2 Marsham Street
2 Marsham Street is an office building on Marsham Street in the City of Westminster and has been the headquarters of the Home Office, a department of the British Government, since March 2005. Before this date the Home Office was located at 50 Queen Anne's Gate, it has housed the headquarters of the Department for Environment and Rural Affairs since 2018. The site was occupied by the Departments of Environment and Transport; the headquarters offices of both departments were located in Marsham Towers - three 20-floor concrete towers joined together by'podium' floors to level 3. The towers won an architectural award and boasted express lifts, marble entrances and escalators to the 3rd floor - modern government offices for the early 1970s. Construction had started in the early 1960s but was completed in 1971 and became the office of the new Department of Environment created in October 1970; the towers were considered by some to be a blot on London’s landscape and were subsequently nicknamed "the three ugly sisters" and "the toast rack".
Michael Heseltine, the Secretary of State for the Environment in the late 1970s and early 1980s said that the building offered the best view of London – because one could not see the towers from his north-facing 16th floor North tower office. Chris Patten called the complex "a building that depresses the spirit"; the last government staff occupied the building in the late 1990s. The building was declared unfit for future use and the towers were demolished in 2003 to make way for the new building into which the Home Office moved in 2005. Prior to the'ugly sisters' epoch, from about 1818, the site housed the Chartered Gas Works of the Westminster Gas Light and Coke Company, as well as a laundry yard. Soon after the building opened in 2005, agencies of the Home Office like Her Majesty's Passport Office and the Advisory Council on the Misuse of Drugs began moving to new offices. Since August 2014 to autumn 2018, building has been home to the Department for Communities and Local Government, the Homes and Communities Agency and the Building Regulations Advisory Committee.
In 2018, the Department for Environment and Rural Affairs relocated to 2 Marsham Street. In 2018, the Homes England moved to Windsor House. Designed by Terry Farrell, the new building was financed through the private finance initiative model with French construction firm Bouygues as contractor, it was completed within 24 months. The cost of £311 million will be spread over 29 years and will be met by the issue of bonds; the site is made up of three buildings, designated Seacole and Fry. They are named after Mary Seacole, Robert Peel and Elizabeth Fry, figures who had significant impacts in areas within the Home Office's responsibility; the buildings are connected by a bridge from the 1st to the 4th floors, forming part of a corridor that runs the whole length of the building. Staff call this corridor'The Street'. During design, the emphasis was on creating a building with a community feel. To that end, the open-plan offices are well lit, situated around three central atria and overlooking turfed'pocket parks'.
The building has been constructed to be energy efficient and to fall well within government energy-expenditure targets. The approachable effect of the building is enhanced by art-work by Liam Gillick who used coloured glass to change the feel of the building depending on the light conditions; the site contains 800,000 sq ft of office space. Part of the old Marsham Towers site was turned over to blocks of residential flats and restaurants behind the new Home Office building. Since its completion in early 2005, 2 Marsham Street has been well received by the architectural community, winning a RIBA Award for Architecture, a Leading European Architects Forum and MIPIM 2006 Awards. Giles Worsley, architecture critic of The Daily Telegraph, called the building "a triumph of urban repair"; the contractor's provision of the building within the time-frame required has been praised. The Home Secretary at the time of the building's completion, Charles Clarke, has stated "By moving to a newer, more efficient headquarters, the Home Office will save taxpayers around £95m.
This will contribute to the Home Office's programme to save £1.97bn so that we can target more money at front line services like policing and border control." National Audit Office report on 2 Marsham Street
ExCeL is an exhibitions and international convention centre in Custom House area of Canning Town, East London. It is located on a 100-acre site on the northern quay of the Royal Victoria Dock in London Docklands, between Canary Wharf and London City Airport, is located within the London Borough of Newham; the centre was built by Sir Robert McAlpine and first opened in November 2000. In May 2008, it was acquired by Abu Dhabi National Exhibitions Company. Phase II of development, which included building London's first International Convention Centre and creating an eastern arrival experience, was completed on 1 May 2010. In 2015, ExCeL announced the opening of CentrEd at ExCeL, a dedicated training and meetings space located close to the western entrance of the venue overlooking Royal Victoria Dock, adding to ExCeL's wide range of flexible spaces; the Royal Victoria Dock closed to commercial traffic in 1981, but it is still accessible to shipping. The centre's waterfront location allows visiting vessels to moor alongside the centre.
