Kerala High Court
The High Court of Kerala is the highest court in the Indian state of Kerala and in the Union Territory of Lakshadweep. It is located in Kochi. Drawing its powers under Article 226 of the Constitution of India, the High Court has the power to issue directions and writs including the writs of habeas corpus, prohibition, quo warranto and certiorari for ensuring the enforcement of the Fundamental Rights guaranteed by the Constitution to citizens or for other specified purposes; the High Court is empowered with original and revisional jurisdiction in civil as well as criminal matters, the power to answer references to it under some statutes. The High Court has the superintendence and visitorial jurisdiction over all courts and tribunals of inferior jurisdiction covered under its territorial jurisdiction. At present, the sanctioned Judge strength of the High Court of Kerala is 27 Permanent Judges including the Chief Justice and 20 Additional Judges. Depending on the importance and nature of the question to be adjudicated, the judges sit as Single, Full or such other benches of larger strengths.
The foundation stone for the new multi-storied building now housing the High Court of Kerala was laid on 14 March 1994 by the Chief Justice of India, Justice M. N. Venkatachaliah; the estimated cost of construction was 10 crore Indian rupees. The construction was completed in 2005 at a cost of 85 crore Indian rupees; the completed High Court building was inaugurated by the Chief Justice of India, Justice Y. K. Sabharwal on 11 February 2006; the new High Court building is equipped with modern amenities like videoconferencing, air conditioned courtrooms, facilities for retrieval of order copies and publishing of the case status via the internet. The building is built on 5 acres of land and has a built-up area of 550,000 square feet over nine floors; the building has in it a post office, medical clinic, library and such other most needed utilities and services. The High Court of Kerala has moved to its new building from the date of its inauguration, from the adjacent Ram Mohan Palace, where it had been functioning.
The present State of Kerala is result of integrating the erstwhile princely kingdoms of Travancore and Cochin with Malabar district and Kasaragod. The present judicial system in Kerala has its roots dating back to the days of the monarchs of the Kingdoms of Travancore and Cochin. In 1811, following the 1808 insurrection against British Cochin and Quilon, Colonel H. M. Munro succeeded Colonel Macaulay as the Resident in Travancore with supervision over the Kingdom of Cochin. Following an investigation into the rampant lawlessness and the abuse of the system, Colonel Munro surveyed the region with his assistant Captain Blacker and established reforms including courts, construction of roads and schools, he functioned as the Diwan until February 1818 when he handed over the reins to Nanjappayya of Coimbatore. Thus it was Colonel Munro laid the foundations for a systematic legal system, resulting in the present day scenario; until his time, there were no independent tribunals for the administration of justice.
In the Kingdom of Travancore, Munro recommended necessary regulations to be passed for the reorganisation of the Courts. These recommendations were accepted by the king and a Regulation in tune to his recommendations was passed in 1811. Zilla Courts and a Huzur Court were established in the Kingdom of Travancore, in the years 1811 and 1814 respectively. Munro established five zilla courts in A. D 1811 at Padmanabhapuram, Thiruvananthapuram, Mavelikkara and Aluva. Huzur Court, which functioned as the final appellate Court was replaced by Sadar Court in 1861. Sadar Court, which possessed all the powers of the present High Court of Kerala, continued functioning until 1881. In 1887, the High Court of Travancore was established with bench strength of five judges. One among the five judges was appointed as the Chief Justice; the judges had the assistance of a Pundit, who acted as an amicus curiae to advise them on the various points of Hindu law. Ramachandra Iyer was appointed as the first Chief Justice.
In the Kingdom of Cochin and Naduvazhis were empowered to settle the disputes following the prevailing customary law. More serious matters used to be attended by the monarch himself. In 1812, for the first time in its history, graded law courts were established under the Diwanship of Colonel Munro, in the Kingdom of Cochin; the first Subordinate Courts were established by Colonel Munro at Tripunithura. Until 1835, Huzur Court was the final appellate Court. Huzur Court had a bench strength of three judges; the Huzur Court was reconstituted as Rajah's Court of Appeal and Subordinate Courts were reconstituted as Zilla Courts. The Zilla Courts were empowered with unlimited jurisdiction, but subject to the confirmation from the Rajah's Court of Appeal; the Rajah's Court of Appeal was reconstituted as the Chief Court of Cochin in 1900. The Chief Court of Cochin had three permanent judges. Mr. S. Locke was appointed as the first Chief Judge; the Chief Court of Cochin was reconstituted as the High Court, during the Diwanship of Sri.
