Cleveland Street, Sydney
Cleveland Street is a busy thoroughfare near the central business district of Sydney in New South Wales, Australia. From west to east, it runs from City Road in Chippendale, across the railway lines between Central and Redfern stations and east through Surry Hills, crossing the Eastern Distributor and South Darling Street, to terminate at Anzac Parade, Centennial Park; the street is named after an officer of the 73rd regiment. Traffic volumes vary, depending on the segment of Cleveland Street. Near Prince Alfred Park the average traffic movements in 2016 for both east and west-bound vehicles was 17,500. Further east, between South Dowling Street and Anzac Parade, 2016 average traffic volumes peaked at 20,000 vehicles west-bound; until 1958, electric trams ran down the length of Cleveland Street, when they were replaced by motor buses. The area between Crown and Bourke Streets is home to several pubs and an increasing number of restaurants. Cleveland Street Intensive English High School was located on the corner of Cleveland and Chalmers Streets.
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New South Wales
New South Wales is a state on the east coast of Australia. It borders Queensland to the north, Victoria to the south, South Australia to the west, its coast borders the Tasman Sea to the east. The Australian Capital Territory is an enclave within the state. New South Wales' state capital is Sydney, Australia's most populous city. In September 2018, the population of New South Wales was over 8 million, making it Australia's most populous state. Just under two-thirds of the state's population, 5.1 million, live in the Greater Sydney area. Inhabitants of New South Wales are referred to as New South Welshmen; the Colony of New South Wales was founded as a penal colony in 1788. It comprised more than half of the Australian mainland with its western boundary set at 129th meridian east in 1825; the colony included the island territories of New Zealand, Van Diemen's Land, Lord Howe Island, Norfolk Island. During the 19th century, most of the colony's area was detached to form separate British colonies that became New Zealand and the various states and territories of Australia.
However, the Swan River Colony has never been administered as part of New South Wales. Lord Howe Island remains part of New South Wales, while Norfolk Island has become a federal territory, as have the areas now known as the Australian Capital Territory and the Jervis Bay Territory; the prior inhabitants of New South Wales were the Aboriginal tribes who arrived in Australia about 40,000 to 60,000 years ago. Before European settlement there were an estimated 250,000 Aboriginal people in the region; the Wodi Wodi people are the original custodians of the Illawarra region of South Sydney. Speaking a variant of the Dharawal language, the Wodi Wodi people lived across a large stretch of land, surrounded by what is now known as Campbelltown, Shoalhaven River and Moss Vale; the Bundjalung people are the original custodians of parts of the northern coastal areas. The European discovery of New South Wales was made by Captain James Cook during his 1770 survey along the unmapped eastern coast of the Dutch-named continent of New Holland, now Australia.
In his original journal covering the survey, in triplicate to satisfy Admiralty Orders, Cook first named the land "New Wales", named after Wales. However, in the copy held by the Admiralty, he "revised the wording" to "New South Wales"; the first British settlement was made by. After years of chaos and anarchy after the overthrow of Governor William Bligh, a new governor, Lieutenant-Colonel Lachlan Macquarie, was sent from Britain to reform the settlement in 1809. During his time as governor, Macquarie commissioned the construction of roads, wharves and public buildings, sent explorers out from Sydney and employed a planner to design the street layout of Sydney. Macquarie's legacy is still evident today. During the 19th century, large areas were successively separated to form the British colonies of Tasmania, South Australia and Queensland. Responsible government was granted to the New South Wales colony in 1855. Following the Treaty of Waitangi, William Hobson declared British sovereignty over New Zealand in 1840.
In 1841 it was separated from the Colony of New South Wales to form the new Colony of New Zealand. Charles Darwin visited Australia in January 1836 and in The Voyage of the Beagle records his hesitations about and fascination with New South Wales, including his speculations about the geological origin and formation of the great valleys, the aboriginal population, the situation of the convicts, the future prospects of the country. At the end of the 19th century, the movement toward federation between the Australian colonies gathered momentum. Conventions and forums involving colony leaders were held on a regular basis. Proponents of New South Wales as a free trade state were in dispute with the other leading colony Victoria, which had a protectionist economy. At this time customs posts were common on borders on the Murray River. Travelling from New South Wales to Victoria in those days was difficult. Supporters of federation included the New South Wales premier Sir Henry Parkes whose 1889 Tenterfield Speech was pivotal in gathering support for New South Wales involvement.