The exhibition building itself consists of two column-free, subdividable halls of 479,493 square feet each, on either side of a central boulevard containing catering facilities and information points. There are three sets of function rooms, one overlooking the water, another above the western end of the central boulevard, the third on the north side of the building; these are used for smaller meetings, seminars and corporate hospitality. There are 3,700 parking spaces on the campus. ExCeL London has hosted numerous consumer and trade and public events including exhibitions, concerts and religious events since its opening in 2000. Among these have been WorldSkills London 2011, London Boat Show, British International Motor Show, Grand Designs Live, Carole Nash MCN Motorcycle Show, MCM London Comic Con, London International Music Show, Star Wars Celebration Europe, London Marathon registration, World Travel Market, The Clothes Show London, Defence Security and Equipment International, The Dive Show, Global Peace and Unity Event, the 2009 G-20 London Summit, IP Expo Europe and Summer in the City.
In 2011, ExCeL London was awarded the Business Superbrand 2011. The site welcomed its 20 millionth visitor on 18 June 2014. ExCeL has been awarded'Venue of the Year' on several occasions at various industry ceremonies. In 2012, ExCeL hosted several events for the Olympics and Paralympics and have since erected a legacy wall featuring the hand prints of the athletes that won Gold at the venue and the former Mayor of London Boris Johnson. In 2014, ExCeL hosted the Global Summit to End Sexual Violence in Conflict, chaired by American actress and UN Special Envoy Angelina Jolie and attended by 79 Ministers from 123 country delegations. ExCeL London is served by two Docklands Light Railway stations, which span the full 600-metre length of the venue; the western entrance is directly linked to Custom House for ExCeL station and serves the Platinum Suite, the event halls and is located next to the iconic glass pyramid. From 2018 the western entrance of ExCeL will be served by the Elizabeth Line, better known as Crossrail, connecting the venue to central London in just 12 minutes and providing a direct link to Heathrow Airport.
The eastern entrance is connected to Prince Regent station. The eastern entrance serves the International Convention Centre, opened in 2010 by then-Mayor Boris Johnson and is the London's first and only ICC. During major shows with large visitor attendances, extra shuttle trains are run between the venue and Canning Town station, with interchange at Canning Town station to London Underground's Jubilee line. ExCeL London is located near London City Airport station; the DLR and a number of dual-carriageway roads connect the centre to the airport and the important nearby office-and-commercial district of Canary Wharf. Since June 2012, the Emirates Air Line cable car now links ExCeL to The O2 on the Greenwich Peninsula. ExCeL London participates in the UN Global Compact Scheme, the world's largest corporate sustainability initiative which invites companies to align with universal principles on human rights, labour and anti-corruption; as part of this scheme, ExCeL produces an annual communication on progress addressing the issues of Human Rights, Labour and Anti-Corruption.
