Brisbane Magistrates Court building
The Brisbane Magistrates Court building is located at 363 George Street, Brisbane in Queensland, Australia. The building is one of the many locations in the state that houses the Magistrates Court of Queensland; the building is a modern, purpose-built facility which contains 26 courtrooms. These include a dedicated two Coroners courts and four Small Claims hearing rooms; the building has the capacity to expand to 39 courtrooms. Construction started in September 2002 and the building was opened on 16 November 2004 by the Premier, Peter Beattie; the total budget for the project was A$135.5 million. The building was designed to provide improved support for victims and their families, to vulnerable witnesses, it contains a range of environmentally sustainable design initiatives including economy-cycle air conditioning, energy efficient lighting, rainwater tanks that hold 46 000 litres of water for use on external landscaping, motion sensors that lower air-conditioning and lighting when rooms are unoccupied, extensive use of passive sun control and low energy glass, solar hot water, waste streaming systems.
The Brisbane Magistrates Court building is one of the largest infrastructure projects to incorporate the Queensland Government's Art Built-in policy, which requires two per cent of the capital works budget to be spent on art projects within the development. The building features a range of public artworks including sculptures and paintings. Urban design review of Brisbane Magistrates Court
Premier of Queensland
The Premier of Queensland is the head of government in the Australian state of Queensland. By convention the Premier is the leader of the party with a parliamentary majority in the unicameral Legislative Assembly of Queensland; the Premier is appointed by the Governor of Queensland. The incumbent Premier of Queensland since the 2015 election is Annastacia Palaszczuk of the Labor Party. Under section 42 of the Constitution of Queensland the Premier and other members of Cabinet are appointed by the Governor and are collectively responsible to Parliament; the text of the Constitution assigns to the Premier certain powers, such as the power to assign roles to Assistant Ministers, to appoint Ministers as acting Ministers for a period of 14 days. In practice, under the conventions of the Westminster System followed in Queensland, the Premier's power is derived from two sources: command of a majority in the Legislative Assembly, the Premier's role as chair of Cabinet, determining the appointment and roles of Ministers.
Although ministerial appointments are the prerogative of the Governor of Queensland, in normal circumstances the Governor will make these appointments under the "advice" of the Premier. Following an election for the Legislative Assembly, the Governor will call on the leader of the party which commands a majority in the Legislative Assembly, ask them to commission a government. A re-elected government will be resworn, with adjustments to the ministry as determined by the Premier; the Premier has an office in the Executive Annexe of Parliament House, used while Parliament is sitting. At other times the Premier's ministerial office is in 1 William Street, across the road from the Executive Annexe. Before the 1890s, there was no developed party system in Queensland. Political affiliation labels. Before the end of the first decade of the twentieth century, political parties were more akin to parliamentary factions, were fluid and disorganised by modern standards; as of February 2015, six former premiers are alive.
The most recent premier to die was Wayne Goss, on 10 November 2014. List of Premiers of Queensland by time in office Government of Queensland Politics of Queensland
Lend Lease Project Management & Construction
Lendlease Project Management & Construction is the international project management and construction division of Lendlease Group. The origins of Lendlease Project Management & Construction date back to the establishment of C. W. Bovis & Co by Charles William Bovis in London in 1885, it changed hands in 1908 when it was acquired by his cousin, Sidney Gluckstein. Bovis was one of the few construction companies to go public in the 1920s, during which time it developed an extensive retail clientele, by far the most important and long lasting of, Marks & Spencer. Central to the relationship with Marks was the pioneering Bovis System contract, designed to bring the interests of the contractor and client together: “the Bovis System pays the builder the prime cost of the work plus an agreed fee to cover overheads and profit; the client receives any savings during construction instead of the contractor.” During World War II, Bovis built the munitions factory at Swynnerton and worked on Mulberry harbour units.