Shanmukham Chettiyar. After India gained her independence on 15 August 1947, the Kingdoms of Travancore and Cochin were integrated to form the Travancore-Cochin State or Thiru-Kochi on 1 July 1949; the High Court of Travancore-Cochin was established at Ernakulam on 7 July 1949 under the Travancore-Cochin High Court Act. Mr. Puthupally Krishna Pillai was the last Chief Justice of High Court of Travancore-Cochin. On 1 November 1956, the States Reorganisation Act, 1956 was pass
Deccan Chronicle is an Indian English-language daily newspaper founded by Rajagopal Mudaliar in the 1930s. It is published in Telangana, by Deccan Chronicle Holdings Limited; the newspaper's name derives from the Deccan regions of India. Deccan Chronicle has eight editions in Andhra Telangana, they publish from Chennai and Kochi. Since May 2004 it has been owned by Naganachiketh Chinnamuttevi; the Indian Premier League cricket franchise of the Deccan Chargers was owned by Deccan Chronicle. The Deccan Chargers represented the city of Hyderabad in the Indian Premier League. Gayatri Reddy was the owner of Deccan Chargers. Financial Chronicle – published by Deccan Chronicle and International Herald Tribune List of newspapers in India by circulation List of newspapers in the world by circulation Media related to Deccan Chronicle at Wikimedia Commons Official website
The New Indian Express
The New Indian Express is an Indian English-language broadsheet daily newspaper published by the Chennai-based Express Publications. It was founded in 1932 as The Indian Express, under the ownership of Chennai-based P. Varadarajulu Naidu. In 1991, following the death of owner Ramnath Goenka, his family split the group into two companies; the two groups shared the Indian Express title, as well as editorial and other resources. But on 13 August 1999, the northern editions, headquartered in Mumbai, retained the Indian Express moniker, while the southern editions became The New Indian Express. Today, companies are separate entities. Express Publications Limited publishes The New Indian Express from 32 centres in Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and Odisha. Indian Express was first published on September 5, 1932 in Madras by an Ayurvedic doctor and Indian National Congress member P Varadarajulu Naidu, publishing from the same press where he ran the Tamil Nadu Tamil weekly, but soon, on account of financial difficulties, he sold it to S. Sadanand, founder of The Free Press Journal, another English newspaper.
In 1933, The Indian Express opened its second office in Madurai and launched the Tamil daily Dinamani on September 11, 1934. Sadanand introduced several innovations and reduced the price, but sold part of his stake in the form of convertible debentures to Ramnath Goenka due to financial difficulties; when The Free Press Journal further went into financial decline in 1935, Sadanand lost ownership of Indian Express after a long controversial court battle with Goenka, where blows were exchanged. A year Goenka bought the rest of the 26 per cent stake from Sadanand, the paper came under his control, who took the anti-establishment tone of the paper to greater heights. At that time it had to face stiff competition from the well-established The Hindu and the Mail, besides other prominent newspapers. In the late 1930s, the circulation was no more than 2,000. In 1939 Goenka bought out a prominent Telugu daily, it gained the name Three Musketeers for the three dailies. In 1940 the whole premises were gutted by fire.
The Hindu, its rival, helped in re-launching the paper, by getting it printed temporarily at one of its Swadesimithran’s press and offering its vacated premises in Madras at 2, Mount Road to become the landmark Express Estates. This relocation helped the Express obtain better high-speed printing machines. In years, Goenka started the Mumbai edition with the landmark Express Towers as his office when the Morning Standard was bought by him in 1944. Two years it became the Mumbai edition of The Indian Express. On, editions were started in cities like Madurai and Ahmedabad; the Financial Express was launched in 1961 from Mumbai, a Bangalore edition of Andhra Prabha was launched in 1965, Gujarati dailies Lok Satta and Jansatta in 1952, from Ahmedabad and Baroda. The Delhi edition started was when the Tej group's Indian News Chronicle was acquired in 1951, which from 1953 became the Delhi edition of Indian Express. In 1990 it bought the Sterling group of magazines and, along with it, the Gentleman magazine.
