Mary Tudor, Queen of France
Mary Tudor was an English princess, Queen of France and progenitor of a family that claimed the English throne. The younger surviving daughter of Henry VII, King of England and Elizabeth of York, Mary became the third wife of Louis XII of France, more than 30 years her senior. Following his death, she married 1st Duke of Suffolk; the marriage, performed secretly in France, took place during the reign of her brother Henry VIII and without his consent. This necessitated the intervention of Thomas Wolsey, although Henry pardoned the couple, they were forced to pay a large fine. Mary's second marriage produced four children, through her eldest daughter Frances, Mary was the maternal grandmother of Lady Jane Grey, the de facto monarch of England for nine days in July 1553. Mary was the fourth child of Henry VII of England and Elizabeth of York, the youngest to survive infancy, she was born at Sheen Palace, "most probably" in March 1496. A privy seal bill dated from midsummer 1496 authorizes a payment of 50 shillings to her nurse, Anne Skeron.
Erasmus stated that she was four years old when he visited the royal nursery in 1499–1500. At age six, she was given her own household, complete with "a staff of gentlewomen assigned to wait upon her", a schoolmaster, a physician, she was given instruction in French, music and embroidery. As children and her brother, the future King Henry VIII, shared a close friendship, he named the future Queen Mary I, in her honour. They lost their mother when Mary was just six, given the number of bills paid to her apothecary from 1504 to 1509, it would appear that Mary's own health was fragile. Known in her youth as one of the most beautiful princesses in Europe, Erasmus said of her that "Nature never formed anything more beautiful."In 1506, during a visit from Philip I of Castile, Mary was called to entertain the guests and playing the lute and clavichord. In September 1506, Philip died, on 21 December 1507, Mary was betrothed to his son Charles Holy Roman Emperor; the betrothal was called off in 1513. Instead, Cardinal Wolsey negotiated a peace treaty with France, on 9 October 1514, at the age of 18, Mary married the 52-year-old King Louis XII of France at Abbeville.
She was accompanied to France by four English maids of honour, one of whom was Anne Boleyn, under the supervision of her old governess lady Joan "Mother" Guildford, who acted as her principal lady-in-waiting. Despite two previous marriages, Louis had no living sons, sought to produce one, but he died on 1 January 1515, less than three months after marrying Mary, reputedly worn out by his exertions in the bedchamber, but more from the effects of gout, their union produced no children. Following Louis's death, the new king Francis I made attempts to arrange a second marriage for the beautiful widow. Mary had been unhappy in her marriage of state to King Louis XII, as she was certainly in love with Charles Brandon, 1st Duke of Suffolk. King Henry VIII was aware of Mary's feelings, but Henry VIII wanted any future marriage to be to his advantage. The King's Council, not wishing to see Charles Brandon gain further power at court, was opposed to the match. Meanwhile, rumors swirled in France that she would wed either Antoine, Duke of Lorraine or Charles III, Duke of Savoy.
At one point King Francis I in hope of his wife Queen Claude's death, was one of Mary's suitors in the first week of her widowhood. A pair of French friars went so far as to warn Mary that she must not wed Charles Brandon because he "had traffickings with the devil." When King Henry VIII sent Charles to bring Mary back to England in late January 1515, he made the Duke promise that he would not propose to her. Once in France, Mary persuaded Charles to abandon that pledge; the couple wed in secret at the Hotel de Clugny on 3 March 1515 in the presence of just 10 people, among them King Francis I. Technically, this was treason as Charles Brandon had married a royal princess without King Henry's consent, thus Henry was outraged, the privy council urged that Charles be imprisoned or executed. Because of the intervention of Thomas Wolsey, Henry's affection for both his sister and Charles, the couple were given only a heavy fine of £24,000 to be paid to the King in yearly installments of £1000, as well as the whole of Mary's dowry from King Louis XII of £200,000, together with the gold plate and jewels King Louis had given or promised her.
