Fairview Mall is a large shopping centre in Toronto, Canada of about 80,000 m2. Opened in 1970, the centre has over offices and a cinema complex, it is located several kilometres north-east of downtown, at the northeast corner of Don Mills Road and Sheppard Avenue East in the former borough of North York. The mall is on two levels east to west with a vacant space at the west end and the Hudson's Bay at the east end, its 170 stores include speciality shops and kiosks. The mall has a multiplex cinema, a food court and a few restaurants connected to the mall; the shopping centre provides a personal style program that offers clients individual image consultations, personal shopping sessions, other customized services for a fee. Nearby, the Toronto Public Library's Fairview Public Library branch is located to the north of the mall. A community health centre is located next to the mall along Don Mills Road, it includes a pharmacy, various doctors offices and dentist offices, eye exam clinics. Fairview Mall is located near the intersections of two major highways: Highways 401 and 404.
The mall is surrounded on all sides by parking parking garages. Parking is free; the shopping centre is served by a Toronto Transit Commission subway line and a York Region bus rapid transit line. The mall is jointly owned by Cadillac Fairview and Ivanhoé Cambridge, two of Canada's largest real estate property managers and developers. Cadillac Fairview Corporation owns and operates Fairview Park Mall in Kitchener, co-owns Fairview Pointe-Claire with Ivanhoé Cambridge, in Pointe-Claire, Quebec. Fairview Mall opened in 1970 with The Bay and Simpsons as its department store anchors, at the time was the fourth enclosed, as well as the first multi-level, shopping centre in Metropolitan Toronto. In 1991, the Hudson's Bay Company sold its Simpsons store at Fairview Mall to Sears Canada. From 1987 to 1989, the Cadillac Fairview Corporation and previous co-owner Markborough Properties Ltd spent CAD$90M to provide Fairview Mall's first major expansion. Renovations at that time included a glass-tiered ceiling, similar to Toronto's Eaton Centre, which opened much of its interior to natural lighting.
In the 1990s, a major portion of the shopping centre's parking lot was redeveloped into a large bus terminal as part of the Toronto Transit Commission's Don Mills subway station, as the southern terminus of York Region Transit's Viva Green bus rapid transit line. In late 2008, Fairview Mall completed a CAD$90 million three-phase full renovation and redevelopment project, started in July 2006; the redevelopment phases included an expanded Shoppers Drug Mart and a large format Liquor Control Board of Ontario store. The food court was moved to the lower level under a 60-foot high skylight near The Bay. All entrances to the mall were updated to incorporate hands-free technology and the common areas inside the centre were transformed with greater open spaces and wood finishes. Elevators serving the third floor offices were added for the first time, located near entrance #4. In 2009, retailers Bath & Body Works, Forever 21, Hollister Co. and Zara opened within the mall. The facade along Sheppard Avenue received a complete facelift by Fall 2009, including Fairview Mall's new "dining experience" area.
The Rainbow Cinema had been an older style Cineplex theatre. The Sears store closed in late 2017 as part of the liquidation of Sears Canadian operations; the space does not yet have a long-term tenant. List of largest enclosed shopping malls in Canada List of shopping malls in Canada List of shopping malls in Toronto
Toronto is the provincial capital of Ontario and the most populous city in Canada, with a population of 2,731,571 in 2016. Current to 2016, the Toronto census metropolitan area, of which the majority is within the Greater Toronto Area, held a population of 5,928,040, making it Canada's most populous CMA. Toronto is the anchor of an urban agglomeration, known as the Golden Horseshoe in Southern Ontario, located on the northwestern shore of Lake Ontario. A global city, Toronto is a centre of business, finance and culture, is recognized as one of the most multicultural and cosmopolitan cities in the world. People have travelled through and inhabited the Toronto area, situated on a broad sloping plateau interspersed with rivers, deep ravines, urban forest, for more than 10,000 years. After the broadly disputed Toronto Purchase, when the Mississauga surrendered the area to the British Crown, the British established the town of York in 1793 and designated it as the capital of Upper Canada. During the War of 1812, the town was the site of the Battle of York and suffered heavy damage by United States troops.