Edmund Barton to become Australia's first Prime Minister, was another strong advocate for federation and a meeting held in Corowa in 1893 drafted an initial constitution. In 1898 popular referenda on the proposed federation were held in New South Wales, South Australia and Tasmania. All votes resulted in a majority in favour, but the New South Wales government under Premier George Reid had set a requirement for a higher "yes" vote than just a simple majority, not met. In 1899 further referenda were held in the same states as well as Queensland. All resulted in yes votes with majorities increased from the previous year. New South Wales met the conditions; as a compromise to the question on where the capital was to be located, an agreement was made that the site was to be within New South Wales but not closer than 100 miles from Sydney, while the provisional capital would be Melbourne. The area that now forms the Australian Capital Territory was ceded by New South Wales when Canberra was selected.
In the years after World War I, the high prices enjoyed durin
Macquarie Street, Sydney
Macquarie Street is a street in the central business district of Sydney in New South Wales, Australia. Macquarie Street extends from Hyde Park at its southern end to the Sydney Opera House at its northern end. Apart from connecting these two major landmarks, the key government institutions of the state of New South Wales are all located on this street. Macquarie Street is named after an early Governor of New South Wales. In the years since its founding in 1788, Sydney had developed organically, by the early 1800s was lacking in major public buildings, had a complex network of narrow streets; the supply of drinking water and waste management was becoming an issue. Governor Macquarie initiated the construction of Sydney's first public buildings of any real permanence and set the boundaries of Sydney's grid of streets. With Circular Quay as the focus of this new civic scheme, Macquarie Street marked its eastern boundary and was designed as a ceremonial thoroughfare; the public buildings distributed either side of the street would both delineate and connect the civil and commercial town centre to its west with the green spaces to the east.
Among the public buildings commissioned by Macquarie, Hyde Park Barracks and St James' Church are two examples preserved from that era. The two buildings face each other at the southern end of Macquarie Street. Upon laying out the street in 1810, Governor Macquarie carved out land from the Domain for the building of Sydney Hospital, with its frontage on Macquarie Street. Due to the reluctance of the British government to provide funding, the building contract for the hospital provided for the government to provide convict labour, for part of the project costs to be paid in the form of rum import monopolies, leading to the name the "Rum Hospital"; the hospital buildings were completed in 1816. Although called "elegant and commodious" by some commentators, architect Francis Greenway criticised both the design and construction; as the only major hospital in the colony at the time, the hospital took up the entire eastern frontage of the southern half of Macquarie Street. However, the hospital's capacity exceeded the needs of Sydney at the time, from the start space in its two wing buildings began to be occupied by various government institutions.
The northern wing building was occupied by the Legislative Council and Executive Council, was expanded to become the Parliament House for New South Wales. The southern wing building became the Sydney Mint, among other functions. After Macquarie, subsequent governors and governments continued to regard Macquarie Street as the axis of an informal governmental and public precinct; the State Library of New South Wales, the Colonial Secretary's Building and the old Treasury Building, are examples of such institutions. At the same time, as an elegant tree-lined boulevarde adjacent both to the commercial city centre and the green spaces of the Royal Botanic Gardens and the Domain, the street became Sydney's most pre-eminent residential address. In particular, the close proximity to Sydney Hospital and court buildings attracted leading barristers and doctors to set up chambers and surgeries along the street. In 1977, the New South Wales government built a new Law Courts Building at Queen's Square at the southern end of the street, to house the Supreme Court of New South Wales and the Sydney registries of the Federal Court of Australia and the High Court of Australia.
Burdekin House, built in 1842 and described as the finest private residence in Sydney, was located on Macquarie Street. Its demolition became an early rallying point for the conservation movement in Sydney. St Stephen's Presbyterian Church was built in 1934 on the site of Burdekin House, after an earlier St Stephen's in Phillip Street was demolished for the creation of Martin Place; the Garden Palace, a grand building constructed for the 1879 International Exhibition of Sydney, was located on Macquarie Street, but was destroyed by fire only a few years later. The northern section of Macquarie Street was a path through the Governor's Domain leading to Bennelong Point. After Government House was moved further up the hill, the path was widened and became part of Macquarie Street, leading to land to the west of the street being sold off for commercial development in the 1840s-1850s. Today, this northern section of Macquarie Street runs along the eastern side of Circular Quay. To the east of this northern section is the Royal Botanic Gardens, while to the west of the street, the historic sandstone Moore Stairs, built in 1868 leads to the waterfront.
