Victoria was Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death. On 1 May 1876, she adopted the additional title of Empress of India. Known as the Victorian era, her reign of 63 years and seven months was longer than that of any of her predecessors, it was a period of industrial, political and military change within the United Kingdom, was marked by a great expansion of the British Empire. Victoria was the daughter of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld. After both the Duke and his father died in 1820, she was raised under close supervision by her mother and her comptroller, John Conroy, she inherited the throne aged 18 after her father's three elder brothers died without surviving legitimate issue. The United Kingdom was an established constitutional monarchy in which the sovereign held little direct political power, she attempted to influence government policy and ministerial appointments. Victoria married her cousin Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha in 1840.
Their children married into royal and noble families across the continent, earning Victoria the sobriquet "the grandmother of Europe" and spreading haemophilia in European royalty. After Albert's death in 1861, Victoria avoided public appearances; as a result of her seclusion, republicanism in the United Kingdom temporarily gained strength, but in the latter half of her reign, her popularity recovered. Her Golden and Diamond Jubilees were times of public celebration, she died on the Isle of Wight in 1901. The last British monarch of the House of Hanover, she was succeeded by her son Edward VII of the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha. Victoria's father was Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of the reigning King of the United Kingdom, George III; until 1817, Edward's niece, Princess Charlotte of Wales, was the only legitimate grandchild of George III. Her death in 1817 precipitated a succession crisis that brought pressure on the Duke of Kent and his unmarried brothers to marry and have children.
In 1818 he married Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, a widowed German princess with two children—Carl and Feodora —by her first marriage to the Prince of Leiningen. Her brother Leopold was Princess Charlotte's widower; the Duke and Duchess of Kent's only child, was born at 4.15 a.m. on 24 May 1819 at Kensington Palace in London. Victoria was christened by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Charles Manners-Sutton, on 24 June 1819 in the Cupola Room at Kensington Palace, she was baptised Alexandrina after one of her godparents, Emperor Alexander I of Russia, Victoria, after her mother. Additional names proposed by her parents—Georgina and Augusta—were dropped on the instructions of Kent's eldest brother George, Prince Regent. At birth, Victoria was fifth in the line of succession after the four eldest sons of George III: the Prince Regent; the Prince Regent had no surviving children, the Duke of York had no children. William and Edward married on the same day in 1818, but both of William's legitimate daughters died as infants.
The first of these was Princess Charlotte, born and died on 27 March 1819, two months before Victoria was born. Victoria's father died in January 1820. A week her grandfather died and was succeeded by his eldest son as George IV. Victoria was third in line to the throne after Frederick and William. William's second daughter, Princess Elizabeth of Clarence, lived for twelve weeks from 10 December 1820 to 4 March 1821, for that period Victoria was fourth in line; the Duke of York died in 1827, followed by George IV in 1830. The Regency Act 1830 made special provision for Victoria's mother to act as regent in case William died while Victoria was still a minor. King William distrusted the Duchess's capacity to be regent, in 1836 he declared in her presence that he wanted to live until Victoria's 18th birthday, so that a regency could be avoided. Victoria described her childhood as "rather melancholy", her mother was protective, Victoria was raised isolated from other children under the so-called "Kensington System", an elaborate set of rules and protocols devised by the Duchess and her ambitious and domineering comptroller, Sir John Conroy, rumoured to be the Duchess's lover.
The system prevented the princess from meeting people whom her mother and Conroy deemed undesirable, was designed to render her weak and dependent upon them. The Duchess avoided the court because she was scandalised by the presence of King William's illegitimate children. Victoria shared a bedroom with her mother every night, studied with private tutors to a regular timetable, spent her play-hours with her dolls and her King Charles Spaniel, Dash, her lessons included French, German and Latin, but she spoke only English at home. In 1830, the Duchess of Kent and Conroy took Victoria across the centre of England to visit the Malvern Hills, stopping at towns and great country houses along the way. Similar journeys to other parts of England and W
Fran Ramovš was a Slovenian linguist. He studied the onomastics of Slovene. Fran Ramovš was born in the capital of the Duchy of Carniola, Austria-Hungary, he studied linguistics in Graz. While in Graz he selected the topic of his dissertation and completed it in 1912. In October 1915 Ramovš was mobilized and sent to the Isonzo Front, where he was incapacitated during the Third Battle of the Isonzo, he spent a year recovering in Vienna, he was dismissed from regular military service in 1917 on grounds of disability and assigned to the territorial reserve in Ljubljana and Kamnik. In 1918 Ramovš was given a professorship and offered a teaching position as an associate professor in Chernivtsi, but with the collapse of Austria-Hungary he returned from Graz to Ljubljana, where preparations were underway to establish a university; the University of Ljubljana was founded in 1919, on 31 August 1919 Ramovš was among the first four full professors appointed at the institution. He was appointed a professor of Indo-European and Slavic linguistics and taught accentology, general phonetics, Proto-Slavic, comparative Indo-European grammar.