York was incorporated in 1834 as the city of Toronto. It was designated as the capital of the province of Ontario in 1867 during Canadian Confederation; the city proper has since expanded past its original borders through both annexation and amalgamation to its current area of 630.2 km2. The diverse population of Toronto reflects its current and historical role as an important destination for immigrants to Canada. More than 50 percent of residents belong to a visible minority population group, over 200 distinct ethnic origins are represented among its inhabitants. While the majority of Torontonians speak English as their primary language, over 160 languages are spoken in the city. Toronto is a prominent centre for music, motion picture production, television production, is home to the headquarters of Canada's major national broadcast networks and media outlets, its varied cultural institutions, which include numerous museums and galleries and public events, entertainment districts, national historic sites, sports activities, attract over 25 million tourists each year.
Toronto is known for its many skyscrapers and high-rise buildings, in particular the tallest free-standing structure in the Western Hemisphere, the CN Tower. The city is home to the Toronto Stock Exchange, the headquarters of Canada's five largest banks, the headquarters of many large Canadian and multinational corporations, its economy is diversified with strengths in technology, financial services, life sciences, arts, business services, environmental innovation, food services, tourism. When Europeans first arrived at the site of present-day Toronto, the vicinity was inhabited by the Iroquois, who had displaced the Wyandot people, occupants of the region for centuries before c. 1500. The name Toronto is derived from the Iroquoian word tkaronto, meaning "place where trees stand in the water"; this refers to the northern end of what is now Lake Simcoe, where the Huron had planted tree saplings to corral fish. However, the word "Toronto", meaning "plenty" appears in a 1632 French lexicon of the Huron language, an Iroquoian language.
It appears on French maps referring to various locations, including Georgian Bay, Lake Simcoe, several rivers. A portage route from Lake Ontario to Lake Huron running through this point, known as the Toronto Carrying-Place Trail, led to widespread use of the name. In the 1660s, the Iroquois established two villages within what is today Toronto, Ganatsekwyagon on the banks of the Rouge River and Teiaiagon on the banks of the Humber River. By 1701, the Mississauga had displaced the Iroquois, who abandoned the Toronto area at the end of the Beaver Wars, with most returning to their base in present-day New York. French traders abandoned it in 1759 during the Seven Years' War; the British defeated the French and their indigenous allies in the war, the area became part of the British colony of Quebec in 1763. During the American Revolutionary War, an influx of British settlers came here as United Empire Loyalists fled for the British-controlled lands north of Lake Ontario; the Crown granted them land to compensate for their losses in the Thirteen Colonies.
The new province of Upper Canada was being needed a capital. In 1787, the British Lord Dorchester arranged for the Toronto Purchase with the Mississauga of the New Credit First Nation, thereby securing more than a quarter of a million acres of land in the Toronto area. Dorchester intended the location to be named Toronto. In 1793, Governor John Graves Simcoe established the town of York on the Toronto Purchase lands, naming it after Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany. Simcoe decided to move the Upper Canada capital from Newark to York, believing that the new site would be less vulnerable to attack by the United States; the York garrison was constructed at the entrance of the town's natural harbour, sheltered by a long sand-bar peninsula. The town's settlement formed at the eastern end of the harbour behind the peninsula, near the present-day intersection of Parliament Street and Front Street. In 1813, as part of the War of 1812, the Battle of York ended in the town's capture and plunder by United States forces.
The surrender of the town was negotiated by John Strachan. American soldiers destroyed much of the garrison and set fire to the parliament buildings during their five-day occupation; because of the sacking of York, British troops retaliated in the war with the Burning of Wa
Chicago the City of Chicago, is the most populous city in Illinois, as well as the third most populous city in the United States. With an estimated population of 2,716,450, it is the most populous city in the Midwest. Chicago is the principal city of the Chicago metropolitan area referred to as Chicagoland, the county seat of Cook County, the second most populous county in the United States; the metropolitan area, at nearly 10 million people, is the third-largest in the United States, the fourth largest in North America and the third largest metropolitan area in the world by land area. Located on the shores of freshwater Lake Michigan, Chicago was incorporated as a city in 1837 near a portage between the Great Lakes and the Mississippi River watershed and grew in the mid-nineteenth century. After the Great Chicago Fire of 1871, which destroyed several square miles and left more than 100,000 homeless, the city made a concerted effort to rebuild; the construction boom accelerated population growth throughout the following decades, by 1900 Chicago was the fifth largest city in the world.
