Honours of Scotland
The Honours of Scotland known as the Scottish Regalia and the Scottish Crown Jewels, dating from the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, are the oldest surviving set of crown jewels in the British Isles. The regalia were used together for the coronation of Scottish monarchs from Mary I in 1543 until Charles II in 1651, they were used to represent Royal Assent to legislation in the Estates of Parliament before England and Scotland were unified under one parliament in 1707, at which time the Honours were locked away in a chest and the English Crown Jewels were adopted by British monarchs. They were rediscovered in 1818 and have been on public display at Edinburgh Castle since; the Honours have been used at state occasions including the first official visit to Scotland as monarch by George IV in 1822 and the first such visit by Elizabeth II in 1953. The Scottish Parliament was founded in 1999 and the Honours are used there once again to represent Royal Assent. There are three primary elements of the Honours of Scotland: the crown, the sceptre, the Sword of State.
The gold crown, decorated with gems and pearls, is Scottish, the sceptre and sword were gifts from the pope made in Italy. They appear on the crest of the royal coat of arms of Scotland and on the Scottish version of the royal coat of arms of the United Kingdom, where the red lion of the King of Scots is depicted holding the sword and sceptre and wearing the crown. Robes, a pair of spurs and a ring had been part of the Scottish regalia, queens consort had their own consort crown, none of which survives today; the secondary Honours comprise a silver-gilt wand, three items of insignia and a ring once owned by James VII added in 1830, a necklace with a locket and pendant bequeathed to Scotland by the Duchess of Argyll in 1939. Use of regalia by monarchs in Scotland can be traced back to when Britain was converted to Christianity in the Middle Ages. In the earliest known depiction of a Scottish king wearing his symbols of sovereignty, King Edgar wears a crown and bears a sword and a sceptre on his Great Seal.
His son, Alexander I, is shown holding an orb – a pictorial emblem of divine kingship, not part of the Scottish Honours. By the reign of John Balliol, the regalia consisted of a crown, sceptre and ring. After the English invasion in 1296, the regalia and Stone of Scone, upon which monarchs of Scotland were invested and crowned, were captured by the English army and taken south to London. New items were made for subsequent coronations, these were replaced during the 16th century with the current set of Honours, consisting of a crown made in Scotland and a sword and a sceptre both made in Italy and given to Scotland as papal gifts. A consort crown was made for Mary of Guise, wife of James V, in 1539; the monarch's regalia were first used together by Mary, Queen of Scots in 1543. By the second half of the century, they represented royal authority in the Scottish Parliament, Acts of Parliament were given royal assent when the monarch or one of his or her commissioners touched it with the royal sceptre.
Spurs – emblems of knighthood and chilavry – were presented to Charles I at his Scottish coronation in 1633. The Honours were last used at coronation in 1651 by Charles II, his father Charles I had been overthrown and executed by order of the Parliament of England, which ordered all of the English Crown Jewels to be melted down and struck into coins. However, the Honours of Scotland were hidden, firstly in Dunnottar Castle, besieged by the New Model Army, from where the Honours were smuggled out. Although they had been found, the Honours were no longer used to crown Scottish sovereigns after Charles II; until the Acts of Union 1707, which united the Kingdom of Scotland and the Kingdom of England to form the Kingdom of Great Britain, the Honours of Scotland were taken to sittings of the Parliament of Scotland to represent the monarch, who lived in England since the Union of the Crowns in 1603. After the Act of Union, the two parliaments having been dissolved, the Parliament of Great Britain sat in London.
There they remained forgotten, until 1818 when the future George IV, acting as Prince Regent, issued a royal warrant authorising the historian Walter Scott and a group of officials to break down the wall of the ancient Crown Room on 4 February. Half expecting to find the oak chest empty, they were relieved to open it and discover the crown and sword as they had been left 111 years earlier; the Royal Standard was hoisted above Edinburgh Castle in celebration of the historic moment. Cheers of excitement rippled through the castle, members of the public gathered outside to hear the news. On 26 May 1819, the Honours went on public display in the Crown Room, they were guarded by two veterans of the Battle of Waterloo dressed in a Tudor-style Yeoman's outfit. George IV was crowned king in 1821 and his visit to Scotland the following year was the first by a monarch since 1651. On 12 August 1822, the Honours were escorted in procession to the Palace of Holyroodhouse. There was a carnival atmosphere, with people observing from windows.