In the past, this area was lined by warehouses and other shipping-related facilities focusing on the wool trade, leading to this section being called the "wool stores" end. At the end of the street was Bennelong Point. From 1821 this was the site of Fort Macquarie, which in 1901 was demolished to make way for the Fort Macquarie Tram Depot, demolished in 1958 to make way for the Sydney Opera House; the warehouses and wharf facilities near the Opera House were progressively removed in the mid-20th century and replaced by modernist office blocks. In 1998, the Bennelong Apartments, a complex of contemporary buildings nicknamed "the Toaster", replaced the modernist office blocks; the complex includes private apartments, retail outlets, the Pullman Quay Grand Hotel and a cinema. Because of the proliferation of medical chambers and surgeries, the presence of a number of medical professional institutions, Macquarie Street was known as the Harley Street of Sydney from the late 19th century until recent dec
St James railway station, Sydney
St James railway station is a heritage-listed underground commuter rail station, located on the City Circle, at the northern end of Hyde Park in the Sydney central business district of New South Wales, Australia. It is served by Sydney Trains T2 Inner West & Leppington, T3 Bankstown & T8 Airport & South line services, it is named after the nearby St James' Church and provides a direct link to the Sydney Airport international and domestic railway stations. It was added to the New South Wales State Heritage Register on 2 April 1999. Part of the Bradfield Plan, St James station was intended to be a major interchange with the Eastern Suburbs line on Sydney's underground rail system. Plans for the construction of St James included railway lines in four directions, but the original plan was never completed due to disagreements over the routes. Four platforms were completed, but the two inner platforms, intended to support Bradfield's proposed eastern and western suburbs lines, were never put into service.
When the Eastern Suburbs line was built it was done so via a different route via Town Hall. In the 1990s, the two island platforms were connected by filling in the space between the two inner platforms, resulting in the single, large island platform seen today; the station was designed by NSW Government Architect, George McRae, but not completed until after his death. It is an example of Inter-War Stripped Classical architecture influenced by Art Deco. One distinctive feature of the station is a neon sign from the late 1930s advertising Chateau Tanunda Brandy installed by Tucker, Lingard & Co, it is located at the northern entrance on Elizabeth Street. It is a companion to Museum station, both opened at the same time and use a roundel design on their station signage, similar to the one used on the London Underground. St James station opened on 20 December 1926 with the opening of the eastern city line from Central. For the first 30 years, St James station was used as a terminating station for the Bankstown, East Hills and Illawarra lines.
As a terminating station, St James was equipped with a small signal box and two dead end sidings, located in the tunnel stub at the north end of the station. The St James signal box, equipped with pistol grips, was the smallest such box in New South Wales. Trains arriving at St James would disembark passengers on one of the outer platforms the train would move to a siding and reverse direction, coming out at the opposite outer platform. During non-peak hours the driver would move to the other end of the train while the train was on the siding. During peak hours the train would take on a second driver in the last car while at the platform proceed to one of the sidings, where the drivers would exchange control of the train. Completion of the City Circle loop did not occur until 30 years. Construction of the western city line as far as Wynyard was completed in 1932, but completion of the line connecting Wynyard and St James via Circular Quay, begun in 1936, proved problematic. Construction was halted during World War II and was intermittent after it resumed in 1945 due to inconsistent funding.
The above-ground viaduct and Circular Quay railway station were completed in 1956, allowing trains to make a single circuit through the city and return to the suburbs without having to terminate. As a result of this, St James's terminating facilities were no longer used; the signal box remained in use until 1990 with the occasional train continuing to terminate at St James to keep the siding tracks usable for emergencies and railway staff familiar with the procedures. In 1985–86, the signal box was taken out of service for an asbestos abatement project. During this period, train cars allocated for the removal of the asbestos would occupy one or the other of the dead end sidings, which meant that regular use of those lines by passenger trains was not possible. After the asbestos abatement project was completed, the signal box was returned to service until 1990, when asbestos was discovered in the signal box and the sidings. From that time the signal box was not used, the signals and siding tracks were removed.