The £24,000 equivalent to £7,200,000 today, was reduced by the King. They later married on 13 May 1515 at Greenwich Palace in the presence of King Henry VIII and his courtiers. In 1528, Charles secured a papal bull from Pope Clement VII legitimizing the marriage. Mary was Charles Brandon's third wife, he had two daughters and Mary, by his second marriage to Anne Browne, who had died in 1511. Mary raised the girls with her own children. After her second marriage, Mary was referred to at the English court as "the French Queen", was not known as the Duchess of Suffolk in her lifetime, despite being allowed to be. Mary spent most of her time at the Duke's country seat of Westhorpe Hall in Suffolk. In the late 1520s, relations between King Henry VIII and his sister Mary were strained when she opposed the King's attempt to obtain an annulment of his marriage to Catherine of Aragon, whom Mary ha
HMS Queen Mary
HMS Queen Mary was the last battlecruiser built by the Royal Navy before World War I. The sole member of her class, Queen Mary shared many features with the Lion-class battlecruisers, including her eight 13.5-inch guns. She was completed in 1913 and participated in the Battle of Heligoland Bight as part of the Grand Fleet in 1914. Like most of the modern British battlecruisers, she never left the North Sea during the war; as part of the 1st Battlecruiser Squadron, she attempted to intercept a German force that bombarded the North Sea coast of England in December 1914, but was unsuccessful. She was refitting in early 1915 and missed the Battle of Dogger Bank in January, but participated in the largest fleet action of the war, the Battle of Jutland in mid-1916, she was hit twice by the German battlecruiser Derfflinger during the early part of the battle and her magazines exploded shortly afterwards, sinking the ship. Her wreck was discovered in 1991 and rests in pieces, some of which are upside down, on the floor of the North Sea.
Queen Mary is designated as a protected place under the Protection of Military Remains Act 1986 as it is the grave of 1,266 officers and ratings. Queen Mary was ordered, together with the four battleships of the King George V class, under the 1910–11 Naval Programme; as was the usual pattern of the time, only one battlecruiser was ordered per naval programme. She differed from her predecessors of the Lion class in the distribution of her secondary armament and armour and in the location of the officers' quarters; every capital ship since the design of the battleship HMS Dreadnought in 1905 had placed the officers' quarters closer to their action stations amidships. In addition, she was the first battlecruiser to mount a sternwalk. Queen Mary, the only ship of her name to serve in the Royal Navy, was named for Mary of Teck, the wife of King George V; the Queen's representative at the ship's christening on 20 March 1912 was the wife of Viscount Allendale. Larger than the preceding Lion-class ships, Queen Mary had an overall length of 700 feet 0.6 inches, a beam of 89 feet 0.5 inches, a draught of 32 feet 4 inches at deep load.
The ship displaced 26,770 long tons and 31,650 long tons at deep load, over 1,000 long tons more than the earlier ships. She had a metacentric height of 5.92 feet at deep load. In peacetime the crew numbered 997 officers and ratings; the ship had two paired sets of Parsons direct-drive steam turbines housed in separate engine rooms. Each set consisted of a high-pressure turbine driving an outboard propeller shaft and a low-pressure turbine driving an inner shaft. A cruising stage was built into the casing of each high-pressure turbine for economical steaming at low speeds; the turbines had a designed output of 75,000 shaft horsepower, 5,000 shp more than her predecessors. On sea trials in May and June 1913, Queen Mary achieved more than 83,000 shp, although she exceeded her designed speed of 28 knots; the steam plant consisted of 42 Yarrow boilers arranged in seven boiler rooms. Maximum bunkerage was 3,600 long tons of coal and 1,170 long tons of fuel oil to be sprayed on the coal to increase its burn rate.