Three days the king arrived at the palace and symbolically touched the regalia. Before leaving the country a week he took part in a return procession to the Castle, where the Honours would remain until the 20th century. In 1911 the sword was carried before George V at the official ope
Her Majesty's Paymaster General or HM Paymaster General is a ministerial position in the United Kingdom. When the post is held by a minister in HM Treasury it is given to the fourth highest-ranking minister, after the First Lord of the Treasury, the Chancellor of the Exchequer and the Chief Secretary to the Treasury; the incumbent Paymaster General is Mel Stride, whose main title is Financial Secretary to the Treasury. The post was created in 1836 by the merger of the positions of the offices of the Paymaster of the Forces, the Treasurer of the Navy, the Paymaster and Treasurer of Chelsea Hospital, the Treasurer of the Ordnance; the Paymaster General only had responsibilities in relation to the armed services. He thus became'the principal paying agent of the government and the banker for all government departments except the revenue departments and the National Debt Office'. From 1848 to 1868, the post was held concurrently with that of Vice-President of the Board of Trade; the longest-serving holder of the post was Dawn Primarolo, whose portfolio covered HM Revenue and Customs, who served from 1999 to 2007.
Today, the Paymaster General is a minister without portfolio available for any duties which the government of the day may designate. The post may be left unfilled. Though the Paymaster General was titular head of the Paymaster General's Office, his or her executive functions were delegated to the Assistant Paymaster General, a permanent civil servant, answerable to the Chancellor of the Exchequer; the Paymaster General was in nominal charge of the Office of HM Paymaster General, which held accounts at the Bank of England on behalf of Government departments and selected other public bodies. Funds which were made available from the Consolidated Fund were channelled into OPG accounts, from where they were used by the relevant body. OPG operated a full range of accounts and banking transaction services, including cheque and credit, BACS and CHAPS services for its customers via an electronic banking system. Integration of OPG accounts held with commercial banks was provided by the private company Xafinity Paymaster, now part of the Equiniti group.
However, in 2008, the government announced that the Office of the Paymaster General would be incorporated into a new body, the Government Banking Service, which provides banking operations for HM Revenue & Customs and National Savings and Investments. Following the Bank of England's decision to withdraw from providing retail banking services, retail banking services for the GBS are provided by the Royal Bank of Scotland and Citibank, although the Bank of England still plays a role in managing the government's higher level accounts. Sir Henry Parnell, Bt. 1836–1841 Edward Stanley 1841 Sir Edward Knatchbull, Bt. 1841–1845 Bingham Baring 1845–1846 Thomas Babington Macaulay 1846–1848 Granville Leveson-Gower, 2nd Earl Granville 1848–1852 Edward Stanley, 2nd Baron Stanley of Alderley 1852 Charles Abbot, 2nd Baron Colchester 1852 Edward Stanley, 2nd Baron Stanley of Alderley 1853–1855 Edward Pleydell-Bouverie 1855 Robert Lowe 1855–1858 Richard Hely-Hutchinson, 4th Earl of Donoughmore 1858–1859 Algernon Percy, Lord Lovaine 1859 James Wilson 1859 William Cowper 1859–1860 William Hutt 1860–1865 George Goschen 1865–1866 William Monsell 1866 Stephen Cave 1866–1868 Frederick Hamilton-Temple-Blackwood, 1st Earl of Dufferin 1868–1872 Hugh Childers 1872–1873 William Adam 1873–1874 Stephen Cave 1874–1880 David Plunket 1880 George Glyn, 2nd Baron Wolverton 1880–1885 Frederick Lygon, 