The sidings were formally closed on 27 July 1991. In February 2010, a passenger lift between the platform and the concourse opened, followed by a lift between the concourse and street level. St James station is notable for the abandoned tunnels connected to the station; the Australian Railway Historical Society, with the approval of the State Rail Authority, has given tours of the tunnels, but many people have visited the tunnels by entering along the subway tracks. The tunnels were constructed as stubs for the planned eastern and western suburbs lines when the station was built in the 1920s; this was to ensure that the operation of St James would not be disrupted if future work was carried out on the lines. The abandoned tunnels extend some distance in either direction from St James, they proceed for some 250 metres north under Macquarie Street to be parallel with the State Library. From 1933 to 1934, the tunnel between St James and Circular Quay was used by Raymond Mas as the location for an experimental mushroom farm producing 4,500 kilograms of mushrooms per month.
The tunnels planned for use as the eastern suburbs line were modified during World War II to serve as a public air raid shelter. The abandoned air raid shelter begins in the double track tunnel section at the north end of the station and continues into the two single track tunnels beyond. At the station end the air raid shelter is protected by a blast curtain and the doorways and openings for ventilation between the chambers, each about 30 metres long, are
Supreme Court of New South Wales
The Supreme Court of New South Wales is the highest state court of the Australian State of New South Wales. It has unlimited jurisdiction within the state in civil matters, hears the most serious criminal matters. Whilst the Supreme Court is the highest New South Wales court in the Australian court hierarchy, an appeal by special leave can be made to the High Court of Australia. Matters of appeal can be submitted to the New South Wales Court of Appeal and Court of Criminal Appeal, both of which are constituted by members of the Supreme Court, in the case of the Court of Appeal from those who have been commissioned as judges of appeal; the Supreme Court consists of 52 permanent judges, including the Chief Justice of New South Wales, presently Tom Bathurst, the President of the Court of Appeal, 11 Judges of Appeal, the Chief Judge at Common Law, the Chief Judge in Equity. The Supreme Court building is physically located in Queen's Square, New South Wales; the first superior court of the Colony of New South Wales was established by letters patent dated 2 April 1814, known as the Second Charter of Justice of New South Wales.
That charter provided that there should be a Supreme Court constituted by a Judge appointed by the King's commission and two Magistrates. The charter created the Governor's Court and the Lieutenant-Governor's Court; the jurisdiction of the Governor's Court and the Supreme Court extended to Van Diemen's Land. All three courts were concerned with civil matters only. Legislation to establish a new supreme court for both New South Wales and Van Diemen's Land was prepared in London by James Stephen, counsel to the Colonial Office, Francis Forbes, Chief Justice of Newfoundland and Chief Justice-designate of New South Wales; the act was called an "Act to provide for the better administration of justice in New South Wales and Van Diemen's Land and for the more effectual government thereof" and is numbered as "4 Geo. IV, c. 96". The statute was passed on 19 July 1823. In consequence of this legislation, letters patent establishing the New South Wales Supreme Court were sealed on 13 October 1823, proclaimed in Sydney on 17 May 1824.
They are known as the Third Charter of Justice of New South Wales. This charter provided that there should be a Chief Justice for the colony of New South Wales in the Island of New Holland, as well as other judges, a registrar, a prothonotary, a master, a Keeper of Records and such other Officers as may be necessary for the administration of Justice in the colony; the charter established the office of sheriff. A person had to be admitted as such in the United Kingdom. However, ex-convicts were not permitted to be admitted. In 1840, a Port Phillip division of the Court was created, consisting of a single Resident Judge, to exercise the court's jurisdiction in the Port Phillip District of the Colony of New South Wales; the division existed until 1852, when it was replaced by the Supreme Court of Victoria following the creation of the Colony of Victoria. In 1840, the Parliament of New South Wales established a separate equity division in the court. Limited jurisdiction in divorce cases was granted in 1873 and full Admiralty jurisdiction was added in 1911.
