Marriage called matrimony or wedlock, is a or ritually recognised union between spouses that establishes rights and obligations between those spouses, as well as between them and any resulting biological or adopted children and affinity. The definition of marriage varies around the world not only between cultures and between religions, but throughout the history of any given culture and religion, evolving to both expand and constrict in who and what is encompassed, but it is principally an institution in which interpersonal relationships sexual, are acknowledged or sanctioned. In some cultures, marriage is recommended or considered to be compulsory before pursuing any sexual activity; when defined broadly, marriage is considered a cultural universal. A marriage ceremony is known as a wedding. Individuals may marry for several reasons, including legal, libidinal, financial and religious purposes. Whom they marry may be influenced by gender determined rules of incest, prescriptive marriage rules, parental choice and individual desire.
In some areas of the world, arranged marriage, child marriage and sometimes forced marriage, may be practiced as a cultural tradition. Conversely, such practices may be outlawed and penalized in parts of the world out of concerns of the infringement of women's rights, or the infringement of children's rights, because of international law. Around the world in developed democracies, there has been a general trend towards ensuring equal rights within marriage for women and recognizing the marriages of interfaith and same-sex couples; these trends coincide with the broader human rights movement. Marriage can be recognized by a state, an organization, a religious authority, a tribal group, a local community, or peers, it is viewed as a contract. When a marriage is performed and carried out by a government institution in accordance with the marriage laws of the jurisdiction, without religious content, it is a civil marriage. Civil marriage recognizes and creates the rights and obligations intrinsic to matrimony before the state.
When a marriage is performed with religious content under the auspices of a religious institution it is a religious marriage. Religious marriage recognizes and creates the rights and obligations intrinsic to matrimony before that religion. Religious marriage is known variously as sacramental marriage in Catholicism, nikah in Islam, nissuin in Judaism, various other names in other faith traditions, each with their own constraints as to what constitutes, who can enter into, a valid religious marriage; some countries do not recognize locally performed religious marriage on its own, require a separate civil marriage for official purposes. Conversely, civil marriage does not exist in some countries governed by a religious legal system, such as Saudi Arabia, where marriages contracted abroad might not be recognized if they were contracted contrary to Saudi interpretations of Islamic religious law. In countries governed by a mixed secular-religious legal system, such as in Lebanon and Israel, locally performed civil marriage does not exist within the country, preventing interfaith and various other marriages contradicting religious laws from being entered into in the country, civil marriages performed abroad are recognized by the state if they conflict with religious laws.
The act of marriage creates normative or legal obligations between the individuals involved, any offspring they may produce or adopt. In terms of legal recognition, most sovereign states and other jurisdictions limit marriage to opposite-sex couples and a diminishing number of these permit polygyny, child marriages, forced marriages. In modern times, a growing number of countries developed democracies, have lifted bans on and have established legal recognition for the marriages of interfaith and same-sex couples; some cultures allow the dissolution of marriage through annulment. In some areas, child marriages and polygamy may occur in spite of national laws against the practice. Since the late twentieth century, major social changes in Western countries have led to changes in the demographics of marriage, with the age of first marriage increasing, fewer people marrying, more couples choosing to cohabit rather than marry. For example, the number of marriages in Europe decreased by 30% from 1975 to 2005.
In most cultures, married women had few rights of their own, being considered, along with the family's children, the property of the husband. In Europe, the United States, other places in the developed world, beginning in the late 19th century and lasting through the 21st century, marriage has undergone gradual legal changes, aimed at improving the rights of the wife; these changes included giving wives legal identities of their own, abolishing the right of husbands to physically discipline their wives, giving wives property rights, liberalizing divorce laws, providing wives with reproductive rights of their own, requiring a wife's consent when sexual relations occur. These changes have occurred in Western countries. In the 21st century, there continue to be controversies regarding the legal status of married women, legal acceptance of or leniency towards violence within marriage, traditional marriage customs such as dowry and bride price, for
United States Census Bureau
The United States Census Bureau is a principal agency of the U. S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American people and economy; the Census Bureau is part of the U. S. Department of Commerce and its director is appointed by the President of the United States; the Census Bureau's primary mission is conducting the U. S. Census every ten years, which allocates the seats of the U. S. House of Representatives to the states based on their population; the Bureau's various censuses and surveys help allocate over $400 billion in federal funds every year and it helps states, local communities, businesses make informed decisions. The information provided by the census informs decisions on where to build and maintain schools, transportation infrastructure, police and fire departments. In addition to the decennial census, the Census Bureau continually conducts dozens of other censuses and surveys, including the American Community Survey, the U. S. Economic Census, the Current Population Survey.