Her range was 5,610 nautical miles at a speed of 10 knots. Queen Mary mounted eight BL 13.5-inch Mk V guns in four twin hydraulically powered turrets, designated'A','B','Q' and'X' from bow to stern. The guns could be depressed to −3° and elevated to 20°, although the director controlling the turrets was limited to 15° 21' until prisms were installed before the Battle of Jutland in May 1916 to allow full elevation, they fired 1,250-pound projectiles at a muzzle velocity of 2,550 ft/s. The rate of fire of these guns was 1.5–2 rounds per minute. Queen Mary carried a total of 880 rounds during wartime for 110 shells per gun, her secondary armament consisted of sixteen BL 4-inch Mk VII guns, most of which were mounted in casemates on the forecastle deck, unlike the arrangement in the Lion class. The guns could depress to −7° and had a maximum elevation of 15°, they fired 31-pound projectiles at a muzzle velocity of 2,821 ft/s at a maximum range of 11,400 yd. The ship was built without any anti-aircraft guns, but two guns were fitted in October 1914.
One was a QF 6-pounder Hotchkiss gun and the other was a QF 3-inch 20 cwt, both on high-angle mountings. The Hotchkiss fired a 6-pound shell at a muzzle velocity of 1,773 ft/s; the three-inch gun fired a 12.5-pound shell at a muzzle velocity of 2,604 ft/s with a maximum effective ceiling of 23,000 ft. Two 21-inch submerged torpedo tubes were fitted, one on each broadside. Fourteen Mk II*** torpedoes were carried, each of which had a warhead of 400 pounds of TNT, their range was 10,000 yards at 29 knots. In February 1913, the Admiralty bought five sets of fire-control equipment from Arthur Pollen for comparative trials with the equipment designed by Commander Frederic Dreyer. One set was mounted in Queen Mary and consisted of a 9-foot Argo rangefinder located on top of the conning tower that fed range data into an Argo Clock Mk IV located in the transmitting station below the conning tower; the clock converted the information
Mary, Queen of Scots
Mary, Queen of Scots known as Mary Stuart or Mary I of Scotland, reigned over Scotland from 14 December 1542 to 24 July 1567. Mary, the only surviving legitimate child of King James V, was six days old when her father died and she acceded to the throne, she spent most of her childhood in France while Scotland was ruled by regents, in 1558, she married the Dauphin of France, Francis. He ascended the French throne as King Francis II in 1559, Mary became queen consort of France, until his death in December 1560. Widowed, Mary returned to Scotland, arriving in Leith on 19 August 1561. Four years she married her first cousin, Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley and in June 1566 they had a son, James. In February 1567, Darnley's residence was destroyed by an explosion, he was found murdered in the garden. James Hepburn, 4th Earl of Bothwell, was believed to have orchestrated Darnley's death, but he was acquitted of the charge in April 1567, the following month he married Mary. Following an uprising against the couple, Mary was imprisoned in Loch Leven Castle.
On 24 July 1567 she was forced to abdicate in favour of her one-year-old son. After an unsuccessful attempt to regain the throne, she fled southwards seeking the protection of her first cousin once removed, Queen Elizabeth I of England. Mary had once claimed Elizabeth's throne as her own, was considered the legitimate sovereign of England by many English Catholics, including participants in a rebellion known as the Rising of the North. Perceiving her as a threat, Elizabeth had her confined in various castles and manor houses in the interior of England. After eighteen and a half years in custody, Mary was found guilty of plotting to assassinate Elizabeth in 1586, she was beheaded the following year at Fotheringhay Castle. Mary was born on 8 December 1542 at Linlithgow Palace, Scotland, to King James V and his French second wife, Mary of Guise, she was said to have been born prematurely and was the only legitimate child of James to survive him. She was the great-niece of King Henry VIII of England, as her paternal grandmother, Margaret Tudor, was Henry VIII's sister.