Chicago made noted contributions to urban planning and zoning standards, including new construction styles, the development of the City Beautiful Movement, the steel-framed skyscraper. Chicago is an international hub for finance, commerce, technology, telecommunications, transportation, it is the site of the creation of the first standardized futures contracts at the Chicago Board of Trade, which today is the largest and most diverse derivatives market gobally, generating 20% of all volume in commodities and financial futures. O'Hare International Airport is the one of the busiest airports in the world, the region has the largest number of U. S. highways and greatest amount of railroad freight. In 2012, Chicago was listed as an alpha global city by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network, it ranked seventh in the entire world in the 2017 Global Cities Index; the Chicago area has one of the highest gross domestic products in the world, generating $680 billion in 2017. In addition, the city has one of the world's most diversified and balanced economies, not being dependent on any one industry, with no single industry employing more than 14% of the workforce.
Chicago's 58 million domestic and international visitors in 2018, made it the second most visited city in the nation, behind New York City's approximate 65 million visitors. The city ranked first place in the 2018 Time Out City Life Index, a global quality of life survey of 15,000 people in 32 cities. Landmarks in the city include Millennium Park, Navy Pier, the Magnificent Mile, the Art Institute of Chicago, Museum Campus, the Willis Tower, Grant Park, the Museum of Science and Industry, Lincoln Park Zoo. Chicago's culture includes the visual arts, film, comedy and music jazz, soul, hip-hop and electronic dance music including house music. Of the area's many colleges and universities, the University of Chicago, Northwestern University, the University of Illinois at Chicago are classified as "highest research" doctoral universities. Chicago has professional sports teams in each of the major professional leagues, including two Major League Baseball teams; the name "Chicago" is derived from a French rendering of the indigenous Miami-Illinois word shikaakwa for a wild relative of the onion, known to botanists as Allium tricoccum and known more as ramps.
The first known reference to the site of the current city of Chicago as "Checagou" was by Robert de LaSalle around 1679 in a memoir. Henri Joutel, in his journal of 1688, noted that the eponymous wild "garlic" grew abundantly in the area. According to his diary of late September 1687:...when we arrived at the said place called "Chicagou" which, according to what we were able to learn of it, has taken this name because of the quantity of garlic which grows in the forests in this region. The city has had several nicknames throughout its history such as the Windy City, Chi-Town, Second City, the City of the Big Shoulders, which refers to the city's numerous skyscrapers and high-rises. In the mid-18th century, the area was inhabited by a Native American tribe known as the Potawatomi, who had taken the place of the Miami and Sauk and Fox peoples; the first known non-indigenous permanent settler in Chicago was Jean Baptiste Point du Sable. Du Sable arrived in the 1780s, he is known as the "Founder of Chicago".
In 1795, following the Northwest Indian War, an area, to be part of Chicago was turned over to the United States for a military post by native tribes in accordance with the Treaty of Greenville. In 1803, the United States Army built Fort Dearborn, destroyed in 1812 in the Battle of Fort Dearborn and rebuilt; the Ottawa and Potawatomi tribes had ceded additional land to the United States in the 1816 Treaty of St. Louis; the Potawatomi were forcibly removed from their land after the Treaty of Chicago in 1833. On August 12, 1833, the Town of Chicago was organized with a population of about 200. Within seven years it grew to more than 4,000 people. On June 15, 1835, the first public land sales began with Edmund Dick Taylor as U. S. Receiver of Public Monies; the City of Chicago was incorporated on Saturday, March 4, 1837, for several decades was the world's fastest-growing city. As the site of the Chicago Portage, the city became an important transportation hub between the eastern and western United States.
Chicago's first railway and Chicago Union Railroad, the Illi
Olympia and York
Olympia & York was a major international property development firm based in Toronto, Canada. The firm built major financial office complexes including Canary Wharf in London, the World Financial Center in New York City, First Canadian Place in Toronto, it went bankrupt in the early 1990s and was recreated to become Olympia & York Properties. The company was founded by Paul Reichmann and his brothers and Ralph, in Toronto in the early 1950s as an outgrowth of their flooring and tile company, it first operated warehouses and other commercial buildings in Toronto. Its first major project was the development of the vast Flemingdon Park project on Don Mills Road; the company took a major gamble, winning the fierce bidding war for the final undeveloped property at the corner of King and Bay street. The Reichmans won the contract to build Canada's tallest building, First Canadian Place in 1971; the project collapsed, when reformist mayor David Crombie put a halt to major development projects. After three years of lobbying the project went ahead to great success.