After Goenka's demise in 1991, two of the family members split the group into Indian Express Mumbai with all the north Indian editions, while the southern editions were grouped as Express Publications Limited with Chennai as headquarters. The New Indian Express is now published from all 22 major cities in Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and Odisha; the New Indian Express has a net paid circulation of 495,618 copies. NIE achieves its biggest penetration in the state of Kerala, it claims to be the first Indian newspaper to give insurance benefits to its subscribers. It is published in a geographical area that covers 24 per cent of the national population; the New Sunday Express is arguably the flagship publication, with magazine supplements incorporating national and international themes and sections on developmental issues, politics, arts, travel, sports, new-age living, self-development and entertainment. During late 2007/early 2008, there was a big shakeout of editorial staff, with many old hands leaving to make way for new.
In April 2008, the newspaper underwent a major and exceptionally modern layout and design makeover and launched a huge advertising campaign. In October 2007, The New Indian Express launched a 40-page Friday magazine supplement called "Indulge" for the Chennai edition. In September 2010, the lifestyle pullout began a Bangalore edition, it renamed all the city supplements, calling them City Express and focusing more on the respective city's culture and lifestyle, rather than hard news. Its other supplements, which appear on a weekly or fortnightly basis, are on education; the 24-page education supplement, called edex, was launched in early 2010. "Indulge" is another lifestyle supplement weekly published from major cities in South India on Fridays. "The Sunday Standard" is another publication, released as a weekly newspaper with 16 pages published from New Delhi, which comes with its weekly "Sunday Standard Magazine" of 12 pages. At present, The New Indian Express is the only national daily which publishes news of the far-flung Andaman and Nicobar Islands every day.
The TNIE has a staffer at the capital city of the remote archipelago. The New Indian Express Group of Companies publishes Dinamani in Tamil and the following magazines: Cinema Express, Samakalika Malayalam Vaarika; the Group runs the following websites
Kerala, locally known as Keralam, is a state on the southwestern, Malabar Coast of India. It was formed on 1 November 1956, following passage of the States Reorganisation Act, by combining Malayalam-speaking regions. Spread over 38,863 km2, Kerala is the twenty-second largest Indian state by area, it is bordered by Karnataka to the north and northeast, Tamil Nadu to the east and south, the Lakshadweep Sea and Arabian Sea to the west. With 33,387,677 inhabitants as per the 2011 Census, Kerala is the thirteenth-largest Indian state by population, it is divided into 14 districts with the capital being Thiruvananthapuram. Malayalam is the most spoken language and is the official language of the state; the Chera Dynasty was the first prominent kingdom based in Kerala. The Ay kingdom in the deep south and the Ezhimala kingdom in the north formed the other kingdoms in the early years of the Common Era; the region had been a prominent spice exporter since 3000 BCE. The region's prominence in trade was noted in the works of Pliny as well as the Periplus around 100 CE.
In the 15th century, the spice trade attracted Portuguese traders to Kerala, paved the way for European colonisation of India. At the time of Indian independence movement in the early 20th century, there were two major princely states in Kerala-Travancore State and the Kingdom of Cochin, they united to form the state of Thiru-Kochi in 1949. The Malabar region, in the northern part of Kerala had been a part of the Madras province of British India, which became a part of the Madras State post-independence. After the States Reorganisation Act, 1956, the modern-day state of Kerala was formed by merging the Malabar district of Madras State, the state of Thiru-Kochi, the taluk of Kasaragod in South Canara, a part of Madras State; the economy of Kerala is the 12th-largest state economy in India with ₹7.73 lakh crore in gross domestic product and a per capita GDP of ₹163,000. Kerala has the lowest positive population growth rate in India, 3.44%. The state has witnessed significant emigration to Arab states of the Persian Gulf during the Gulf Boom of the 1970s and early 1980s, its economy depends on remittances from a large Malayali expatriate community.