On 14 December, six days after her birth, she became Queen of Scotland when her father died from the effects of a nervous collapse following the Battle of Solway Moss, or from drinking contaminated water while on campaign. A popular tale, first recorded by John Knox, states that James, hearing on his deathbed that his wife had given birth to a daughter, ruefully exclaimed, "It cam wi' a lass and it will gang wi' a lass!" His House of Stuart had gained the throne of Scotland by the marriage of Marjorie Bruce, daughter of Robert the Bruce, to Walter Stewart, 6th High Steward of Scotland. The crown had come to his family through a woman, would be lost from his family through a woman; this legendary statement came true much later—not through Mary, but through her descendant Queen Anne. Mary was baptised at the nearby Church of St Michael. Rumours spread that she was weak and frail, but an English diplomat, Ralph Sadler, saw the infant at Linlithgow Palace in March 1543, unwrapped by her nurse, wrote, "it is as goodly a child as I have seen of her age, as like to live."As Mary was an infant when she inherited the throne, Scotland was ruled by regents until she became an adult.
From the outset, there were two claims to the regency: one from Catholic Cardinal Beaton, the other from the Protestant Earl of Arran, next in line to the throne. Beaton's claim was based on a version of the king's will. Arran, with the support of his friends and relations, became the regent until 1554 when Mary's mother managed to remove and succeed him. King Henry VIII of England took the opportunity of the regency to propose marriage between Mary and his own son and heir, hoping for a union of Scotland and England. On 1 July 1543, when Mary was six months old, the Treaty of Greenwich was signed, which promised that, at the age of ten, Mary would marry Edward and move to England, where Henry could oversee her upbringing; the treaty provided that the two countries would remain separate and that if the couple should fail to have children, the temporary union would dissolve. Cardinal Beaton rose to power again and began to push a pro-Catholic pro-French agenda, angering Henry, who wanted to break the Scottish alliance with France.
Beaton wanted to move Mary away from the coast to the safety of Stirling Castle. Regent Arran resisted the move, but backed down when Beaton's armed supporters gathered at Linlithgow; the Earl of Lennox escorted her mother to Stirling on 27 July 1543 with 3,500 armed men. Mary was crowned in the castle chapel on 9 September 1543, with "such solemnity as they do use in this country, not costly" according to the report of Ralph Sadler and Henry Ray. Shortly before Mary's coronation, Scottish merchants headed for France were arrested by Henry, their goods impounded; the arrests caused anger in Scotland, Arran joined Beaton and became a Catholic. The Treaty of Greenwich was rejected by the Parliament of Scotland in December; the rejection of the marriage treaty and the renewal of the Auld Alliance between France and Scotland prompted Henry's "Rough Wooing", a military campaign designed to impose the marriage of Mary to his son. English forces mounted a series of raids on French territory. In May 1544, the English Earl of Hertford raided Edinburgh, the Scots took Mary to Dunkeld for safety.
In May 1546, Beaton was murdered by Protestant lairds, on 10 September 1547, nine months after the death of Henry VIII, the Scots suffered a heavy defeat at the Battle of Pinkie Cleugh. Mary's guardians, fearful for her safety, sent her t
Maria, Queen of Sicily
Maria was Queen of Sicily and Duchess of Athens and Neopatria from 1377 until her death. Born in Catania, she was the daughter and heir of Frederick the Simple by his first wife Constance of Aragon; as she was thirteen years old at the time of her father's death in 1377, her government was taken over by four baronial families who styled themselves "vicars". The regent named by Maria's father, Artale Alagona, was forced to form a government with three other Vicars, including Francesco II count of Ventimiglia, Manfredi III Chiaramonte, count of Modica, Guglielmo Peralta, count of Caltabellotta, a parity of exponents of the "Sicilian" and "Aragonese" parties. However, the four men ruled in their separate baronial lands alone. In 1379 she was kidnapped by count William Raymond of Montcada, Sicilian nobleman and member of the Aragonese House of Montcada, to prevent her marriage with Giangaleazzo Visconti, Duke of Milan, imprisoned for two years at Licata. Montcada's move had been approved by her grandfather King Peter IV of Aragon.