Furthermore and foreign trade indicators released by the federal government contain data produced by the Census Bureau. Article One of the United States Constitution directs the population be enumerated at least once every ten years and the resulting counts used to set the number of members from each state in the House of Representatives and, by extension, in the Electoral College; the Census Bureau now conducts a full population count every 10 years in years ending with a zero and uses the term "decennial" to describe the operation. Between censuses, the Census Bureau makes population projections. In addition, Census data directly affects how more than $400 billion per year in federal and state funding is allocated to communities for neighborhood improvements, public health, education and more; the Census Bureau is mandated with fulfilling these obligations: the collecting of statistics about the nation, its people, economy. The Census Bureau's legal authority is codified in Title 13 of the United States Code.
The Census Bureau conducts surveys on behalf of various federal government and local government agencies on topics such as employment, health, consumer expenditures, housing. Within the bureau, these are known as "demographic surveys" and are conducted perpetually between and during decennial population counts; the Census Bureau conducts economic surveys of manufacturing, retail and other establishments and of domestic governments. Between 1790 and 1840, the census was taken by marshals of the judicial districts; the Census Act of 1840 established a central office. Several acts followed that revised and authorized new censuses at the 10-year intervals. In 1902, the temporary Census Office was moved under the Department of Interior, in 1903 it was renamed the Census Bureau under the new Department of Commerce and Labor; the department was intended to consolidate overlapping statistical agencies, but Census Bureau officials were hindered by their subordinate role in the department. An act in 1920 changed the date and authorized manufacturing censuses every two years and agriculture censuses every 10 years.
In 1929, a bill was passed mandating the House of Representatives be reapportioned based on the results of the 1930 Census. In 1954, various acts were codified into Title 13 of the US Code. By law, the Census Bureau must count everyone and submit state population totals to the U. S. President by December 31 of any year ending in a zero. States within the Union receive the results in the spring of the following year; the United States Census Bureau defines four statistical regions, with nine divisions. The Census Bureau regions are "widely used...for data collection and analysis". The Census Bureau definition is pervasive. Regional divisions used by the United States Census Bureau: Region 1: Northeast Division 1: New England Division 2: Mid-Atlantic Region 2: Midwest Division 3: East North Central Division 4: West North Central Region 3: South Division 5: South Atlantic Division 6: East South Central Division 7: West South Central Region 4: West Division 8: Mountain Division 9: Pacific Many federal, state and tribal governments use census data to: Decide the location of new housing and public facilities, Examine the demographic characteristics of communities and the US, Plan transportation systems and roadways, Determine quotas and creation of police and fire precincts, Create localized areas for elections, utilities, etc.
Gathers population information every 10 years The United States Census Bureau is committed to confidentiality, guarantees non-disclosure of any addresses or personal information related to individuals or establishments. Title 13 of the U. S. Code establishes penalties for the disclosure of this information. All Census employees must sign an affidavit of non-disclosure prior to employment; the Bureau cannot share responses, addresses or personal information with anyone including United States or foreign government
Mammoth is a town in Pinal County, United States. The population was 1,426 at the 2010 census. Mammoth was founded c. 1872 as Mammoth Camp. Until 2003, when it closed, Mammoth served as a bedroom community for the nearby San Manuel mine; the nearby ghost town of Copper Creek is a popular local attraction. Minerals from the old Mammoth-St. Anthony Mine are found in all major mineral collections. Tiger, Arizona was the townsite at the Tiger mine. In November 2014 Mammoth was the subject of a fictional horror tale on the Reddit subreddit "/r/nosleep", which had a contagious disease wipe out the population. Naive users spread the story, somewhat akin to the 1938 War of the Worlds panic; the town was inundated with phone calls from people trying to ascertain. Mammoth is located at 32°43′20″N 110°38′39″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 1.1 square miles, all of it land. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Mammoth has a semi-arid climate, abbreviated "BSk" on climate maps.