Hinduism is practised by more than half of the population, followed by Christianity. The culture is a synthesis of Aryan, Dravidian and European cultures, developed over millennia, under influences from other parts of India and abroad; the production of pepper and natural rubber contributes to the total national output. In the agricultural sector, tea, coffee and spices are important; the state's coastline extends for 595 kilometres, around 1.1 million people in the state are dependent on the fishery industry which contributes 3% to the state's income. The state has the highest media exposure in India with newspapers publishing in nine languages English and Malayalam. Kerala is one of the prominent tourist destinations of India, with backwaters, hill stations, Ayurvedic tourism and tropical greenery as its major attractions; the name Kerala has an uncertain etymology. One popular theory derives Kerala from alam; the word Kerala is first recorded as Keralaputra in a 3rd-century BCE rock inscription left by the Maurya emperor Ashoka, one of his edicts pertaining to welfare.
The inscription refers to the local ruler as Keralaputra. This contradicts the theory that Kera is from "coconut tree". At that time, one of three states in the region was called Cheralam in Classical Tamil: Chera and Kera are variants of the same word; the word Cheral refers to the oldest known dynasty of Kerala kings and is derived from the Proto-Tamil-Malayalam word for "lake". The earliest Sanskrit text to mention Kerala is the Aitareya Aranyaka of the Rigveda. Kerala is mentioned in the Ramayana and the Mahabharata, the two Hindu epics; the Skanda Purana mentions the ecclesiastical office of the Thachudaya Kaimal, referred to as Manikkam Keralar, synonymous with the deity of the Koodalmanikyam temple. Keralam may stem from the Classical Tamil chera alam; the Greco-Roman trade map. According to Tamil classic Purananuru, Chera king Senkuttuvan conquered the lands between Kanyakumari and the Himalayas. Lacking worthy enemies, he besieged the sea by throwing his spear into it. According to the 17th century Malayalam work Keralolpathi, the lands of Kerala were recovered from the sea by the axe-wielding warrior sage Parasurama, the sixth avatar of Vishnu.
Parasurama threw his axe across the sea, the water receded as far as it reached. According to legend, this new area of land extended from Gokarna to Kanyakumari; the land which rose from sea was filled with unsuitable for habitation. Out of respect and all snakes were appo
Kerala Tourism Development Corporation
The Kerala Tourism Development Corporation is a public sector undertaking that conducts and regulates the tourism activities in the Indian state of Kerala. The KTDC has offices across all the districts of Kerala; the agency operates hotels and tourist rest houses in key locations in the state. Its official slogan is "Official host to God's own country." It is one of the most profitable ventures of the Kerala government. Kerala was a unknown state among tourist circles until the early 1960s; the first initiative to popularize Kerala as a tourist destination was undertaken by Travancore's Prince Consort Col. Godavarma Raja started Kerala Tours Limited to popularize key tourist locations in Travancore Kingdom; when Travancore merged with India, Kerala Tours Limited became a private entity under the Travancore royal family. For more than 20 years since Independence, Kerala trend to ignore tourism as a key industry, leaving KTL and other private players to lead the role. In the 1960s, KTL struck gold, by collaborating with Thomas Cook and started popularizing Kovalam in western countries which started the advent of hippie culture in Kovalam Beach.
The strong inflow of tourists into Kovalam, started Kerala government to consider tourism as a key industry. Though it tried to nationalize Kerala Tours Limited, it soon fell into legal issues; this resulted in the government to think starting a new entity known as Kerala Tourism Development Corporation IN 1966. Started as a government department, KTDC became a separate commercial entity by the 1970s. Several premium guest houses of Kerala Government were converted into hotel brands. Lt. Col. G. V. Raja was the President of Tourism Promotion Council of Kerala, he was the main architect in developing Kovalam as an international tourist spot. To promote Kerala as a leading tourist destination To identify key tourist destinations within Kerala and promote it outside To provide auxiliary support in developing key tourist destinations To provide highest quality hospitality services to tourists To act as one-source destination for various informations regarding tourist destinations and other related informations.