6th Earl Beauchamp 1885–1886 Thomas Hovell-Thurlow-Cumming-Bruce, 5th Baron Thurlow 1886 Frederick Lygon, 6th Earl Beauchamp 1886–1887 Adelbert Brownlow-Cust, 3rd Earl Brownlow 1887–1889 Victor Child Villiers, 7th Earl of Jersey 1889–1890 Robert Windsor-Clive, 7th Baron Windsor 1890–1892 Charles Seale-Hayne 1892–1895 John Hope, 7th Earl of Hopetoun 1895–1899 Charles Spencer-Churchill, 9th Duke of Marlborough 1899–1902 Savile Crossley 1902–1905 Richard Causton 1905–1910 Ivor Guest, 1st Baron Ashby St Ledgers 1910–1912 Edward Strachey, 1st Baron Strachie 1912–1915 Thomas Legh, 2nd Baron Newton 1915–1916 Arthur Henderson 1916 Joseph Compton-Rickett 1916–1919 Tudor Walters 1919–1922 Office vacant 1922–1923 Neville Chamberlain 1923 William Joynson-Hicks 1923 Archibald Boyd-Carpenter 1923–1924 Harry Gosling 1924 Office vacant 1924–1925 George Sutherland-Leveson-Gower, 5th Duke of Sutherland 1925–1928 Richard Onslow, 5th Earl of Onslow 1928–1929 Sydney Arnold 1929–1931 Office vacant 1931 Tudor Walters 1931 Ernest Lamb, 1st Baron Rochester 1931–1935 Robert Hutchison, 1st Baron Hutchison of Montrose 1935–1938 Geoffrey FitzClarence, 5th Earl of Munster 1938–1939 Edward Turnour, 6th Earl Winterton 1939 Office vacant 1939–1940 Robert Gascoyne-Cecil, Viscount Cranborne 1940 Office vacant 1940–1941 Maurice Hankey 1941–1942 William Jowitt 1942 Frederick Lindemann, 1st Baron Cherwell 1942–1945 Office vacant 1945–1946 Arthur Greenwood 9 July 1946 Lab Hilary Marquand 5 March 1947 Lab The Viscount Addison 2 July 1948 Leader of the House of Lords Lab The Lord Macdonald of Gwaenysgor 1 April 1949 Lab The Lord Cherwell 30 October 1951 Con The Earl of Selkirk 11 November 1953 Con Office vacant 20 October 1955 Walter Monckton 18 October 1956 Con Reginald Maudling 16 January 1957 Con
Reginald MacLeod of MacLeod
Sir Reginald MacLeod of MacLeod was the 27th chief of the Scottish clan Clan MacLeod. Sir Reginald MacLeod of MacLeod was born on 1 February 1847, he was the son of Norman MacLeod of MacLeod, 25th chief of Clan MacLeod and his wife Louisa Barbara St. John, only daughter of the 14th Baron St John of Bletso, he was educated at Cambridge. On 17 April 1877, MacLeod of MacLeod married Lady Agnes Mary Cecilia Northcote, the daughter of Sir Stafford Northcote 1st Earl of Iddesleigh, Cecilia Frances Farrer, they had two daughters. In the 1885 General Election he stood unsuccessfully for the Conservatives in Inverness-shire losing the seat to an Independent Liberal. In 1889 he became the Queen's and Lord Treasurer's Remembrancer, an office of the Court of the Exchequer, concerned with the recovery of dues and debts owed to the Crown. In February 1900 he was appointed the fourth Registrar General, in this role he presided over the 1901 census. Two years he was in August 1902 appointed Permanent Under Secretary for Scotland.
He was knighted in 1905. After a further unsuccessful attempt to be elected to Parliament in 1911 he retired from public life and became a director of Shell, the first of several directorships he held. Sir Reginald became 27th chief of Clan MacLeod in 1929 on the death of his elder brother Norman Magnus and died six years in 1935, his daughter Olive was noted for her journey of 3,700 miles into the heart of Africa to visit her fiancé's grave. The MacLeod waterfalls on the Moa Kabi river are named after her; the famous Fairy Flag of the MacLeod's was mounted by Sir Reginald. An expert from the Victoria and Albert Museum discussed with Sir Reginald the possible origins of the flag, avoiding reference to the supernatural; the chief listened and said, "You may believe that, but I know that it was given to my ancestor by the fairies." Sir Reginald was the laird of the islands of St Kilda in 1930, when the last inhabitants left the islands. In 1931 he sold the islands to Lord Dumfries Marquess of Bute.