In 1382 Maria was rescued by an Aragonese fleet. In 1392 Maria and Martin returned with a military force and defeated the opposing barons, ruling jointly until Maria's death in 1401. At that time, Martin ruled Sicily alone, she survived their only son, Peter. The kingdom remained without a crown prince and this caused a succession crisis for Martin, who ruled by right of his wife. Frederick the Simple had named his illegitimate son, Count of Malta, as heir presumptive in the case of the extinction of his daughter's line. William had died in c. 1380, but he had a daughter, wife of the Sicilian nobleman Pietro di Gioeni. She however cannot have contested her uncle's claim since Martin continued to rule unopposed until his death. Maria of Sicily died at Lentini in 1401. Lo Forte Scirpo, Maria Rita. C'era una volta una regina...: due donne per un regno: Maria d'Aragona e Bianca di Navarra. Naples: Liguori. ISBN 88-207-3527-X. Cawley, Charles, SICILY, Medieval Lands database, Foundation for Medieval Genealogy https://web.archive.org/web/20040820055312/http://www.mittelalter-genealogie.de/mittelalter/koenige/sizilien/maria_koenigin_1402.html
TS Queen Mary
TS Queen Mary is a retired Clyde steamer launched in 1933 and now being preserved as a museum ship. She was built at the William Denny shipyard at Dumbarton for Williamson-Buchanan Steamers; the 871 gross registered ton steamer was powered by three direct drive steam turbines, carried 2,086 passengers making her the largest excursion turbine on the River Clyde. In 1933 she joined the Williamson-Buchanan fleet, taking over from the first Clyde turbine steamer, the 1901 TS King Edward on the run from Glasgow down the River and Firth of Clyde to Rothesay and Arran. In 1935 the fleet including Queen Mary passed to the London and Scottish Railway Company, her registered owners became Williamson-Buchanan Ltd. In 1935, Williamson-Buchanan were contacted by the Cunard company, getting ready to have its new liner launched by Her Majesty Queen Mary – so Cunard reached agreement with Williamson-Buchanan that the turbine steamer would become TS Queen Mary II, presented a portrait of Her Majesty to hang in the forward lounge of the Clyde steamer, while their liner became the RMS Queen Mary.
Queen Mary II carried 13,000 passengers a week as a pleasure steamer. A roomy and comfortable ship, her passenger capacity made up for a modest speed of 19.7 knots on trial. She was a two class ship, with cabin passengers housed forward and the top deck extending aft giving steerage passengers a share of it as well as sheltered space below. Though the rest of the fleet was painted in the LMS livery with yellow funnels, she retained her white funnels and Williamson-Buchanan house-flag until World War II. During the war, she worked on maintaining Clyde services while many other steamers became minesweepers or anti-aircraft vessels. After the war, she returned to service in LMS livery with yellow funnels; as traffic increased in the 1950s, modifications were made. Over the winter of 1956-1957 the TS Queen Mary II was changed from coal to oil burning, the two funnels were replaced by a single funnel and a new mainmast was added so that she now had two masts to meet changed regulations for ship's lights, with her tonnage increasing to 1014.
In the 1960s, a gradual change in holiday habits and a succession of summers with poor weather led to a decline in Clyde sailings. While other ships were retired, the Queen Mary II was refitted and put on cruises from Gourock to Inveraray and Campbeltown; the CSP had been merging with the west highland ferry company MacBraynes, in 1973 the company became Caledonian MacBrayne Ltd. After a disappointing first season, they decided to reduce their fleet, with the paddle steamer Waverley being handed to a preservation society, its routes taken over by the Queen Mary. Waverley survived and prospered, but with the shift to diesel car ferries and cost pressures the Queen Mary was retired after a last evening showboat cruise from Largs to Rothesay on 27 September 1977, she was laid up in the East India Harbour, Greenock. In 1981 the ship was bought by the Lau family and taken south to London to become a floating restaurant, but it did not do well. In 1987 Queen Mary was sold to Bass PLC, she was moored at Victoria Embankment.