At the end of hostilities, Bovis resumed work for the private sector and in the early 1950s, the company moved into housing. Following the acquisition of Frank Sanderson's business in 1967, Bovis Homes expanded and became one of the largest housebuilders by the early 1970s. Frank Sanderson was to change radically the future of Bovis, he was appointed Managing Director of Bovis Holdings in January 1970, Chairman and Chief Executive in August 1972. After a number of housing acquisitions, Sanderson attempted to obtain control of P&O by means of a reverse takeover. An initial agreement was followed by a boardroom and shareholder revolt at P&O and at the end of 1972 the merger failed. There was boardroom dissension, too, at Bovis and Sanderson was forced out in September 1973. One of Sanderson’s acquisitions, in 1971, had been Twentieth Century Banking, two years the secondary banking crisis created a run on deposits at the Bovis banking subsidiary; the crisis came to a head in December 1973 when National Westminster Bank refused to provide the necessary funds.
A rescue of Bovis was inevitable and the rescuer proved to be P&O: in March 1974 Bovis became a subsidiary of P&O. From 1985 the company was led by Sir Frank Lampl, who changed it from a British concern into an international contractor. Bovis Homes was demerged in 1997, floated on the London Stock Exchange; the company was bought by Lend Lease Corporation in 1999. In 2008, the company and a subcontractor abatement firm, the John Galt Corporation, were charged with numerous OSHA safety violations after a fire broke out and killed two firefighters at the Deutsche Bank Building, a Manhattan skyscraper being demolished in the wake of the September 11 attacks; the violations included an employee of "Lend Lease's Project Management & Construction Business" filling out a safety check list that identified a stand-pipe as being present and functional - when it was disconnected in a hard to see spot. The firemen consulted the check list, thought they had a good system and proceeded up into the building to fight the fire.
Only when they reached the dangerous area, on fire, did they realize the system did not have any water pressure, they died trying to retreat amid the confusion. As of June 2011, two out of the three individuals charged in the associated manslaughter and criminally negligent homicide case have been acquitted. On 17 February 2011 Lend Lease announced wider ranging changes to its group of brands; this announcement resulted in the retirement of the Bovis Lend Lease, Delfin Lend Lease, Vivas Lend Lease, Catalyst Lend Lease, Retirement by Design and Lend Lease Primelife brands and the instatement of Lend Lease as the primary and only brand across the business' operation's globally. Under the rebrand and internal structural changes, the company was re-identified as Lend Lease Project Management & Construction, was no longer a separate entity, but "a strategic business unit of the Lend Lease Group". In 2012, Lend Lease agreed to pay $56 million in fines and restitution after admitting that the company had over-billed clients and evaded government rules regarding the hiring of women and minority-owned firms.
For a ten-year time span ending in 2009, the company along with others devised a scheme to defraud federal and local government contracting agencies as well as private clients. The fine is the largest in the city's history. On 29 October 2012 the long boom of a Lend Lease construction crane atop the 1,004 foot high One57 snapped during Hurricane Sandy forcing the evacuation of several buildings in Midtown Manhattan. In October 2018, Lendlease was announced as a contender for a £330 million contract to renovate Manchester's Town Hall. Manchester's Opposition Leader and former MP John Leech uncovered a history of legal and worker safety controversy surrounding the two shortlisted companies, he said that "Under no circumstances" should Lendlease be considered for a council contract again until they paid a £3 million Grenfell-style cladding bill in the Green Quarter of Manchester. In January 2019, Lendlease was announced as the winner of the contract. Leech said it showed a lack of concern for local people.
The company has managed construction projects worldwide, including retail developments and airport terminals. Lend Lease's Project Management & Construction Business has a significant presence in Australia, Asia and the United States. Key sector expertise includes commercial, residential, government and pharmaceutical; as a major contractor in the UK, Lend Lease Project Management & Construction is a contractor member o
Sir Harry Gibbs Legal Heritage Centre
The Sir Harry Gibbs Legal Heritage Centre is located on the ground floor of the Queen Elizabeth II Courts of Law, Australia. It is Queensland's only dedicated legal heritage museum; the Centre is open 9 am - Monday to Friday. Admission is free; the Centre is named after the late Right Honourable Sir Harry Gibbs GCMG AC KBE, the second Queenslander to serve as Chief Justice of the High Court of Australia and former Chair of the Supreme Court of Queensland Library Committee. The museum is administered by the Supreme Court of Queensland Library under the auspices of the Supreme Court History and Publications Program, it was opened on 3 August 2012, in conjunction with the Queen Elizabeth II Courts of Law in Brisbane, is the only legal heritage museum in Queensland. The Centre was funded by a grant from the Incorporated Council of Law Reporting in the State of Queensland; the Sir Harry Gibbs Legal Heritage Centre hosts themed exhibitions relating to Queensland’s legal history. In addition to legal heritage memorabilia, the museum-space features a matrix wall, digital displays, a 2.4m interactive touch table.