Since joining the scheme in August 2007, ExCeL has undertaken a series of initiatives to reduce energy usage, increase recycling efforts and increase transparency across the business – shown by the introduction of a Whistleblowing hotline in May 2015. Despite this, there are no water bottle refilling facilities at the venue, forcing the purchase of water bottles. Open to all visitors, contractors and staff. ExCeL publishes details of its corporate social responsibility efforts publicly in the UN Global Compact report and on their website. ExCeL invests in the local community of Newham by supporting select charities, chiefly Newham All Star Sports Academy and Community Food Enterprise. ExCeL provides space free of charge to local schools and sports teams, in addition to hosting an annual event called'ExCeL in the Arts' for local children to attend. In 2016, ExCeL welcomed London celebrity chef and entrepreneur Levi Roots, who in collaboration with a local food initiative organised a cooking class for local children For the 2012 Summer Olympics, ExCeL London was divided into five sports halls with capacities ranging from 4,000 to 6,000 that were used for boxing, judo
Sir John Leslie Martin was an English architect, a leading advocate of the International Style. Martin's most famous building is the Royal Festival Hall, his work was influenced by Alvar Aalto. After studying at Manchester University Leslie Martin taught at the University of Hull. In 1937 he co-edited with Ben Nicholson and Naum Gabo the journal Circle that reviewed avant-garde abstract art and architecture. In 1939 Martin, his wife, Sadie Speight, co-wrote The flat book, published by Hutchinson. During the Second World War Martin was assigned to the pre-nationalisation Railway companies to supervise re-building of bomb damaged regional rail stations. In this capacity Martin developed pre-fabricated designs to speed construction. Following the war Martin was made a Deputy Architect to the London County Council and in 1948 Hugh Casson selected him to lead the design team for the Royal Festival Hall, the most prestigious building project of the Festival of Britain. In part in recognition of his achievement Martin was made Chief Architect of the LCC in 1953 and used his position to promote emerging younger architects Colin St. John Wilson, James Stirling, Alison and Peter Smithson.
From 1956, he was made head of the Architecture School at Cambridge University where Colin St John Wilson was his assistant. He was Slade Professor of Fine Art at the University of Oxford for 1965–66. Martin was involved with Patrick Hodgkinson in the Brunswick Centre, an early experiment in planned mixed-use development in Bloomsbury, completed; the 1950s saw the creation of the Loughborough Estate in Brixton, South London, designed by Martin. In the 1960s the British government commissioned Martin to draw plans for a wholesale demolition and redevelopment of the area between St James's Park and the Thames Embankment in London, it would have involved the demolition of most of the Victorian and Edwardian government offices in Whitehall, which were scheduled for demolition, left the Banqueting Hall as a traffic island and the original Scotland Yard building enveloped in the middle of a courtyard of offices. The plans met with determined opposition from the public and conservation groups the Victorian Society, their implementation was delayed.
The Heath Government formally abandoned Martin's plan in 1971. The existing buildings were subsequently opened to the public. Taking a broader view of Martin's work, a picture emerges of the man as a quiet achiever par excellence. Through his skilled networking in support of promising younger architects, his self-effacing work on committees, he influenced the course of post-war British architecture. "He was efficient, impeccably well networked and calmly authoritative, justifying his advice with his immense architectural expertise and his scientific investigations of planning needs." Martin with Wilson completed a number of academic buildings including halls of residence Harvey Court for Gonville and Caius College, one of the most important examples of brick brutalism, the William Stone Building for Peterhouse. Martin was the masterplanner for Leicester University. One of his projects was an extension to Kettle's Yard Art Gallery to house the works of Dame Barbara Hepworth, Ben Nicholson, others.
Martin and his wife, Sadie Speight, were responsible for the modernist house Brackenfell in Brampton, Cumbria. Designed in 1936 and completed in'38 for textile designer and artist Alastair Morton, of Edinburgh Weavers; the interior colour scheme was reputedly designed by Ben Nicholson who lived locally when married to Winifred Roberts. Brackenfell is still a private house. Carolin, Peter. "Martin, Sir Leslie". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. Doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/74528
Lend Lease Project Management & Construction
Lendlease Project Management & Construction is the international project management and construction division of Lendlease Group. The origins of Lendlease Project Management & Construction date back to the establishment of C. W. Bovis & Co by Charles William Bovis in London in 1885, it changed hands in 1908 when it was acquired by his cousin, Sidney Gluckstein. Bovis was one of the few construction companies to go public in the 1920s, during which time it developed an extensive retail clientele, by far the most important and long lasting of, Marks & Spencer. Central to the relationship with Marks was the pioneering Bovis System contract, designed to bring the interests of the contractor and client together: “the Bovis System pays the builder the prime cost of the work plus an agreed fee to cover overheads and profit; the client receives any savings during construction instead of the contractor.” During World War II, Bovis built the munitions factory at Swynnerton and worked on Mulberry harbour units.