Facilities included two bars and two function rooms and the top deck of the ship was used as an open-air venue with bar facilities. In November 2009, the ship was towed out of London, she was purchased by Samuel Boudon who had plans for her renovation and mooring in La Rochelle, France as a floating restaurant and fitness centre. However, she remained moored in Tilbury Docks, she was auctioned by Capital Marine Services on 24 August 2011, sold to a British antique dealer planning to restore her to 1930s glory: ″Queen Mary is the last survivor of her class anywhere in the world and is an exceptionally important part of British maritime history epitomising the best of British shipbuilding pedigree and tradition", ″Our mission is to restore this unique example of British Maritime History″. In 2012 a charitable group, Friends of the TS Queen Mary, was formed with the goal of returning the ship to a permanent berth in Glasgow. In 2013 the ship's owner, Ranjan Chowdhury, was criticised in the media for attempting to sell the ship's remaining brass propellor.
By February 2015 Queen Mary was prevented by the Maritime and Coastguard Agency from leaving the Port of Tilbury until made seaworthy. In October 2015 the Glasgow-based charity Friends of TS Queen Mary purchased the ship. In May 2016, after being made seaworthy, the Queen Mary was towed from Tilbury to Greenock; the ship's return to the Firth of Clyde on 16 May 2016 was her first visit to her former home since 1981. Queen Mary was berthed in James Watt Dock throughout the summer of 2016. On 1 September 2016, following a successful campaign to raise money to repair and repaint the ship's hull, Queen Mary was towed into the adjacent Garvel Drydock. A complete repaint of the hull, structural repairs were made to the ship throughout the course of a month. On 1 October 2016 Queen Mary returned to James Watt Dock; the ship's funnels were repainted white in October, on 9 November 2016 Queen Mary left James Watt Dock under tow for Glasgow on what would be her first visit to the city since 1977. The ship is now berthed at the entrance of Princes' Dock beside the Glasgow Science Centre.
List of ships built by William Denny and Brothers Clyde Pleasure Steamers - Ian McCrorie, Pollock & Co. Ltd. Greenock, ISBN 1-869850-00-9 TS Queen Mary Official Website Queen Mary II information and photographs
Maria Luisa of Savoy
Maria Luisa of Savoy was a queen consort of Spain by marriage to Philip V of Spain. She acted as Regent of Spain during the absence of her spouse from 1702 until 1703, had great influence over him as his adviser, while she was herself in turn influenced by the Princesse des Ursins, she was the third daughter and second surviving child of Victor Amadeus II, Duke of Savoy and his French-born wife Anne Marie d'Orléans, the youngest daughter of Philippe of France and Henrietta of England. Throughout her life, Maria Luisa remained close to her older sister Maria Adelaide who married Louis, Duke of Burgundy, the eldest grandson of Louis XIV. In her youth, Maria Luisa had received a good education. Philip V of Spain, a French prince, was crowned King of Spain upon the death of childless Charles II. In order to enforce his shaky authority over Spain due to his French birth, Philip V decided to maintain ties with Victor Amadeus II, Duke of Savoy. Philip V's brother, Duke of Burgundy, had married the elder sister of Maria Luisa several years earlier, in mid-1701, Philip V asked for Maria Luisa's hand with the permission of his grandfather Louis XIV.
Maria Luisa was wed by proxy to Philip V on 12 September 1701 at the age of thirteen and was escorted to Nice, arriving there on 18 September. While in Nice, she was greeted by Pope Clement XI who gave her the Golden Rose on 20 September as a ritualistic gift for the young princess. Within a week, she was taken to Barcelona; the official wedding took place on 2 November 1701. Philip V was in love with her from the start: as would be the case of his next consort, he was sexually dependent on her, as his religious scruples prevented him from exercising any sexual life outside of marriage, she was said to be beautiful and intelligent. Unlike what was normal for a Spanish monarch, he slept in her bed the entire night, insisted upon his conjugal rights. Shortly after their marriage, the French ambassador, the Duke of Gramont reported to Philip’s grandfather, Louis XIV, that Philip would be governed by his spouse as long as he had one, a report that led Louis XIV to warn him not to allow his queen to dominate him.