The Centre features legal career of Sir Harry Gibbs. The current exhibition examines Queensland’s legal history from the establishment of its court system to the present day, with a focus on the legal principle of the Rule of Law. Supreme Court of Queensland Library website Queensland Courts website
Dame Sian Seerpoohi Elias was the 12th Chief Justice of New Zealand, was therefore the most senior member of the country's judiciary. She was the presiding judge of the Supreme Court of New Zealand and on several occasions acted as Administrator of the Government. Born in London of an Armenian father and a Welsh mother, Elias attended Diocesan School for Girls in Auckland, she completed a law degree from the University of Auckland in 1970, undertook further study at Stanford University. She took up employment with an Auckland law firm in 1972, beginning her career as a barrister three years later, she served as a member of the Motor Spirits Licensing Appeal Authority and of the Working Party on the Environment. Elias is married to Hugh Fletcher, former CEO of Fletcher Challenge and a former Chancellor of the University of Auckland. In 1994, her brother-in-law, Jim Fletcher, was stabbed to death by an intruder in his Papamoa beach house. Elias served as a Law Commissioner from 1984 to 1988, she is known for her work in relation to various Treaty-related cases.
In 1990, she was awarded a New Zealand 1990 Commemoration Medal in recognition of her services. In 1988 she and Lowell Goddard were made the first women Queen's Counsel in New Zealand. Elias became a judge of the High Court in 1995, sat on the Court of Appeal. On 17 May 1999, Elias was sworn in as Chief Justice of New Zealand, the first woman to hold that position in New Zealand. One aspect of the role of Chief Justice is the role of Administrator of the Government when the Governor-General is unable to fulfil their duties. Elias has held the position of Administrator of the Government from 22 March 2001 until 4 April 2001, between the terms of Sir Michael Hardie Boys and Dame Silvia Cartwright, from 4 August 2006 until 23 August 2006 between Cartwright's term and that of Sir Anand Satyanand, from 23 August 2011 until 31 August 2011 between the terms of Satyanand and Sir Jerry Mateparae, from 31 August 2016 until 28 September 2016 between the terms of Mateparae and Dame Patsy Reddy, at other times when the Governor-General has been unable to act.
In 1984, Elias helped Ngāneko Minhinnick's Manukau Harbour claim to the Waitangi Tribunal. This led to work on other treaty cases, including as counsel in New Zealand Maori Council v Attorney-General, in a claim to prevent the Government selling radio frequencies, the case challenging the 1994 Māori electoral option. In June 2003 she was involved in a landmark case which allowed for the possibility that the Māori Land Court could issue freehold title over the foreshore and seabed; the subsequent legal uncertainties and upheavals in Māoridom dominated the political agenda for the next 18 months. In July 2009 Elias caused controversy with her remarks in the annual Shirley Smith address, organised by the Wellington Branch of the New Zealand Law Society's Women-in-Law committee; the annual lecture is given in honour of Shirley Smith. The speech was entitled "Blameless Babes" after a quote from Smith, who wrote " a prison at the bottom of the cliff is not a solution. Criminals will just go at great cost to the community.
We have to find out why blameless babes become criminals."In her speech, Elias expressed concern about prison overcrowding and argued against what she described as the "punitive and knee-jerk" attitude of politicians towards the criminal justice system. She said prison overcrowding had to be managed to prevent "significant safety and human rights issues", she said several other changes were needed in the criminal justice system including increased education and understanding by the community that, since "criminal justice processes are irrelevant to crime reduction", we need to address the causes not just the effects of crime. She said New Zealand needed greater focus on early intervention for youth and vulnerable families, improved mental health and drug and alcohol treatment, greater use of community-based sentences, a fundamental rethink in the way the probation service monitors offenders; as a final point, Elias said that unless New Zealand takes action to address the underlying causes of crime, Government may be forced into the position of using executive amnesties to reduce the growing number of prisoners.