In the 1980s, Olympia & York grew to be the largest property development firm in the world. In the early 1980s, the New York real estate market was depressed, the Reichmanns bought a group of nine skyscrapers for the low price of 300 million dollars. In only a few years the group rose in value to 3.5 billion. The company became centred on New York opening an office on Park Avenue; the company won the rights to the largest development project in the city when they were awarded the contract to develop the Battery Park City infill next door to the World Trade Center. This project was another great success for the firm. Both Reichmann brothers were religious Haredi Jews and shut down their construction sites for the Jewish Sabbath and for all Jewish holidays. While the success of O&Y made them one of the world's richest families they continued to live austere lives. In the mid-1980s the company diversified. In 1985 it bought Gulf Canada, a deal that attracted much controversy because it earned the company multimillion-dollar tax breaks.
They acquired a 50.1% control of Brinco Ltd. in 1980 the following year an 82% controlling interest in Abitibi-Price Inc. As well, they held a significant shareholding in the Royal Trust Company. In 1980, they had acquired English Property Corp, one of the largest British developers, which would lead to the Canary Wharf property development. Following a publicized legal battle with Britain's Allied Lyons PLC for control of Canadian-based distillers Hiram Walker-Gooderham and Worts Distillery, the makers of the popular Canadian Club brand of rye whiskey, in 1987 Olympia & York became Allied Lyons' largest shareholder. In the late 1980s the company undertook to develop the Canary Wharf site in the east of London; the 83 acre site would become the largest development project in the world, which would incorporate One Canada Square, Britain's tallest skyscraper at the time. The project ran into problems however. Britain entered a recession, British firms were unwilling to relocate from the traditional financial centre within the City, despite a personal promise by Margaret Thatcher, the London Underground line known as the Jubilee Line Extension was delayed in construction awaiting the contributions from Olympia & York.
The office space at Canary Wharf remained empty and Olympia & York began to run out of cash. At the same time, New York City and its real estate market began a deep recession and Olympia & York, now the largest property holder in Manhattan, began to feel cash flow problems which affected the pyramid-like financing strategy that the Reichmann brothers had adopted. In March 1992, Paul Reichmann was forced to resign as president. In May, the company filed for bankruptcy and it owed over 20 billion dollars to various banks and investors; the company was dismembered in February 1993, the Reichmanns were left with only a small rump known as Olympia & York Properties Corporation. The new company has again grown into a multibillion-dollar firm, including retaining a large stake of the now prosperous Canary Wharf project. However, they no longer have large holdings in New York City. Many of the NYC properties are now under Brookfield Properties Corporation. A list of notable O&Y current and previous ownership properties: Canary Wharf, London World Financial Center, NYC First Canadian Place, Toronto - including Exchange Tower, First Bank Tower.
Maritime Life Building, Toronto Rogers-AT&T Centre, Toronto Oakwood Apartments, Portland Oregon Commerce Place, Edmonton AB 425 Lexington Avenue, NYC Olympia Centre, Illinois KOIN Center, Portland Oregon Blanchard Plaza, Washington University of Lethbridge Building, Lethbridge AB York Centre, Toronto 150 Ferrand Drive Ferrand Towers, Toronto One Yonge Street, Toronto Global House, Toronto 40 St. Clair Avenue West, Toronto 2 St. Clair Avenue West, Toronto Queen's Quay Terminal, Toronto 237 Park Avenue, NYC Flemingdon Park Condominiums, Toronto Glen Valley, Toronto Place de Ville, Ottawa 55 Water Street, NYC Following the collapse of Olympia and York, the Reichmanns began to rebuild their empire. Olympia & York Properties Corporation and O&Y REIT returned to the real estate market in Canada, owning 18 properties in six Can
The Crossways, Toronto
The Crossways is a mixed-use residential/commercial complex in the west end of Toronto, Canada, located at the intersection of Bloor Street West and Dundas Street West. It stretches across most of a city block; the complex consists of twin 29-storey triangular brick towers, with a broad, terraced podium at their bases. One level of the podium contains an indoor mall; the Crossways was designed in the Brutalist style by architects Webb Zerafa Menkès Housden Partnership and built by Consolidated Building Corporation. It was completed in 1974 as a 111,480-square-metre mixed-use project; the mall's interior was a cohesive series of spaces characterized by strong 1970s design features such as walls clad in brick from floor to ceiling, brown brick floor tiles and evenly spaced wood slat ceilings, massive globe-light lanterns mounted onto the walls. The retail mall section was renovated in 2012 and 2013, it no longer exhibits the original 1970s design features. A 3,900-square-metre addition, designed by architect Chris A. Montgomery, added two floors of commercial office space to the roof of the existing complex and connected to the existing retail mall.