As of the census of 2000, there were 1,762 people, 562 households, 440 families residing in the town. The population density was 1,626.5 people per square mile. There were 697 housing units at an average density of 643.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 61.92% White, 0.11% Black or African American, 1.53% Native American, 0.34% Asian, 0.17% Pacific Islander, 31.90% from other races, 4.03% from two or more races. 72.99% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 562 households out of which 39.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.0% were married couples living together, 16.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 21.7% were non-families. 18.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.8% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.14 and the average family size was 3.54. In the town, the population was spread out with 33.5% under the age of 18, 8.9% from 18 to 24, 25.8% from 25 to 44, 20.1% from 45 to 64, 11.6% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 32 years. For every 100 females, there were 97.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 95.3 males. The median income for a household in the town was $29,861, the median income for a family was $32,661. Males had a median income of $32,768 versus $19,028 for females; the per capita income for the town was $9,878. About 23.8% of families and 28.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 39.4% of those under age 18 and 10.6% of those age 65 or over. Eulalia "Sister" Bourne, pioneer Arizona schoolteacher and author, lived much of her life in the vicinity, at her homestead in Peppersauce Canyon near San Manuel, at her ranch on Copper Creek near Mammoth, where she died in 1984. Town Of Mammoth website
Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume. It is applied to living organisms, most of the time to humans, it is a key geographical term. In simple terms population density refers to the number of people living in an area per kilometer square. Population density is population divided by total land water volume, as appropriate. Low densities may lead to further reduced fertility; this is called the Allee effect after the scientist. Examples of the causes in low population densities include: Increased problems with locating sexual mates Increased inbreeding For humans, population density is the number of people per unit of area quoted per square kilometer or square mile; this may be calculated for a county, country, another territory or the entire world. The world's population is around 7,500,000,000 and Earth's total area is 510,000,000 square kilometers. Therefore, the worldwide human population density is around 7,500,000,000 ÷ 510,000,000 = 14.7 per km2. If only the Earth's land area of 150,000,000 km2 is taken into account human population density is 50 per km2.
This includes all continental and island land area, including Antarctica. If Antarctica is excluded population density rises to over 55 people per km2. However, over half of the Earth's land mass consists of areas inhospitable to human habitation, such as deserts and high mountains, population tends to cluster around seaports and fresh-water sources. Thus, this number by itself does not give any helpful measurement of human population density. Several of the most densely populated territories in the world are city-states and dependencies; these territories have a small area and a high urbanization level, with an economically specialized city population drawing on rural resources outside the area, illustrating the difference between high population density and overpopulation The potential to maintain the agricultural aspects of deserts is limited as there is not enough precipitation to support a sustainable land. The population in these areas are low. Therefore, cities in the Middle East, such as Dubai, have been increasing in population and infrastructure growth at a fast pace.
Cities with high population densities are, by some, considered to be overpopulated, though this will depend on factors like quality of housing and infrastructure and access to resources. Most of the most densely populated cities are in Southeast Asia, though Cairo and Lagos in Africa fall into this category. City population and area are, however dependent on the definition of "urban area" used: densities are invariably higher for the central city area than when suburban settlements and the intervening rural areas are included, as in the areas of agglomeration or metropolitan area, the latter sometimes including neighboring cities. For instance, Milwaukee has a greater population density when just the inner city is measured, the surrounding suburbs excluded. In comparison, based on a world population of seven billion, the world's inhabitants, as a loose crowd taking up ten square feet per person, would occupy a space a little larger than Delaware's land area; the Gaza Strip has a population density of 5,046 pop/km.
Although arithmetic density is the most common way of measuring population density, several other methods have been developed to provide a more accurate measure of population density over a specific area. Arithmetic density: The total number of people / area of land Physiological density: The total population / area of arable land Agricultural density: The total rural population / area of arable land Residential density: The number of people living in an urban area / area of residential land Urban density: The number of people inhabiting an urban area / total area of urban land Ecological optimum: The density of population that can be supported by the natural resources Demography Human geography Idealized population Optimum population Population genetics Population health Population momentum Population pyramid Rural transport problem Small population size Distance sampling List of population concern organizations List of countries by population density List of cities by population density List of city districts by population density List of English districts by population density List of European cities proper by population density List of United States cities by population density List of islands by population density List of U.