The Supreme Court, in 1972, was one of the last Common Law jurisdictions in the world to fuse the administration of Equity and Common Law, although these continue as the historic names for the two divisions of the court. This process began in the United Kingdom with the passage of the Judicature Acts in 1873. Since 1930, three generations of the Street family have served New South Wales as Chief Justice. Supreme Court Judges Carolyn Simpson, Margaret Beazley and Virginia Bell made headlines in April 1999 when the three sat in the Court of Criminal Appeal in Sydney; the Judges threw out an appeal from a convicted computer hacker who had, out of "sheer maliciousness", been posting offensive messages on Ausnet's homepage. According to the Women Lawyers Association of NSW, there had never been an all-female bench in England or New Zealand at the time; the court now operates under the Constitution Act 1902, the Supreme Court Act 1970, the Civil Procedure Act 2005, although provisions on the appointment and removal of judicial officers were incorporated into the state's Constitution in 1992.
The court consists of 52 permanent judges, three Acting Judges of Appeal, two Acting Judges, an Associate Judge. Permanent judges include the Chief Justice of New South Wales, the President of the Court of Appeal, eleven Judges of Appeal, the Chief Judge at Common Law and the Chief Judge in Equity, 38 Puisne Judges; the Chief Judge in each trial division sits in the Court of Appeal from time to time. Puisne judges sit in the Court of Appeal, though this is uncommon; the court hears serious cases such as murder and treason, civil cases involving more than $750 000, civil matters such as wills and admiralty. The court's work at first instance is divided between the Common Law Division, which hears civil and administrative law matters, the Equity Division, which hears equity, commercial and protective matters; the court includes the Court of Appeal and the Court of Criminal Appeal which hear appeals from the District Court and the Local Court and from single judges sitting in the Common Law or Equity Divisions.
The Court of Appeal hears appeal
Bridge Street, Sydney
Bridge Street is a street in the central business district of Sydney in New South Wales, Australia. Bridge Street runs for 500 metres in a west–east direction with traffic flowing in both directions, it is situated in the northern portion of the central business district. The western terminus of Bridge Street is at George Street, with the eastern terminus at Macquarie Street, adjacent to the Chief Secretary's Building. From west to east, Bridge Street crosses Phillip streets. Bridge Street was named by Governor Macquarie in 1810, derived from a small bridge located near the intersection with Pitt Street; the bridge used to cross the Tank Stream in the early days of the colony, with the stream now flowing underground via a series of suburban tunnels. Many years before Bridge Street was named, it was the site of Sydney's first Government House and was the abode of first Governor of New South Wales, Captain Arthur Phillip. After establishing the site of the settlement, a substantial "temporary" government house was located on the corner of what is now Bridge Street and Phillip Street.
It was built under the direction of James Bloodsworth, a convict builder responsible for the construction of most of the colony's buildings between 1788 and 1800. This building, the first'permanent' building in Sydney, was completed by 1789 using English bricks, native stone and a quantity of convict baked sandstock bricks from the Sydney region. After the initial completion the house was of two stories in height, contained six rooms and was the hub of the colony for 56 years. Eight successive governors complained of the living conditions within, each making improvements by adding their own extension, it was here on 4 June 1789, that Governor Phillip and his guests celebrated the birthday of King George III. In 1845 the entire complex was demolished to extend the street to Macquarie Street; the foundations of the house were exposed by archaeologists in 1983. The site, on the corner with Phillip Street, is now occupied by the Museum of Sydney. In March 1899, workmen installing a telegraph tunnel discovered a copper plate wedged between two stones.
It was found that it was the foundation stone of the first Government House, laid 15 May 1788. The plate is now displayed at the Museum of Sydney. Bridge Street has a number of significant sites; the following were listed on the now-defunct Register of the National Estate. The Department of Lands building is a sandstone building designed by the Colonial Architect, James Barnet, built 1877-90, it is three storeys high and features a copper dome and a clock tower, a distinctive feature in the area. The building is listed on the NSW State Heritage Register; the Department of Education building is a six-storey, sandstone building designed by the government architect, George McRae. It was built ca. 1912 and reinforced concrete. The building is listed on the NSW State Heritage Register. Burns Philp Building: this three-storey, commercial building was built from 1898-1901, it was designed by Arthur Anderson of Anderson in a Romanesque style. Like the other buildings, it was constructed predominantly of sandstone, with a combination of dressed stone and rough stone.