Sir Reginald's elder brothers had both died without male issue and his younger brother's only son Iain Breac had been killed in the sinking of HMS Goliath in 1915. As there were, therefore, no immediate male heirs, he was succeeded by his eldest daughter Dame Flora MacLeod of MacLeod, 28th chief and first female chief of the clan
Courts of Scotland
The courts of Scotland are responsible for administration of justice in Scotland, under statutory, common law and equitable provisions within Scots law. The courts are presided over by the judiciary of Scotland, who are the various judicial office holders responsible for issuing judgments, ensuring fair trials, deciding on sentencing; the Court of Session is the supreme civil court of Scotland, subject to appeals to the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom, the High Court of Justiciary is the supreme criminal court, only subject to the authority of the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom on devolution issues and human rights compatibility issues. The judiciary of Scotland, except the Lord Lyon King of Arms, are united under the leadership and authority of the Lord President and Lord Justice General, the president of the Court of Session and High Court of Justiciary; the Court of Session has the authority, under the Courts Reform Act 2014, to regulate civil procedure through passing subordinate legislation knows as Acts of Sederunt, the High Court of Justiciary has the authority to regulate criminal procedure through passing Acts of Adjournal.
Both Acts of Sederunt and Acts of Adjournal have the capacity to amend primary legislation where it deals with civil or criminal procedure respectively. The majority of criminal and civil justice in Scotland is handled by the local sheriff courts, which are arranged into six sheriffdoms led by a sheriff principal; the sheriff courts have exclusive jurisdiction over all civil cases with a monetary value up to £100,000, are able to try criminal cases both on complaint for summary offences, with a jury for indictable offences. Treason and rape are in the exclusive jurisdiction of the High Court of Justiciary, whilst the High Court and sheriff courts have concurrent jurisdiction over armed robbery, drug trafficking, sexual offences involving children all these cases are heard by the High Court. Administration for the courts is provided by the Scottish Courts and Tribunals Service, a non-ministerial department of the Scottish Government; the Scottish Courts and Tribunal Service is operationally independent of the Scottish Ministers, is governed by a corporate board chaired by the Lord President, with a majority of judicial members.
There are various specialist courts and tribunals with specialist jurisdictions, which are subject to the ultimate jurisdiction of either the Court of Session or High Court of Justiciary, including. Children under the age of 16 who face allegations of criminal conduct are dealt with through the Children's Hearings, which are quasi-judicial in nature. Disputes involving agricultural tenancies and crofting are dealt with by the Scottish Land Court, disputes about private rights in titles for land ownership and land valuation are dealt with by the Lands Tribunal for Scotland. Heraldry is regulated in Scotland both by the civil and criminal law, with prosecutions taken before the Court of the Lord Lyon. Defunct and historical courts include the Admiralty Court, Court of Exchequer, district courts, the High Court of Constabulary; the United Kingdom does not have a single judicial system — England and Wales have one system, Scotland another, Northern Ireland a third. The Military Courts of the United Kingdom have jurisdiction over all members of the armed forces of the United Kingdom and civilians subject to service discipline in relation to offences against military law.
The Supreme Court of the United Kingdom operates across all three separate jurisdictions, hearing some civil - but not criminal - appeals in Scottish cases, determining certain devolution and human rights issues. The Supreme Court of the United Kingdom was created on 1 October 2009 by the Constitutional Reform Act 2005; the Supreme Court will hear civil appeals from the Court of Session, it hears appeals from all the civil and criminal courts of England and Wales and of Northern Ireland. The Supreme Court has no authority to hear appeals on criminal matters from the High Court of Justiciary; until the creation of the Supreme Court, ultimate appeal lay to the House of Lords, a chamber of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. The Supreme Court took over the judicial functions of the House of Lords, assumed the jurisdiction over devolution and human rights issues vested in the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council. Cases involving "devolution issues" arising under the Scotland Act 1998, as amended by the Scotland Act 2016, which includes disputes regarding the validity of Acts of the Scottish Parliament or executive functions of the Scottish Government, are heard by the Supreme Court.
