjeants declined. The KCs inherited the prestige of their priority before the courts; the earliest English law list, published in 1775, lists 165 members of the Bar, of whom 14 were King's Counsel, a proportion of about 8.5%.
As of 2010 the same proportion existed, though the number of barristers had increased to about 12,250 in independent practice. In 1839 the number of Queen's Counsel was seventy. In 1882, the number of Queen's Counsel was 187; the list of Queen's Counsel in the Law List of 1897 gave the names of 238, of whom hardly one third appeared to be in actual practice. In 1959, the number of practising Queen's Counsel was 181. In each of the five years up to 1970, the number of practising Queen's Counsel was 208, 209, 221, 236 and 262, respectively. In each of the years 1973 to 1978, the number of practising Queen's Counsel was 329, 345, 370, 372, 384 and 404, respectively. In 1989, the number of practising Queen's Counsel was 601. In each of the years 1991 to 2000, the number of practising Queen's Counsel was 736, 760, 797, 845, 891, 925, 974, 1006, 1043, 1072, respectively; the title traditionally depends on the gender of the sovereign. The current Queen, Elizabeth II, has had a long reign, it is unlikely that many lawyers appointed as King's Counsel more than 67 years ago survive today.
Queen's Counsel and serjeants were prohibited, at least from the mid-nineteenth century onward, from drafting pleadings alone. They were not permitted to appear in court without a junior barrister, they had to have chambers in London. From the beginning, they were not allowed to appear against the Crown without a special licence, but this was given as a formality; this stipulation was important in criminal cases, which are brought in the name of the Crown. The result was that, until 1920 in England and Wales, King's and Queen's Counsel had to have a licence to appear in criminal cases for the defence; these restrictions had a number of consequences: they made the taking of "silk" something of a professional risk, because the appointment abolished at a stroke some of the staple work of the junior barrister. By the end of the twentieth century, all of these rules had been abolished one by one. Appointment as QC is now a matter of prestige only, with no formal disadvantages. Queen's Counsel were traditionally selected from barristers, rather than from lawyers in general, because they were counsel appointed to conduct court work on behalf of the Crown.
Although the limitations on private instruction were relaxed, QCs continued to be selected from barristers, who had the sole right of audience in the higher courts. The first woman appointed King's Counsel was Helen Kinnear in Canada in 1934; the first women to be appointed as King's Counsel in the England were Helena Normanton and Rose Heilbron in 1949. They were preceded by Margaret Kidd KC appointed a KC on Scotland in 1948. In 1994 solicitors of England and Wales became entitled to gain rights of audience in the higher courts, some 275 were so entitled in 1995. In 1995, these solicitors alone became entitled to apply for appointment as Queen's Counsel, the first two solicitors were appointed on 27 March 1997, out of 68 new QCs; these were Arthur Marriott, partner of the London office of the American law firm of Wilmer Cutler and Pickering based in
Nordre Frihavnsgade is a street in the Østerbro district of Copenhagen, linking the junction Trianglen in the southwest with Østbanegade In the northeast. The street passes the two small squares Victor Borges Plads and Melchiors Plads. An underpass under the raised railway tracks at the end of the street provides access to Nordhavn's Århusgade neighbourhood. Nordre Frihavnsgade is one of Copenhagen's most popular shopping- and café streets with many food and antique stores. Many urban "Hipster"-shops can be found on the street as well, including many restaurants. Famous buildings on the street include Ingrid Jespersens Gymnasieskole, a private school located near the Trianglen-end of the street; the first section of the street, betweentandersandersgade]], was part of Kalkbrænderivejen /literally "The Lime Plant Road") which provided a link to the lime plant, established on the coast to the north of the city in 1731. The name was changed to Nordre Frihavnsvej in 1892 in connection with the establishment of the Freeport of Copenhagen.
The land along the street was built over with apartment buildings during the following decade and the name of the street was changed to Nordre Frihavnsgade in 1906. The building was listed in 1995; the property Petersborg on the corner of Trianglen is from 1888 and was designed by Ferdinand Vilhelm Jensen. Ingrid Jespersen's School at No. 11 was established as a girls' school in 1894 and was for many years one of the most progressive of its kind in the country. It was based in rented rooms in Gustav Adolph Hagemann's former house but it was replaced by a three-storey building in 1897. In 1929, it took over the former police station at No. 9. The block at No. 31, between Victor Borges Plads and Randersgade, is one of the more stately properties along the street. It was designed by Thorvald Sørensen; the first Letz Sushi restaurant opened at No. 15 in 2003
Undercover Boss Australia is a localised version and third incarnation of the Undercover Boss franchise, the first series premiered on Network Ten on 18 October 2010 with the CEO of Domino's Pizza Australia, Don Meij. Each episode depicts a high-ranking executive or business owner acting as an entry-level employee to discover the problems in their company. On 15 November 2010, Network Ten renewed the show for a second series; the second series began airing on 12 September 2011. Each episode features a high-positioned executive or the owner of a corporation going undercover as an entry-level employee in their own company; the executive assumes an alias and fictional back-story. The fictitious explanation for the accompanying camera crew is that the executive is being filmed as part of a documentary about entry-level workers in a particular industry, they spend one week undercover, working in various areas of the company's operations, with a different job and in most cases a different location each day.
The boss is exposed to a series of predicaments with amusing results. They invariably spend time getting to know the people who work in the company, learning about their professional and personal challenges. At the end of their week undercover, the boss returns to their true identity and requests the employees they worked with individually to corporate headquarters; the boss reveals their identity and rewards hard-working employees through campaign, promotion or financial rewards. Other employees are better working conditions; the first series premiered on Network Ten on 18 October 2010 with the CEO of Domino's Pizza Australia, Don Meij. The episodes that followed included the CEO of Boost Juice, Janine Allis, Peter Murray, National Director of Operations of Veolia Environmental Services, CEO of BIG4 Holiday Parks of Australia, Ray Schleibs A second series was broadcast from 12 September 2011. Network Ten planned an Australian version for airing in 2009, however the production never took off and instead, was delayed one year.
Ten's Chief Programming Officer, David Mott stated "We’ve defined a few iconic Australian companies. It's a great series. It's a real eye opener. It's a little ripper.", hoping the series will become a ratings success to similar to that of Masterchef Australia. He explained the Australian version will be based on the American version, not the British version "We saw the UK version, but thought it needed to be upscaled a little bit,"....."That's what the American version was." Selected episodes of Undercover Boss Australia air in the United States on TLC and OWN, as part of Undercover Boss: Abroad