To ensure higher returns to government, through financial and social viable projects, thereby provide employment KTDC owns more than 40 properties ranging from heritage five-star resorts to budget accommodation, managed under five brands in hotel category and 2 in non hotel hospitality category KTDC owns 3 flagship properties known for its historical importance. Bolgatty Island Resort in Kochi, which houses the Bolgatty Palace, a heritage property, the largest Dutch palace outside the Netherlands. Built in 1635 as Palace of Dutch Governor of India, this soon became British Residency for Travancore-Cochin Kingdoms; the palace is part of Bolgatty resort which has another property, branded as Island Resort, which has a nine-course golf club, horsing tracks and other facilities. Mascot Hotel Trivandrum, located in state capital Thiruvananthapuram is a heritage property built in 1902 which used to accommodate Travancore Army officials and Army Center until 1949. Lake Palace, a former summer palace of the King of Travancore, is on an island in the middle of the Periyar Lake — 20 minutes by boat from the mainland, located inside the Periyar Tiger Reserve.
KTDC has 7 resort styled hotel properties aiming for leisure travellers. All properties in the premium range are individually branded. Marina House: KTDC manages India's first marina which includes a 24-room hotel, Marina House, located in Bolgatty Island, Kochi; the facility features 34 berthing spaces of yachts and Marina Club House for travellers to unwind their journeys with facilities for embarkation and disembarkation process. Bolgatty Island Resort- Part of Bolgatty Island, the resort features a world class urban resort with a nine course golf course, a horse track, honeymoon cottages and private gardens. Aranya Nivas Thekkady built within Periyar National Park is a five-star jungle lodge. Waterscapes Kumarakom is a group of lake cottage suites built over Vembanadu Lake in the tourist destination Kumarakom. Samudra Beach Kovalam, a five-star property in Kovalam Beach Tea County Munnar, a heritage colonial tea estate bungalow refurnished as a four-star hotel Suvasam Lake Resort Alapuzha, is a latest property located close to Thaneermukkam Bund overlooking the mighty Vembandu Lake.
KTDC has three-star "value plus" range hotels across five districts of Kerala. Most of the hotels are designed to cater business and upper-segment family market; each value plus hotel property is themed around its location. Golden Peak Ponmudi: Honeymoon Hotel Chitaram Thiruvananthapuram: City Business Hotel Nandhanam Guruvayur: Pilgrim Hotel Periyar House Thekkady: Jungle Safari Lodge Garden House Malampuzha: Picnic Hotel Peppergrove Wayanad: Spice Garden Hotel Raindrops Chennai. Business class hotel. Tamarind Easy is a series of 15 budget hotels spread across Kerala. Major cities including Kollam, Alappuzha and Kannur have Tamarind hotels KTDC was one of the first hospitality chains in India to start series of motels across major state and national highways; the motels are branded as Aaram. Every Aaram has a large restaurant, rest rooms and many motels have dormitories as well as a medical center. A few designated Aarams do have beer parlors. KTDC manages 2 properties under Non Hotel Hospitality category.
The Bolgatty Events Center, a 5 star convention center facility located in Bolgatty Island Resort in Kochi is the flagship
The Hindu is an Indian daily newspaper, headquartered in Chennai. It was started as a weekly in 1878 and became a daily in 1889, it is one of the Indian newspapers of record and the second most circulated English-language newspaper in India, after The Times of India with average qualifying sales of 1.21 million copies as of Jan–Jun 2017. The newspaper and other publications in The Hindu Group are owned by a family-held company and Sons Ltd; the newspaper employed over 1,600 workers and annual turnover reached $200 million according to data from 2010. Most of the revenue comes from subscription; the Hindu became, in 1995. As of March 2018, The Hindu is published from 21 locations across 11 states: Bengaluru, Hyderabad, Thiruvananthapuram, Kolkata, Coimbatore, Noida, Kochi, Tiruchirappalli, Mohali, Kozhikode, Tirupati and Patna; the Hindu was founded in Madras on 20 September 1878 as a weekly newspaper, by what was known as the Triplicane Six consisting of 4 law students and 2 teachers:- T. T. Rangacharya, P. V. Rangacharya, D. Kesava Rao Pantulu and N. Subba Rao Pantulu, led by G. Subramania Iyer and M. Veeraraghavacharyar, a lecturer at Pachaiyappa's College.