The interior features elaborate cedar-work. The building is listed on the NSW State Heritage Register; the Chief Secretary's building designed by Barnet with additions by Walter Liberty Vernon, is situated on the south corner of Bridge and Macquarie Streets and constructed in ca. 1878, consisting of dressed sandstone. The building is listed on the NSW State Heritage Register; the former Premier's Office or Old Treasury Building is situated on the north corner of Bridge and Macquarie Streets. This two-storey sandstone building was designed by Mortimer Lewis in a Classical Revival style and built ca. 1849. A large extension was designed by Vernon and built ca. 1896. It has more been converted for hotel use as part of the InterContinental Hotel Sydney. In 1999 the building was added to the NSW State Heritage Register. Macquarie Place Park is an historic site is situated on the north side of Bridge Street and was part of the first Government House. Governor Lachlan Macquarie intended it to be a significant public square but it was whittled down over the years.
It includes the obelisk designed by Francis Greenway and constructed in 1818. In 2010 the site was added to the NSW State Heritage Register. Booth House: at 44 Bridge Street, on the corner of Young and Bridge Streets and situated on land which formed part of the gardens of First Government House. Built in 1938, this nine-storey building is an excellent and rare expression of the Functionalist style meeting a need for continuous natural light, through bands of windows, to accommodate wool-broking activities on completion. A stylised ram's head is etched into the red granite lintel above the entrance, pale green terracotta tiles remain under copper cladding the uprights between the windows, it is now an unusual mix of residential units. Liner House known as Moran House, located at 13-15 Bridge Street, is a heritage-listed office building completed in 1960 for shipping agents, Wilh. Wilhelmsen; the building has since been repurposed and in 1999 was added to the NSW State Heritage Register. Media related to Bridge Street, Sydney at Wikimedia Commons
The Registrar-General's building called the Land Titles Office, is an heritage-listed building located in the Sydney central business district, in New South Wales, Australia. The building is used by the Land and Property Information division of the Department of Finance and Innovation, part of the Government of New South Wales, it was added to the New South Wales State Heritage Register on 2 April 1999. The building is located near the junction of College and Macquarie street and is set in an historical setting on the eastern fringe of the central business district alongside St Mary's Cathedral, Queen's Square, St James' Church, the Sydney Mint, the UNESCO World Heritage Listed Hyde Park Barracks, Hyde Park; the major part of the building is designed by Government Architect Walter Liberty Vernon and completed c. 1913. The building contractors and stonework contractors were Hudson. Designed by Vernon in 1908, the building was constructed in stages from 1909 to 1913 to house the Registrar-General's Department, replacing the 1860 Registrar General's Office in Elizabeth Street.
The building was used as the central recording point of births and marriages in the state and the storage of title deeds for the vast majority of the twentieth century. A three-storey Neo-Gothic sandstone-faced office building with attic storey and basement, of steel-framed construction with reinforced concrete floor and slate covered steel framed roof; the facades contain some elaborate gothic detailing to windows and good carving work to gables and over entrances. The three large gables facing Prince Albert Road are flanked by castellated corner turrets, whilst the facade to Queen's Square has a similar small gable flanked by two turrets on each side; the initials CH, are carved into one of the string course bosses at about second-floor level on the western side return wall of the main entrance facing St. Mary's. Nearby on a small octagonal turret are the initials of his father HCH. On the eastern side of the main entrance on the east and west elevations, with initials of the architects and clerks of works.
On the keystone of the arch over the main entrance are the entwined numbers 1912. U-shaped, the north side was closed off by an addition in the 1930s and further extended in the 1960s; as at 6 December 2000, a well scaled civic building sensitively detailed to complement the adjoining older buildings such as St. Mary's Cathedral, its composed sandstone facade contributes to the streetscape and satisfactorily terminates the northern end of College Street. It provides a sympathetic component in the progression of civic historical buildings along College Street to Queen's Square; the building has long association with the registration of birth and marriages, as well as trade marks, bills of sale, business agents etc. The building stores other land title documents. Registrar-General's building was listed on the New South Wales State Heritage Register on 2 April 1999. Australian non-residential architectural styles Heritage Group: State Projects. Land & Water Conservation Section 170 Register; this Wikipedia article contains material from Land Titles Office, entry number 962 in the New South Wales State Heritage Register published by the State of New South Wales and Office of Environment and Heritage 2018 under CC-BY 4.0 licence, accessed on 13 October 2018.
"A Brief History of the Records of the Registrar General". Land and Property Information. Government of New South Wales. March 2013. ISSN 2200-9736. Retrieved 27 October 2017