These cases may reach the Court as follows: The Court of Session may remit a case to the Supreme Court. The High Court of Justiciary can refer a point of law to the Supreme Court; the Law Officers of the Crown may refer a bill from the Scottish Parliament to the Supreme Court. Any court, if a Law Officer so desires, may refer a case to the Supreme Court. Law Officers may refer any issue not related to a case to the Supreme Court; the parties to a case may appeal a case from the Inner House of the Court of Session. The Court of Session is the supreme civil court, it is both a court of first instance and a court of appeal, sits in Parliament House in Edinburgh. The court of first instance is known as the court of appeal the Inner House; the Sheriff Appeal Court is a national court with a jurisdiction over civil appeals from the Sheriff Courts, replaces appeals made to the Sheriffs Principal. The Sheri
The Scottish Government is the executive government of the devolved Scottish Parliament. The government was established in 1999 as the Scottish Executive under the Scotland Act 1998, which created a devolved administration for Scotland in line with the result of the 1997 referendum on Scottish devolution; the government consists of cabinet secretaries, who attend cabinet meetings, ministers, who do not. It is led by the first minister, who selects the cabinet secretaries and ministers with approval of parliament; the Scottish Government holds executive over devolved and not explicitly reserved matters of the Scottish Parliament, which are powers not reserved to the United Kingdom Parliament by Schedule 5 to the Scotland Act 1998, the subsequent revisions of the devolution settlement by the Scotland Act 2012 and 2016. Devolved matters that were decided upon by the Scotland Act 1998 included; the government is led by the First Minister. The Scottish Parliament nominates one of its members to be appointed as First Minister by the Head of State.
He or she is assisted by various Cabinet Secretaries with individual portfolios, who are appointed by the First Minister with the approval of Parliament. Junior Ministers are appointed to assist Cabinet Secretaries in their work; the Scottish Law officers, the Lord Advocate and Solicitor General, can be appointed without being a Member of the Scottish Parliament, they are subject to Parliament's approval and scrutiny. Law Officers are appointed by the head of state on the recommendation of the First Minister. Collectively, The First Minister, Cabinet Secretaries, Junior Ministers and the Law Officers are known as the "Scottish Ministers"; the Scottish Government uses a government structure that has a dual executive structure of a Cabinet that invokes collective decision-making, as well as non-cabinet members as Junior Ministers. The title Cabinet Secretary means a member of the Government who partakes in Cabinet, whereas Junior Ministers assist Cabinet Secretaries but are not part of the Scottish Cabinet.
The Cabinet Secretaries and Junior Ministers are: The Scottish Cabinet is the group of ministers who are collectively responsible for all Scottish Government policy. While parliament is in session, the cabinet meets weekly. Meetings are held on Tuesday afternoons in Bute House, the official residence of the First Minister; the cabinet consists of the cabinet secretaries, excluding the Scottish Law Officers. The Lord Advocate attends meetings of the cabinet only when requested by the first minister, he is not formally a member; the cabinet is supported by the Cabinet Secretariat, based at St Andrew's House. There are two sub-committees of Cabinet: Cabinet Sub-Committee on Legislation Membership: the Deputy First Minister and Cabinet Secretary for Health and Wellbeing, the Minister for Parliamentary Business, the Lord Advocate. Scottish Government Resilience Room Cabinet Sub-Committee Membership: Cabinet Secretary for Justice, the Cabinet Secretary for Finance and Sustainable Growth, the Cabinet Secretary for Health and Wellbeing,the Cabinet Secretary for Rural Affairs and the Environment and the Lord Advocate.
For several years prior to the Glasgow 2014 Commonwealth Games there had been a third sub-committee of Cabinet: Glasgow 2014 Legacy Plan Delivery Group Membership: Deputy First Minister and Cabinet Secretary for Health and Wellbeing, Minister for Community Safety, Minister for Culture, External Affairs and the Constitution, Minister for Enterprise and Tourism, Minister for Environment, Minister for Housing and Communities, Minister for Public Health and Sport, Minister for Schools and Skills, the Minister for Transport and Climate Change. Scottish Government includes a civil service that supports the Scottish ministers. According to 2012 reports, there are 16,000 civil servants working in core Scottish Government directorates and agencies; the civil service is a matter reserved to the British parliament at Westminster: Scottish Government civil servants work within the rules and customs of Her Majesty's Civil Service, but serve the devolved administration rather than British government. The permanent secretary is the most senior Scottish civil servant, leads the strategic board, supports the first minister and cabinet.