Started in order to support the campaign of Sir T. Muthuswamy Iyer for a judgeship at the Madras High Court and to counter the propaganda against him carried out by the Anglo-Indian press, The Hindu was one of the many newspapers of the period established to protest the policies of the British Raj. About 100 copies of the inaugural issue were printed at Srinidhi Press, Georgetown on one rupee and twelves annas of borrowed money. Subramania Iyer became the first editor and Veera Raghavacharya, the first managing director of the newspaper; the paper was printed from Srinidhi Press but moved to Scottish Press to The Hindu Press, Mylapore. Started as a weekly newspaper, the paper became a tri-weekly in 1883 and an evening daily in 1889. A single copy of the newspaper was priced at four annas; the offices moved to rented premises at 100 Mount Road on 3 December 1883. The newspaper started printing at its own press there, named "The National Press,", established on borrowed capital as public subscriptions were not forthcoming.
The building itself became The Hindu's in 1892, after the Maharaja of Vizianagaram, Pusapati Ananda Gajapati Raju, gave The National Press a loan both for the building and to carry out needed expansion. The Hindu was liberal in its outlook and is now considered left leaning, its editorial stances have earned it the nickname, the'Maha Vishnu of Mount Road'. "From the new address, 100 Mount Road, to remain The Hindu's home till 1939, there issued a quarto-size paper with a front-page full of advertisements—a practice that came to an end only in 1958 when it followed the lead of its idol, the pre-Thomson Times —and three back pages at the service of the advertiser. In between, there were more views than news." After 1887, when the annual session of Indian National Congress was held in Madras, the paper's coverage of national news increased and led to the paper becoming an evening daily starting 1 April 1889. The partnership between Veeraraghavachariar and Subramania Iyer was dissolved in October 1898.
Iyer quit the paper and Veeraraghavachariar became the sole owner and appointed C. Karunakara Menon as editor. However, The Hindu's adventurousness began to decline in the 1900s and so did its circulation, down to 800 copies when the sole proprietor decided to sell out; the purchaser was The Hindu's Legal Adviser from 1895, S. Kasturi Ranga Iyengar, a politically ambitious lawyer who had migrated from a Kumbakonam village to practise in Coimbatore and from thence to Madras. In the late 1985s, when its ownership passed into the hands of the family's younger members, a change in political leaning was observed. Worldpress.org lists The Hindu as a left-leaning independent newspaper. Joint managing director N. Murali said in July 2003, "It is true that our readers have been complaining that some of our reports are partial and lack objectivity, but it depends on reader beliefs." N. Ram was appointed on 27 June 2003 as its editor-in-chief with a mandate to "improve the structures and other mechanisms to uphold and strengthen quality and objectivity in news reports and opinion pieces", authorised to "restructure the editorial framework and functions in line with the competitive environment".
On 3 and 23 September 2003, the reader's letters column carried responses from readers saying the editorial was biased. An editorial in August 2003 observed that the newspaper was affected by the'editorialising as news reporting' virus, expressed a determination to buck the trend, restore the professionally sound lines of demarcation, strengthen objectivity and factuality in its coverage. In 1987–88, The Hindu's coverage of the Bofors arms deal scandal, a series of document-backed exclusives, set the terms of the national political discourse on this subject; the Bofors scandal broke in April 1987 with Swedish Radio alleging that bribes had been paid to top Indian political leaders and Army officers in return for the Swedish arms manufacturing company winning a hefty contract with the Government of India for the purchase of 155 mm howitzers. During a six-month period, the newspaper published scores of copies of original papers that documented the secret payments, amounting to $50 million, into Swiss bank accounts, the agreements behind the payments, communications relating to the payments and the crisis response, other material.