At the end of hostilities, Bovis resumed work for the private sector and in the early 1950s, the company moved into housing. Following the acquisition of Frank Sanderson's business in 1967, Bovis Homes expanded and became one of the largest housebuilders by the early 1970s. Frank Sanderson was to change radically the future of Bovis, he was appointed Managing Director of Bovis Holdings in January 1970, Chairman and Chief Executive in August 1972. After a number of housing acquisitions, Sanderson attempted to obtain control of P&O by means of a reverse takeover. An initial agreement was followed by a boardroom and shareholder revolt at P&O and at the end of 1972 the merger failed. There was boardroom dissension, too, at Bovis and Sanderson was forced out in September 1973. One of Sanderson’s acquisitions, in 1971, had been Twentieth Century Banking, two years the secondary banking crisis created a run on deposits at the Bovis banking subsidiary; the crisis came to a head in December 1973 when National Westminster Bank refused to provide the necessary funds.
A rescue of Bovis was inevitable and the rescuer proved to be P&O: in March 1974 Bovis became a subsidiary of P&O. From 1985 the company was led by Sir Frank Lampl, who changed it from a British concern into an international contractor. Bovis Homes was demerged in 1997, floated on the London Stock Exchange; the company was bought by Lend Lease Corporation in 1999. In 2008, the company and a subcontractor abatement firm, the John Galt Corporation, were charged with numerous OSHA safety violations after a fire broke out and killed two firefighters at the Deutsche Bank Building, a Manhattan skyscraper being demolished in the wake of the September 11 attacks; the violations included an employee of "Lend Lease's Project Management & Construction Business" filling out a safety check list that identified a stand-pipe as being present and functional - when it was disconnected in a hard to see spot. The firemen consulted the check list, thought they had a good system and proceeded up into the building to fight the fire.
Only when they reached the dangerous area, on fire, did they realize the system did not have any water pressure, they died trying to retreat amid the confusion. As of June 2011, two out of the three individuals charged in the associated manslaughter and criminally negligent homicide case have been acquitted. On 17 February 2011 Lend Lease announced wider ranging changes to its group of brands; this announcement resulted in the retirement of the Bovis Lend Lease, Delfin Lend Lease, Vivas Lend Lease, Catalyst Lend Lease, Retirement by Design and Lend Lease Primelife brands and the instatement of Lend Lease as the primary and only brand across the business' operation's globally. Under the rebrand and internal structural changes, the company was re-identified as Lend Lease Project Management & Construction, was no longer a separate entity, but "a strategic business unit of the Lend Lease Group". In 2012, Lend Lease agreed to pay $56 million in fines and restitution after admitting that the company had over-billed clients and evaded government rules regarding the hiring of women and minority-owned firms.
For a ten-year time span ending in 2009, the company along with others devised a scheme to defraud federal and local government contracting agencies as well as private clients. The fine is the largest in the city's history. On 29 October 2012 the long boom of a Lend Lease construction crane atop the 1,004 foot high One57 snapped during Hurricane Sandy forcing the evacuation of several buildings in Midtown Manhattan. In October 2018, Lendlease was announced as a contender for a £330 million contract to renovate Manchester's Town Hall. Manchester's Opposition Leader and former MP John Leech uncovered a history of legal and worker safety controversy surrounding the two shortlisted companies, he said that "Under no circumstances" should Lendlease be considered for a council contract again until they paid a £3 million Grenfell-style cladding bill in the Green Quarter of Manchester. In January 2019, Lendlease was announced as the winner of the contract. Leech said it showed a lack of concern for local people.