Marie Luisa is described as remarkably mature for her age, politically savvy and hardworking, she has been credited with giving the passive Philip V the energy he needed to participate in warfare. In 1702, Philip V was obliged to leave Spain to fight in Naples as part of the ongoing War of Spanish Succession. During her husband's absence, Maria Luisa acted as Regent from Madrid, she was praised as an effective ruler, having implemented various changes in government and insisted upon all complaints being investigated and reports made direct to her. Her leadership encouraged the reorganization in the junta and, in doing this, inspiring people and their cities to make donations towards the war effort. Despite being only fourteen at that time, Maria Luisa's effective regency made her admired in Madrid and throughout Spain. During her tenure as regent, she presided daily at the committee of government, gave audiences to ambassadors, worked for hours with ministers, corresponded with Philip and worked to prevent Savoy from joining the enemy.
The Princesse des Ursins was a member of the household of the Queen. She would maintain great influence over Maria Luisa as her Camarera mayor de Palacio, chief of the household to the queen; the Princesse des Ursins maintained as strong dominance of Maria Luisa by using all the rights of proximity to the queen that her position entitled her to: she was constantly in the presence of the queen, accompanied her wherever she went as soon as she left her private rooms, followed her to the council meetings, where she listened sitting by the side sewing. As Philip V, contrary to the custom of the time shared a bedroom with Maria Luisa, the Princesse had enormous influence over the king as well. After her husband's return in 1703, she resumed her role as queen consort. In 1704, the Princesse des Ursins was exiled at the order of devastating Maria Luisa. However, in 1705, the Princesse returned to Madrid, much to the joy of the queen. Maria Luisa gave birth to the couple's first child, Infante Luis Felipe in 1707.
Maria Luisa gave birth to three more children. Towards the end of her life, the Queen became ill, she would die from the effects of tuberculosis on 14 February 1714. She was buried at San Lorenzo de El Escorial. Maria Luisa died in her 25th year. 16 September 1714, just months after Maria Luisa's death, her widower Philip V remarried by proxy, to Elisabeth Farnese, the only child and heir of the Duke of Parma. All of Maria Luisa's children were to die without issue, thus there are no descendants of Maria Luisa of Savoy, she was well-loved in Spain. After her death, both of her sons that lived past childhood, her youngest and oldest, were to become Kings of Spain, her niece, Princess Maria Luisa was named after her. Louis I of Spain married no issue. Infante Philip of Spain. Infante Philip of Spain died in childhood. Ferdinand VI of Spain married Infanta Maria Barbara of no issue. Media related to Maria Luisa of Savoy at Wikimedia Commons
Mary of Guise
Mary of Guise called Mary of Lorraine, ruled Scotland as regent from 1554 until her death. A noblewoman from the Lotharingian House of Guise, which played a prominent role in 16th-century French politics, Mary became queen consort upon her marriage to King James V of Scotland in 1538, her infant daughter, ascended the throne when James died in 1542. Mary of Guise's main goal as regent was a close alliance between the powerful French Catholic nation and smaller Scotland, which she wanted to be Catholic and independent of England, she failed, at her death the Protestants took control of Scotland, with her own grandson achieving the Union of the Crowns a few decades later. Mary was born at Bar-le-Duc, the eldest daughter of Claude of Lorraine, Duke of Guise, head of the House of Guise, his wife Antoinette de Bourbon, herself the daughter of Francis, Count of Vendome, Marie de Luxembourg. Among her 11 siblings were Francis, Duke of Guise. Mary was tall and her mother mentioned in a letter that she suffered from bad colds.