The investigation was led by a part-time correspondent of The Hindu, Ch
India known as the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh largest country by area and with more than 1.3 billion people, it is the second most populous country as well as the most populous democracy in the world. Bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, the Bay of Bengal on the southeast, it shares land borders with Pakistan to the west. In the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives, while its Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a maritime border with Thailand and Indonesia; the Indian subcontinent was home to the urban Indus Valley Civilisation of the 3rd millennium BCE. In the following millennium, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism began to be composed. Social stratification, based on caste, emerged in the first millennium BCE, Buddhism and Jainism arose. Early political consolidations took place under the Gupta empires. In the medieval era, Zoroastrianism and Islam arrived, Sikhism emerged, all adding to the region's diverse culture.
Much of the north fell to the Delhi Sultanate. The economy expanded in the 17th century in the Mughal Empire. In the mid-18th century, the subcontinent came under British East India Company rule, in the mid-19th under British Crown rule. A nationalist movement emerged in the late 19th century, which under Mahatma Gandhi, was noted for nonviolent resistance and led to India's independence in 1947. In 2017, the Indian economy was the world's sixth largest by nominal GDP and third largest by purchasing power parity. Following market-based economic reforms in 1991, India became one of the fastest-growing major economies and is considered a newly industrialised country. However, it continues to face the challenges of poverty, corruption and inadequate public healthcare. A nuclear weapons state and regional power, it has the second largest standing army in the world and ranks fifth in military expenditure among nations. India is a federal republic governed under a parliamentary system and consists of 29 states and 7 union territories.
A pluralistic and multi-ethnic society, it is home to a diversity of wildlife in a variety of protected habitats. The name India is derived from Indus, which originates from the Old Persian word Hindush, equivalent to the Sanskrit word Sindhu, the historical local appellation for the Indus River; the ancient Greeks referred to the Indians as Indoi, which translates as "The people of the Indus". The geographical term Bharat, recognised by the Constitution of India as an official name for the country, is used by many Indian languages in its variations, it is a modernisation of the historical name Bharatavarsha, which traditionally referred to the Indian subcontinent and gained increasing currency from the mid-19th century as a native name for India. Hindustan is a Middle Persian name for India, it was introduced into India by the Mughals and used since then. Its meaning varied, referring to a region that encompassed northern India and Pakistan or India in its entirety; the name may refer to either the northern part of India or the entire country.
The earliest known human remains in South Asia date to about 30,000 years ago. Nearly contemporaneous human rock art sites have been found in many parts of the Indian subcontinent, including at the Bhimbetka rock shelters in Madhya Pradesh. After 6500 BCE, evidence for domestication of food crops and animals, construction of permanent structures, storage of agricultural surplus, appeared in Mehrgarh and other sites in what is now Balochistan; these developed into the Indus Valley Civilisation, the first urban culture in South Asia, which flourished during 2500–1900 BCE in what is now Pakistan and western India. Centred around cities such as Mohenjo-daro, Harappa and Kalibangan, relying on varied forms of subsistence, the civilization engaged robustly in crafts production and wide-ranging trade. During the period 2000–500 BCE, many regions of the subcontinent transitioned from the Chalcolithic cultures to the Iron Age ones; the Vedas, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism, were composed during this period, historians have analysed these to posit a Vedic culture in the Punjab region and the upper Gangetic Plain.
Most historians consider this period to have encompassed several waves of Indo-Aryan migration into the subcontinent from the north-west. The caste system, which created a hierarchy of priests and free peasants, but which excluded indigenous peoples by labeling their occupations impure, arose during this period. On the Deccan Plateau, archaeological evidence from this period suggests the existence of a chiefdom stage of political organisation. In South India, a progression to sedentary life is indicated by the large number of megalithic monuments dating from this period, as well as by nearby traces of agriculture, irrigation tanks, craft traditions. In the late Vedic period, around the 6th century BCE, the small states and chiefdoms of the Ganges Plain and the north-western regions had consolidated into 16 major oligarchies and monarchies that were known as the mahajanapadas; the emerging urbanisation gave rise to non-Vedic religious movements, two of which became independent religions. Jainism came into prominence during the life of Mahavira.
Buddhism, based on the teachings of Gautama Buddha, attracted followers from all social classes excepting the middle