The company has managed construction projects worldwide, including retail developments and airport terminals. Lend Lease's Project Management & Construction Business has a significant presence in Australia, Asia and the United States. Key sector expertise includes commercial, residential, government and pharmaceutical; as a major contractor in the UK, Lend Lease Project Management & Construction is a contractor member o
Secretary of State for Housing, Communities and Local Government
The Secretary of State for Housing and Local Government, or informally Communities Secretary is a Cabinet position heading the UK's Ministry of Housing and Local Government known as the Department for Communities and Local Government from 2006 to 2018. This department was created in 2006 by British prime minister Tony Blair to replace the Office of the Deputy Prime Minister; the Secretary of State took over the responsibilities of the Minister of State for Communities and Local Government. This post, within the Office of the Deputy Prime Minister, was created in 2005, on the transfer of several of the functions of the Deputy Prime Minister, John Prescott; as well as general responsibilities within the department's remit, the Secretary of State has the power to determine "called in" planning applications and "recovered" appeals in England
London is the capital and largest city of both England and the United Kingdom. Standing on the River Thames in the south-east of England, at the head of its 50-mile estuary leading to the North Sea, London has been a major settlement for two millennia. Londinium was founded by the Romans; the City of London, London's ancient core − an area of just 1.12 square miles and colloquially known as the Square Mile − retains boundaries that follow its medieval limits. The City of Westminster is an Inner London borough holding city status. Greater London is governed by the Mayor of the London Assembly. London is considered to be one of the world's most important global cities and has been termed the world's most powerful, most desirable, most influential, most visited, most expensive, sustainable, most investment friendly, most popular for work, the most vegetarian friendly city in the world. London exerts a considerable impact upon the arts, education, fashion, healthcare, professional services and development, tourism and transportation.
London ranks 26 out of 300 major cities for economic performance. It is one of the largest financial centres and has either the fifth or sixth largest metropolitan area GDP, it is the most-visited city as measured by international arrivals and has the busiest city airport system as measured by passenger traffic. It is the leading investment destination, hosting more international retailers and ultra high-net-worth individuals than any other city. London's universities form the largest concentration of higher education institutes in Europe. In 2012, London became the first city to have hosted three modern Summer Olympic Games. London has a diverse range of people and cultures, more than 300 languages are spoken in the region, its estimated mid-2016 municipal population was 8,787,892, the most populous of any city in the European Union and accounting for 13.4% of the UK population. London's urban area is the second most populous in the EU, after Paris, with 9,787,426 inhabitants at the 2011 census.
The population within the London commuter belt is the most populous in the EU with 14,040,163 inhabitants in 2016. London was the world's most populous city from c. 1831 to 1925. London contains four World Heritage Sites: the Tower of London. Other landmarks include Buckingham Palace, the London Eye, Piccadilly Circus, St Paul's Cathedral, Tower Bridge, Trafalgar Square and The Shard. London has numerous museums, galleries and sporting events; these include the British Museum, National Gallery, Natural History Museum, Tate Modern, British Library and West End theatres. The London Underground is the oldest underground railway network in the world. "London" is an ancient name, attested in the first century AD in the Latinised form Londinium. Over the years, the name has attracted many mythicising explanations; the earliest attested appears in Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historia Regum Britanniae, written around 1136. This had it that the name originated from a supposed King Lud, who had taken over the city and named it Kaerlud.
Modern scientific analyses of the name must account for the origins of the different forms found in early sources Latin, Old English, Welsh, with reference to the known developments over time of sounds in those different languages. It is agreed; this was adapted into Latin as Londinium and borrowed into Old English, the ancestor-language of English. The toponymy of the Common Brythonic form is much debated. A prominent explanation was Richard Coates's 1998 argument that the name derived from pre-Celtic Old European *lowonida, meaning "river too wide to ford". Coates suggested that this was a name given to the part of the River Thames which flows through London. However, most work has accepted a Celtic origin for the name, recent studies have favoured an explanation along the lines of a Celtic derivative of a proto-Indo-European root *lendh-, combined with the Celtic suffix *-injo- or *-onjo-. Peter Schrijver has suggested, on these grounds, that the name meant'place that floods'; until 1889, the name "London" applied to the City of London, but since it has referred to the County of London and Greater London.