S. states by population density List of Australian suburbs by population density Selected Current and Historic City, Ward & Neighborhood Density Duncan Smith / UCL Centre for Advanced Spatial Analysis. "World Population Density". Exploratory map shows data from the Global Human Settlement Layer produced by the European Commission JRC and the CIESIN Columbia University
Hayden is a town in Gila County in the State of Arizona. According to the 2010 census, the population of the town is 662; the economic base of Hayden's economy is the Asarco Hayden Smelter. Hayden is located at 33°0′5″N 110°47′8″W, adjacent to Winkelman and entirely in Gila County. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 1.3 square miles, all of it land. As of the census of 2000, there were 892 people, 288 households, 222 families residing in the town; the population density was 707.1 people per square mile. There were 334 housing units at an average density of 264.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 56.95% White, 0.45% Black or African American, 1.68% Native American, 0.56% Pacific Islander, 35.09% from other races, 5.27% from two or more races. 84.53% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 288 households out of which 31.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 54.5% were married couples living together, 13.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 22.9% were non-families.
21.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.0% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.10 and the average family size was 3.56. In the town, the population was spread out with 33.2% under the age of 18, 9.0% from 18 to 24, 20.5% from 25 to 44, 23.2% from 45 to 64, 14.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 32 years. For every 100 females, there were 93.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.6 males. The median income for a household in the town was $24,293, the median income for a family was $26,964. Males had a median income of $35,521 versus $22,500 for females; the per capita income for the town was $9,797. About 20.1% of families and 27.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 35.2% of those under age 18 and 14.9% of those age 65 or over. Dick Tuck, politician consultant, was born in Hayden. History of Hayden EPA Takes Action Against Toxic Arizona Copper Plant, NPR story on Hayden, with video
Casa Grande, Arizona
Casa Grande is a city in Pinal County halfway between Phoenix and Tucson in the U. S. state of Arizona. According to U. S. Census estimates, the population of the city is 55,477 as of 2017, it is named after the Casa Grande Ruins National Monument, located in Coolidge. "Casa Grande" is Spanish for "big house". Among resident English speakers, there is no consensus on. Casa Grande was founded in 1879 during the Arizona mining boom due to the presence of the Southern Pacific Railroad. In January 1880, the community of Terminus, meaning "end-of-the-line," was established despite consisting of just five residents and three buildings. In September 1880, railroad executives renamed the settlement Casa Grande, after the Hohokam ruins at the nearby Casa Grande Ruins National Monument. Casa Grande grew and suffered several setbacks both in 1886 and 1893, when fires ravaged the town, destroying all wooden housing structures within it; when the mining boom slowed in the 1890s, the town was nearly abandoned, but with the advent of agriculture, the town remained alive and well, was incorporated in 1915.
One of the founding fathers of Casa Grande was Thompson Rodney Peart. Peart Road, Peart Park, the Peart Center, all of which are notable fixtures of Casa Grande, are named after him. Casa Grande was home to a collective farm society, part of the New Deal. According to historian David Leighton, during World War II, from 1942 to 1945, a Japanese-American relocation camp was set up outside of Casa Grande, known as the Gila River War Relocation Center. Two notable people that were interned there were future actor Pat Morita and baseball player Kenichi Zenimura, who constructed a baseball field and set up a league in the relocation camp. Casa Grande is home to Francisco Grande Hotel & Golf Resort, former spring training location for the San Francisco Giants. Owner, Horace Stoneham, began developing the property in 1959; the first exhibition game was played in Casa Grande in 1961, with Willie Mays hitting a 375-foot home run. The San Francisco Giants no longer play at Francisco Grande, but the pool in a baseball bat and ball shape remains in memory of the past ballgames.
During the Cold War, Casa Grande was the location of the Corona Satellite Calibration Targets. These targets consisted of concrete arrows located in and to the south of the city, which calibrated satellites of the Corona spy program. Casa Grande has played a prominent role in semi-pro and collegiate baseball; the Casa Grande Cotton Kings, who were founded in 1948, qualified to play in the National Baseball Congress World Series ten straight times by winning Arizona state championships in the 1940s and 1950s, were reactivated in the 2000s. They are now members of the Pacific Southwest Baseball League. According to the United States Census Bureau, Casa Grande has a total area of 48.2 square miles, all of it land. Casa Grande has a hot desert climate, typical for the Sonoran Desert; the city experiences long hot summers and brief winters consisting of mild afternoons and chilly evenings. The area averages only 9.07 inches of rain per year. The coolest month on average is December, with highs averaging 68 °F, lows averaging around 37 °F.