The Chief Justice's comments were reported in the media. Simon Power, the Minister of Justice, said in response: "The Chief Justice's speech does not represent Government policy in any way, shape or form". Courts of New Zealand – The Current Chief Justice
Themis is an ancient Greek Titaness. She is described as " of good counsel", is the personification of divine order, law, natural law, custom, her symbols are the Scales of Justice, tools used to remain balanced and pragmatic. Themis means "divine law" rather than human ordinance "that, put in place", from the Greek verb títhēmi, meaning "to put". To the ancient Greeks she was the organizer of the "communal affairs of humans assemblies". Moses Finley remarked of themis, as the word was used by Homer in the 8th century BCE, to evoke the social order of the 10th- and 9th-century Greek Dark Ages: Themis is untranslatable. A gift of the gods and a mark of civilized existence, sometimes it means right custom, proper procedure, social order, sometimes the will of the gods with little of the idea of right. Finley adds, "There was themis—custom, folk-ways, whatever we may call it, the enormous power of'it is done'; the world of Odysseus had a developed sense of what was fitting and proper." The personification of abstract concepts is characteristic of the Greeks.
The ability of the goddess Themis to foresee the future enabled her to become one of the Oracles of Delphi, which in turn led to her establishment as the goddess of divine justice. Some classical representations of Themis showed her holding a sword, believed to represent her ability to cut fact from fiction. Themis was herself oracular. According to another legend, Themis received the Oracle at Delphi from Gaia and gave it to Phoebe; when Themis is disregarded, Nemesis brings just and wrathful retribution. Themis is not wrathful: she, "of the lovely cheeks", was the first to offer Hera a cup when she returned to Olympus distraught over threats from Zeus. Themis presided over the proper relation between man and woman, the basis of the rightly ordered family, judges were referred to as "themistopóloi"; such was the basis for order upon Olympus. Hera addressed her as "Lady Themis"; the name of Themis might be substituted for Adrasteia in telling of the birth of Zeus on Crete. Themis was present at Delos to witness the birth of Apollo.
According to Ovid, it was Themis rather than Zeus who told Deucalion to throw the bones of "his Mother" over his shoulder to create a new race of humankind after the deluge. Themis occurred in Hesiod's Theogony as the first recorded appearance of Justice as a divine personage. Drawing not only on the socio-religious consciousness of his time but on many of the earlier cult-religions, Hesiod described the forces of the universe as cosmic divinities. Hesiod portrayed Dike, as the daughter of Zeus and Themis. Dike executed the law of judgments and sentencing and, together with her mother Themis, she carried out the final decisions of Moirai. For Hesiod, Justice is at the center of religious and moral life who, independently of Zeus, is the embodiment of divine will; this personification of Dike stands in contrast to justice viewed as custom or law and as retribution or sentence. In the play Prometheus Bound, traditionally attributed to Aeschylus, Themis is the mother of Prometheus, gave him foreknowledge of what was to come.
It is said by Prometheus. In Greek mythology, Hesiod mentions six daughters of Gaia and Uranus. Among these Titans of primordial myth, few were venerated at specific sanctuaries in classical times; the only consort for Themis mentioned in the sources below is Zeus. One of her few children was called the Greek goddess of the forest. With Zeus she more bore the Horae, those embodiments of the right moment – the rightness of order unfolding in time – and Astraea. First generation: Auxo Carpo Thallo Second generation: Dike Eirene Eunomia Followers of Zeus claimed that it was with him that Themis produced the Moirai, three Fates. A fragment of Pindar, tells that the Moirai were present at the nuptials of Zeus and Themis. To compliment Pindar, Hesiod tells us in the Theogony that the Moirai were bore from Nyx who lay with no one. Clotho Lachesis Atropos Themis had several temples in Greece, though they are not described in any great detail by ancient authors, she had temples at the oracular shrine of Zeus at Dodona, at Tanagra, in Athens, a Temple of Themis Ikhnaia in Phthiotis, Thessalia.