However, there is a story of Mary of Guise being born in a commoner's home while en route to her "supposed" birthplace. Her name has been stylized as Mary of Guise, Marie de Guise, Mary di Guise; when Mary was five, she was godmother to her younger sister Louise. Not long after, she joined her grandmother Philippa of Guelders in the convent of the Poor Clares at Pont-à-Mousson, her uncle Antoine, Duke of Lorraine and her aunt Renée of Bourbon visited Philippa there when Mary was about fourteen. Impressed by their niece's qualities and stature, they took her away from the convent and prepared her for life at the French court. In 1531, Mary made her first appearance there at the marriage between Francis I and Eleanor of Austria, she established a friendship with the king's daughters Margaret. On 4 August 1534, at the age of 18, she became Duchess of Longueville by marrying Louis II d'Orléans, Duke of Longueville, at the Château du Louvre, their union turned out to be brief. On 30 October 1535, Mary gave birth to her first son, but on 9 June 1537, Louis died at Rouen and left her a widow at the age of 21.
For the rest of her life, Mary kept the last letter from her bon mari et ami Louis, which mentioned his illness and explained his absence at Rouen. It can still be seen at the National Library of Scotland. On 4 August, Mary gave birth to their second son, named Louis after his deceased father. Louis died young, but Francis wrote letters to his mother in Scotland. On 22 March 1545, he sent a piece of string to show how tall he was, on 2 July 1546 he sent her his portrait. In 1537, Mary became the focus of marriage negotiations with James V of Scotland, who had lost his first wife, Madeleine of Valois, to tuberculosis, wanted a second French bride to further the interests of the Franco-Scottish alliance against England. According to a 17th-century writer, James V had noticed the attractions of Mary when he went to France to meet Madeleine and Mary of Bourbon, she was next in his affections, it is known that Mary had attended the wedding of Madeleine. The widowed Henry VIII of England, in attempts to prevent this union asked for Mary's hand.
Given Henry's marital history—banishing his first wife and beheading the second—Mary refused the offer. In December 1537, Henry VIII told Castillon, the French ambassador in London, that he was big in person and had need of a big wife. Biographer Antonia Fraser writing in 1969 said Mary replied, "I may be a big woman, but I have a little neck." This was a tribute to the famously macabre jest made by Henry's French-educated second wife, Anne Boleyn, who had joked before her death that the executioner would find killing her easy because she had "a little neck."King Francis I of France accepted James's proposal over Henry's and conveyed his wishes to Mary's father. Francis had a marriage contract prepared that offered James a dowry as large as if Mary had been born a princess of France. Mary's mother found the contract "marvellously strange", because the king had included Mary's son's inheritance in the dowry. Mary received the news with shock and alarm, as she did not wish to leave family and country as she had just lost her first husband and her younger son.
It has been said that her father tried to delay matters until James sensing her reluctance, wrote to her, appealing for her advice and support. However the authenticity of this letter, first produced in 1935, has been questioned. David Beaton travelled to France for the marriage negotiations, he wrote to James V from Lyon on 22 October 1537 that Mary was "stark, well-complexioned, fit to travel." Beaton wrote that the Duke of Guise was "marvellous desirous of the expedition and hasty end of the matter," and had consulted with his brother, the Duke of Lorraine, Mary herself, with her mother in Champagne waiting for the resolution of the negotiations. The marriage contract was finalized in January 1538 with a dowry including that of her first marriage; as was customary, if the king died first, the queen dowager would have for her lifetime her jointure houses of Falkland Palace, Stirling Castle, Dingwall Castle, Threave, with the rentals of the corresponding Earldoms and Lordships. Mary accepted the offer and made hurried plans for departure.
The actual wedding of James V and Mary of Guise was held by proxy on 9 May 1538 in the Sainte Chapelle at the Château de Châteaudun. Some 2,000 lords and barons sent by James V came fr