The lowest temperature recorded in Casa Grande was 15 °F. July is the warmest month of the year, with an average high of 107 °F and an average low of 76 °F; the highest temperature recorded in the city was 122 °F. Along with the rest of southern Arizona, the community is prone to dust storms and in the summer months is affected by the North American Monsoon, which brings high winds and heavy rain; as of the census of 2010, there were 48,571 people, 22,400 households, 6,547 families residing in the city. The population density was 523.7 people per square mile. There were 11,041 housing units at an average density of 229.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 49.9% non-Hispanic White, 4.27% Black or African American, 4.91% Native American, 1.17% Asian, 0.10% Pacific Islander, 21.09% from other races, 3.56% from two or more races. 39.13% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 8,920 households out of which 37.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 52.3% were married couples living together, 15.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 26.6% were non-families.
21.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.80 and the average family size was 3.24. In the city, the population was spread out with 30.9% under the age of 18, 9.3% from 18 to 24, 26.4% from 25 to 44, 19.6% from 45 to 64, 13.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 32 years. For every 100 females, there were 97.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.5 males. The median income for a household in the city was $36,212, the median income for a family was $40,827. Males had a median income of $34,858 versus $23,533 for females; the per capita income for the city was $15,917. About 12.4% of families and 16.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 21.2% of those under age 18 and 12.3% of those age 65 or over. The economy of Casa Grande was based on rural, agricultural industries such as cotton and dairy farms. Over time, the city has become home to many Phoenix or Tucson urbanites who own homes in Casa Grande.
Most residents either commute north to work in the Phoenix metropolitan area, or to the south, to work in Tucson. This trend has contributed to growth in the service industry of C
Eloy is a city in Pinal County, United States, about 50 miles northwest of Tucson and about 65 miles southeast of Phoenix. According to the U. S. Census estimates in 2017, the population of the city is 19,168. According to the U. S. Census of 2000, the city has a total area of 98.9 square miles. The city offers a varied range of community facilities for its citizens. Outside the city limits, the city has a planning area of 560 square miles; as of the census of 2011, there were 16,964 people, 2,492 households, 1,988 families residing in Eloy. The population density was 144.8 people per square mile. There were 2,734 housing units at an average density of 38.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 58% Hispanic or Latino, 5.32% Black or African American, 41% White, 4.48% Native American, 1.20% Asian, 0.11% Pacific Islander, 31.48% from other races, 4.71% from two or more races. There were 2,492 households out of which 50.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 49.4% were married couples living together, 21.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 20.2% were non-families.
15.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 6.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.57 and the average family size was 3.94. In the city, the population was spread out with 33.7% under the age of 18, 12.0% from 18 to 24, 32.5% from 25 to 44, 15.4% from 45 to 64, 6.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 28 years. For every 100 females, there were 137.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 154.8 males. The median income for a household in the city was $26,518, the median income for a family was $28,494. Males had a median income of $25,295 versus $21,088 for females; the per capita income for the city was $9,194. About 27.9% of families and 31.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 35.6% of those under age 18 and 24.6% of those age 65 or over. The largest employer is Corrections Corporation of America, those CCA prisoners are included in the census. CCA operates the Eloy Detention Center, the Red Rock Correctional Center, the Saguaro Correctional Center, the La Palma Correctional Center.
As of 2010 the CCA-operated Saguaro Correctional Center, located in Eloy, houses the majority of Hawaii's male prison inmate population. It is home to the world's largest skydive dropzone, Skydive Arizona, bills itself as the skydiving capital of the world. According to Eloy's 2014 Comprehensive Annual Financial Report, the top employers in the city are: The Eloy Elementary School District provides elementary education in grades K through 8 through its four schools: Curiel Annex School Curiel Primary School Eloy Intermediate School Eloy Junior High School The one high school in the town, Santa Cruz Valley Union High School, is separately administered, it has about 440 students. Levi Jones – professional football player Mossy Cade – professional football player Official website Eloy City Limits