The enclosed 7,900 square metre mall at the base of the twin apartment towers has more than 40 stores and services, composed of small independent businesses and services. For many years, until the late 1990s, the mall had a regular-size IGA grocery store on its lower level; the Crossways website
Refrigeration is a process of removing heat from a low-temperature reservoir and transferring it to a high-temperature reservoir. The work of heat transfer is traditionally driven by mechanical means, but can be driven by heat, electricity, laser, or other means. Refrigeration has many applications, but not limited to: household refrigerators, industrial freezers and air conditioning. Heat pumps may use the heat output of the refrigeration process, may be designed to be reversible, but are otherwise similar to air conditioning units. Refrigeration has had a large impact on industry, lifestyle and settlement patterns; the idea of preserving food dates back to at least Chinese empires. However, mechanical refrigeration technology has evolved in the last century, from ice harvesting to temperature-controlled rail cars; the introduction of refrigerated rail cars contributed to the westward expansion of the United States, allowing settlement in areas that were not on main transport channels such as rivers, harbors, or valley trails.
Settlements were developing in infertile parts of the country, filled with newly discovered natural resources. These new settlement patterns sparked the building of large cities which are able to thrive in areas that were otherwise thought to be inhospitable, such as Houston and Las Vegas, Nevada. In most developed countries, cities are dependent upon refrigeration in supermarkets, in order to obtain their food for daily consumption; the increase in food sources has led to a larger concentration of agricultural sales coming from a smaller percentage of existing farms. Farms today have a much larger output per person in comparison to the late 1800s; this has resulted in new food sources available to entire populations, which has had a large impact on the nutrition of society. As quite similar criteria shall be fulfilled by working fluids applied to heat pumps, refrigeration and ORC cycles, several working fluids are applied by all these technologies. Ammonia was one of the first refrigerants. Refrigeration can be defined as "The science of providing and maintaining temperature below that of surrounding atmosphere".
It means continuous extraction of heat from a body whose temperature is below the temperature of its surroundings. The seasonal harvesting of snow and ice is an ancient practice estimated to have begun earlier than 1000 BC. A Chinese collection of lyrics from this time period known as the Shijing, describes religious ceremonies for filling and emptying ice cellars. However, little is known about the construction of these ice cellars; the next ancient society to harvest ice may have been the Jews according to the book of Proverbs, which reads, “As the cold of snow in the time of harvest, so is a faithful messenger to them who sent him.” Historians have interpreted this to mean that the Jews used ice to cool beverages rather than to preserve food. Other ancient cultures such as the Greeks and the Romans dug large snow pits insulated with grass, chaff, or branches of trees as cold storage. Like the Jews, the Greeks and Romans did not use ice and snow to preserve food, but as a means to cool beverages.
The Egyptians developed methods to cool beverages, but in lieu of using ice to cool water, the Egyptians cooled water by putting boiling water in shallow earthen jars and placing them on the roofs of their houses at night. Slaves would moisten the outside of the jars and the resulting evaporation would cool the water; the ancient people of India used this same concept to produce ice. The Persians stored ice in a pit called a Yakhchal and may have been the first group of people to use cold storage to preserve food. In the Australian outback before a reliable electricity supply was available where the weather could be hot and dry, many farmers used a "Coolgardie safe"; this consisted of a room with hessian "curtains" hanging from the ceiling soaked in water. The water would evaporate and thereby cool the hessian curtains and thereby the air circulating in the room; this would allow many perishables such as fruit and cured meats to be kept that would spoil in the heat. Before 1830, few Americans used ice to refrigerate foods due to a lack of ice-storehouses and iceboxes.
As these two things became more available, individuals used axes and saws to harvest ice for their storehouses. This method proved to be difficult and did not resemble anything that could be duplicated on a commercial scale. Despite the difficulties of harvesting ice, Frederic Tudor thought that he could capitalize on this new commodity by harvesting ice in New England and shipping it to the Caribbean islands as well as the southern states. In the beginning, Tudor lost thousands of dollars, but turned a profit as he constructed icehouses in Charleston, Virginia and in the Cuban port town of Havana; these icehouses as well as better insulated ships helped reduce ice wastage from 66% to 8%. This efficiency gain influenced Tudor to expand his ice market to other towns with icehouses such as New Orleans and Savannah; this ice market further expanded as harvesting ice became faster and cheaper after one of Tudor’s suppliers, Nathaniel Wyeth, invented a horse-drawn ice cutter in 1825. This invention as well as Tudor’s success inspired others to get involved in the ice trade and the ice industry grew.