Pausanias describe her sanctuary in Thebes in somewhat more detail than what was the case and it may therefore have been of more importance: "Along the road from the Neistan gate are three sanctuaries. There is a sanctuary of Themis, with an image of white marble. Themis was sometimes depicted in the sanctuaries of other gods and may have shared temples with them and she is mentioned to have shared a temple with Aphrodite in Epidauros: "Within the grove [of the sanctuary of Asklepios (Asclepi
A court is any person or institution with authority to judge or adjudicate as a government institution, with the authority to adjudicate legal disputes between parties and carry out the administration of justice in civil and administrative matters in accordance with the rule of law. In both common law and civil law legal systems, courts are the central means for dispute resolution, it is understood that all people have an ability to bring their claims before a court; the rights of those accused of a crime include the right to present a defense before a court. The system of courts that interprets and applies the law is collectively known as the judiciary; the place where a court sits is known as a venue. The room where court proceedings occur is known as a courtroom, the building as a courthouse; the practical authority given to the court is known as its jurisdiction – the court's power to decide certain kinds of questions or petitions put to it. According to William Blackstone's Commentaries on the Laws of England, a court is constituted by a minimum of three parties: the actor or plaintiff, who complains of an injury done.
It is usual in the superior courts to have barristers, attorneys or counsel, as assistants, though courts consist of additional barristers, reporters, a jury. The term "the court" is used to refer to the presiding officer or officials one or more judges; the judge or panel of judges may be collectively referred to as "the bench". In the United States, other common law jurisdictions, the term "court" by law is used to describe the judge himself or herself. In the United States, the legal authority of a court to take action is based on personal jurisdiction over the parties to the litigation and subject-matter jurisdiction over the claims asserted; the word court comes from the French cour, an enclosed yard, which derives from the Latin form cortem, the accusative case of cohors, which again means an enclosed yard or the occupants of such a yard. The English word court is a cognate of the Latin word hortus from Ancient Greek χόρτος, both referring to an enclosed space; the meaning of a judicial assembly is first attested in the 12th century, derives from the earlier usage to designate a sovereign and his entourage, which met to adjudicate disputes in such an enclosed yard.
The verb "to court", meaning to win favor, derives from the same source since people traveled to the sovereign's court to win his favor. The word jurisdiction comes from juris and dictio. Jurisdiction is defined as the official authority to make legal decisions and judgements over an individual or materialistic item within a territory."Whether a given court has jurisdiction to preside over a given case" is a key question in any legal action. Three basic components of jurisdiction are personal jurisdiction over an individual, jurisdiction over the particular subject matter or thing and territorial jurisdiction. Jurisdiction over a person refers to the full authority over a person regardless on where they live, jurisdiction over a particular subject matter refers to the authority over the said subject of legal cases involved in a case, lastly, territorial jurisdiction is the authority over a person within an x amount of space. Other concepts of jurisdiction include general jurisdiction, exclusive jurisdiction, territorial jurisdiction, appellate jurisdiction, diversity jurisdiction.
Trial courts are courts. Sometimes termed "courts of first instance", trial courts have varying original jurisdiction. Trial courts may conduct trials with juries as the finders of fact or trials in which judges act as both finders of fact and finders of law. Juries are less common in court systems outside the Anglo-American common law tradition. Appellate courts are courts that hear appeals of trial courts; some courts, such as the Crown Court in England and Wales may have both trial and appellate jurisdictions. The two major legal traditions of the western world are the civil law courts and the common law courts; these two great legal traditions are similar, in that they are products of western culture although there are significant differences between the two traditions. Civil law courts are profoundly based upon Roman Law a civil body of law entitled "Corpus iuris civilis"; this theory of civil law was rediscovered around the end of the eleventh century and became a foundation for university legal education starting in Bologna and subsequently being taught throughout continental European Universities.
Civil law is ensconced in the French and German legal systems. Common law courts were established by English royal judges of the King's Council after the Norman Invasion of Britain in 1066; the royal judges created a body of law by combining local customs they were made aware of through traveling and visiting local jurisdictions. This common standard of law became known as "Common Law"; this legal tradition is practiced in the English and American l