The current permanent secretary is Leslie Evans, who assumed the post in July 2015. The permanent secretary is a member of Her Majesty's Civil Service, therefore takes part in the permanent secretaries manageme
Scotland is a country, part of the United Kingdom. Sharing a border with England to the southeast, Scotland is otherwise surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean to the north and west, by the North Sea to the northeast and by the Irish Sea to the south. In addition to the mainland, situated on the northern third of the island of Great Britain, Scotland has over 790 islands, including the Northern Isles and the Hebrides; the Kingdom of Scotland emerged as an independent sovereign state in the Early Middle Ages and continued to exist until 1707. By inheritance in 1603, James VI, King of Scots, became King of England and King of Ireland, thus forming a personal union of the three kingdoms. Scotland subsequently entered into a political union with the Kingdom of England on 1 May 1707 to create the new Kingdom of Great Britain; the union created a new Parliament of Great Britain, which succeeded both the Parliament of Scotland and the Parliament of England. In 1801, the Kingdom of Great Britain and Kingdom of Ireland enacted a political union to create a United Kingdom.
The majority of Ireland subsequently seceded from the UK in 1922. Within Scotland, the monarchy of the United Kingdom has continued to use a variety of styles and other royal symbols of statehood specific to the pre-union Kingdom of Scotland; the legal system within Scotland has remained separate from those of England and Wales and Northern Ireland. The continued existence of legal, educational and other institutions distinct from those in the remainder of the UK have all contributed to the continuation of Scottish culture and national identity since the 1707 union with England; the Scottish Parliament, a unicameral legislature comprising 129 members, was established in 1999 and has authority over those areas of domestic policy which have been devolved by the United Kingdom Parliament. The head of the Scottish Government, the executive of the devolved legislature, is the First Minister of Scotland. Scotland is represented in the UK House of Commons by 59 MPs and in the European Parliament by 6 MEPs.
Scotland is a member of the British–Irish Council, sends five members of the Scottish Parliament to the British–Irish Parliamentary Assembly. Scotland is divided into councils. Glasgow City is the largest subdivision in Scotland in terms of population, with Highland being the largest in terms of area. "Scotland" comes from the Latin name for the Gaels. From the ninth century, the meaning of Scotia shifted to designate Gaelic Scotland and by the eleventh century the name was being used to refer to the core territory of the Kingdom of Alba in what is now east-central Scotland; the use of the words Scots and Scotland to encompass most of what is now Scotland became common in the Late Middle Ages, as the Kingdom of Alba expanded and came to encompass various peoples of diverse origins. Repeated glaciations, which covered the entire land mass of modern Scotland, destroyed any traces of human habitation that may have existed before the Mesolithic period, it is believed the first post-glacial groups of hunter-gatherers arrived in Scotland around 12,800 years ago, as the ice sheet retreated after the last glaciation.
At the time, Scotland was covered in forests, had more bog-land, the main form of transport was by water. These settlers began building the first known permanent houses on Scottish soil around 9,500 years ago, the first villages around 6,000 years ago; the well-preserved village of Skara Brae on the mainland of Orkney dates from this period. Neolithic habitation and ritual sites are common and well preserved in the Northern Isles and Western Isles, where a lack of trees led to most structures being built of local stone. Evidence of sophisticated pre-Christian belief systems is demonstrated by sites such as the Callanish Stones on Lewis and the Maes Howe on Orkney, which were built in the third millennium BCE; the first written reference to Scotland was in 320 BC by Greek sailor Pytheas, who called the northern tip of Britain "Orcas", the source of the name of the Orkney islands. During the first millennium BCE, the society changed to a chiefdom model, as consolidation of settlement led to the concentration of wealth and underground stores of surplus food.
The first Roman incursion into Scotland occurred in 79 AD. After the Roman victory, Roman forts were set along the Gask Ridge close to the Highland line, but by three years after the battle, the Roman armies had withdrawn to the Southern Uplands; the Romans erected Hadrian's Wall in northern England and the Limes Britannicus became the northern border of the Roman Empire. The Roman influence on the southern part of the country was considerable, they introduced Christianity to Scotland. Beginning in the sixth century, the area, now Scotland was divided into three areas: Pictland, a patchwork of small lordships in central Scotland; these societies were based on the family unit and had sharp divisions in wealth, although the vast majority were poor and worked full-time in subsistence agriculture. The Picts kept slaves through the ninth century. Gaelic influence over Pictland and Northumbria was facilitated by the large number of Gaelic-speaking clerics working as missionaries. Operating in the sixth ce