Ice became a mass-market commodity by the early 1830s with the price of ice dropping from six cents per pound to a half of a cent per pound. In New York City, ice consumption increased from 12,000 tons in 1843 to 100,000 tons in 1856. Boston’s consumption leapt from 6,000 tons to 85,000 tons during that same period. Ice harvesting created a “cooling cultur
Regional Municipality of York
The Regional Municipality of York called York Region, is a regional municipality in Southern Ontario, between Lake Simcoe and Toronto. It replaced the former York County in 1971, is part of the Greater Toronto Area and the inner ring of the Golden Horseshoe; the regional government is headquartered in Newmarket. The 2016 census population was 1,109,909, with a growth rate of 7.5% from 2011 to 2016. The Government of Ontario expects its population to surpass 1.5 million residents by 2031. At a meeting in Richmond Hill on 6 May 1970, officials representing the municipalities of York County approved plans for the creation of a regional government entity to replace York County; the plan had been presented in 1969 by Darcy McKeough, the Ontario Minister of Municipal Affairs, taking about a year to determine municipal boundaries within the new regional government. The Regional Municipality of York was created by Act of the Legislative Assembly of Ontario in 1970, which took effect on January 1, 1971.
The creation of the regional municipality resulted in the consolidation of the fourteen former municipalities of York County into nine new municipalities: The township of Whitchurch was merged with the town of Stouffville to create the town of Whitchurch–Stouffville, ceding land to Aurora and Richmond Hill to the west of the proposed Highway 404 and annexing a northern strip of land from the township of Markham. The eastern boundary of the new town of Markham was defined to be at Yonge Street, where its northern boundary was formed with Richmond Hill and its western boundary with the new town Vaughan; the new town of Vaughan would consist of all communities in the area bounded by Markham and Richmond Hill in the east, Metro Toronto in the south, the periphery of the regional municipality in the west, the new township of King in the north. The townships of Georgina, North Gwillimbury, Sutton were merged into the township of Georgina, the East Gwillimbury neighbourhood of East Gwillimbury Heights was merged into Newmarket.
King formed the northwestern part of the new region, but the eastern lot from Bathurst Street to Yonge Street was ceded to Newmarket and Oak Ridges, the last of which became a part of Richmond Hill. The boundary between Aurora and Newmarket was defined to be St. John's Sideroad, Newmarket's northern boundary was defined to be Green Lane; the towns of Aurora and Richmond Hill were defined to be the growth centres for the regional municipality, to become a greenbelt between the denser urban areas of Toronto to the south and Barrie to the north. The growth centres were each restricted to grow to a maximum population of 25,000 by 2000, the regional municipality to 300,000; the municipal realignment merged 40% of East Gwillimbury's population into Newmarket. The council of East Gwillimbury voted to amalgamate with Newmarket, but Newmarket council opposed the amalgamation. In the plan presented by McKeough, the councils of the towns of Newmarket and Aurora were given ten years to decide whether or not to amalgamate.
The internal municipal realignments resulted in some politicians residing in a new municipality from that which they represented at the time of realignment. The reeve of Whitchurch Township resided in the western portion of the town, annexed by Aurora, three East Gwillimbury councillors resided in land annexed by Newmarket, including its future mayor Ray Twinney, King councillor Gordon Rowe was a resident of Oak Ridges, which became part of Richmond Hill; because of the mix of urban and rural areas in the Region, the provision of electricity was governed in a different manner from the rest of the regional services: the hydro-electric commissions and public utilities commissions that existed at the end of 1970 continued to provide electricity within their respective areas. Electric distribution was rationalized in 1978, when: hydro-electric commissions were established for all area municipalities except East Gwillimbury. York Region covers 1,762 square kilometres from Lake Simcoe in the north to the city of Toronto in the south.
Its eastern border is shared with Durham Region, to the west is Peel Region, Simcoe County is to the northwest. A detailed map of the region showing its major roads and points of interest is available. Towns and cities in York Region include: Town of Aurora Town of East Gwillimbury Town of Georgina Township of King City of Markham Town of Newmarket City of Richmond Hill City of Vaughan Town of Whitchurch–StouffvilleThere is one First Nation with an Indian reserve, where the Chippewas of Georgina Island First Nation reside on Georgina Island, Fox Island and Snake Island. York Region's landscape includes farmlands and kettle lakes, the Oak Ridges Moraine and over 2,070 hectares of regional forest, in addition to the built-up areas of its municipalities. York Reg