"London" is sometimes written informally as "LDN". In 1993, the remains of a Bronze Age bridge were found on the south foreshore, upstream of Vauxhall Bridge; this bridge either reached a now lost island in it. Two of those timbers were radiocarbon dated to between 1750 BC and 1285 BC. In 2010 the foundations of a large timber structure, dated to between 4800 BC and 4500 BC, were found on the Thames's south foreshore, downstream of Vauxhall Bridge; the function of the mesolithic structure is not known. Both structures are on the south bank. Although there is evidence of scattered Brythonic settlements in the area, the first major settlement was founded by the Romans about four years after the invasion
The United Kingdom the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, sometimes referred to as Britain, is a sovereign country located off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world; the Irish Sea lies between Great Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world, it is the 22nd-most populous country, with an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants in 2017. The UK is constitutional monarchy; the current monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 1952, making her the longest-serving current head of state.
The United Kingdom's capital and largest city is London, a global city and financial centre with an urban area population of 10.3 million. Other major urban areas in the UK include Greater Manchester, the West Midlands and West Yorkshire conurbations, Greater Glasgow and the Liverpool Built-up Area; the United Kingdom consists of four constituent countries: England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Their capitals are London, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. Apart from England, the countries have their own devolved governments, each with varying powers, but such power is delegated by the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which may enact laws unilaterally altering or abolishing devolution; the nearby Isle of Man, Bailiwick of Guernsey and Bailiwick of Jersey are not part of the UK, being Crown dependencies with the British Government responsible for defence and international representation. The medieval conquest and subsequent annexation of Wales by the Kingdom of England, followed by the union between England and Scotland in 1707 to form the Kingdom of Great Britain, the union in 1801 of Great Britain with the Kingdom of Ireland created the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. There are fourteen British Overseas Territories, the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, encompassed a quarter of the world's land mass and was the largest empire in history. British influence can be observed in the language and political systems of many of its former colonies; the United Kingdom is a developed country and has the world's fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest economy by purchasing power parity. It has a high-income economy and has a high Human Development Index rating, ranking 14th in the world, it was the world's first industrialised country and the world's foremost power during the 19th and early 20th centuries. The UK remains a great power, with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally, it is sixth in military expenditure in the world. It has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946.
It has been a leading member state of the European Union and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. The United Kingdom is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the Council of Europe, the G7, the G20, NATO, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the World Trade Organization; the 1707 Acts of Union declared that the kingdoms of England and Scotland were "United into One Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain". The term "United Kingdom" has been used as a description for the former kingdom of Great Britain, although its official name from 1707 to 1800 was "Great Britain"; the Acts of Union 1800 united the kingdom of Great Britain and the kingdom of Ireland in 1801, forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Following the partition of Ireland and the independence of the Irish Free State in 1922, which left Northern Ireland as the only part of the island of Ireland within the United Kingdom, the name was changed to the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland".
Although the United Kingdom is a sovereign country, Scotland and Northern Ireland are widely referred to as countries. The UK Prime Minister's website has used the phrase "countries within a country" to describe the United Kingdom; some statistical summaries, such as those for the twelve NUTS 1 regions of the United Kingdom refer to Scotland and Northern Ireland as "regions". Northern Ireland is referred to as a "province". With regard to Northern Ireland, the descriptive name used "can be controversial, with the choice revealing one's political preferences"; the term "Great Britain" conventionally refers to the island of Great Britain, or politically to England and Wales in combination. However, it is sometimes used as a loose synonym for the United Kingdom as a whole; the term "Britain" is used both as a synonym for Great Britain, as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Usage is mixed, with the BBC preferring to use Britain as shorthand only for Great Britain and the UK Government, while accepting that both terms refer to the United K