In 1921, the son Primož, the composer, was born to him. Ramovš served as chancellor of the University of Ljubljana from 1934 to 1935, he was a co-founder and member of the Slovenian Academy of Sciences and Arts and he served as the chair of the academy from 1950 to 1952. He received the Prešeren Award in 1950 for his work on the Slovene Normative Guide, he was an honorary member of the Slavic Society of Slovenia. Ramovš died 16 September 1952 in Ljubljana; the Fran Ramovš Institute of the Slovene Language is named after Ramovš. Historična gramatika slovenskega jezika Volume 2: Konzonantizem COBISS 608257 Volume 7: Dialekti COBISS 608513 Dialektološka karta slovenskega jezika COBISS 5433657 Slovenski pravopis COBISS 30372353 Kratka zgodovina slovenskega jezika COBISS 122625 Morfologija slovenskega jezika COBISS 1100289 List of Slovenian linguists and philologists
A Fist Within Four Walls is a Hong Kong television drama created by Jazz Boon for TVB. It is a martial arts action serial drama, revolves around kung fu masters living in the triad-ridden Kowloon Walled City during the early 1960s; the drama stars Ruco Chan as the series' protagonist, a gifted martial arts novice who, along with a group of young kung fu masters, take down the walled city's largest criminal organisation, the Fellow Association. The drama stars Nancy Wu, Benjamin Yuen, Philip Ng, Yuen Qiu, Grace Wong, Moon Lau in lead roles. Chor Au-Kuen, portrayed by Ruco Chan, is the main protagonist, he is referred to as Kuen Lo by his friends, is an gifted martial arts novice. Kuen is described as an "optimistic and hot-blooded" natural-born leader, but is flawed with his impulsive and competitive nature. Kuen is kind-hearted, sometimes to the point of naivety. Yeung Hoi-pok portrayed 10-year-old Kuen. Kuen was born Chiu Yeung, was the son of Chiu Mang-san, a Bajiquan master of the Chiu style.
He and his younger sister Chiu Ha were both diligent Bajiquan students of their father. In 1945, when Yeung was 10, his family moved into the Kowloon Walled City to start a new living, they get acquainted with a Bajiquan master of the Duen style. Master Duen had long been a protector of the walled city. Wanting to protect the walled city with them, Yeung asked his father to teach him his signature move, "Scaling Tiger", but his father said the move was too powerful for someone as young as Yeung to learn. Yeung was forcibly separated from his family. Duen's students claimed that Yeung's father was the murderer, as they were seen fighting right before Duen's death; the doctor ruled the cause of the death to be blunt trauma, only Chiu's "Fierce Tiger Climbing Mountain" strike had enough power to kill. Yeung's parents were beaten to death by Duen's students, Yeung was separated from his younger sister. Yeung escaped to Macau to live with his great aunt. In 1959, 26-year-old Yeung, now named Chor Au-kuen, returns to the Kowloon Walled City to search for his sister.
He meets But Tak-liu, a general contractor, who brings him into the walled city and introduces him to a water labouring job so he can pay his rent to the landlady Tiu Lan. By chance, he meets Duen Ying-fung, Master Duen's now adult son, learns that the Duen family no longer operate a Bajiquan kwoon due to increasing intimidation of the Fellow Association, the walled city's largest triad organisation. Master Duen's death had indirectly led to the rise of the Fellow Association's power in the walled city. Kuen feels regretful and responsible—if his father had not killed Duen, the walled city may not have fallen victim into the wrong hands, he learns from Fung that his sister had died from a mountain fire 15 years ago while attempting to escape the walled city. Kuen develops survivor's guilt as a result. Wanting to atone his sins, Kuen decides to stay in the walled city and takes on the duty of protecting its people. Believing that his father's "Fierce Tiger Climbing Mountain" to be the strike that had killed Master Duen, Kuen refuses to re-learn Bajiquan, seeks help from his neighbour Thai Por, a retired master in Wing Chun and Muay Thai.
Kuen is a quick learner, adapts to Thai Por's fighting style, uses her moves to defeat his enemies. After defeating underground Muay Thai champion Lung Shing-fu, Thai Por's son and Fung form the Kowloon Walled City Welfare Association to break the Fellow Association's stronghold in the walled city. While attempting to rescue his Fa Man, he suffers head trauma causing blindness. Together with Fa Man's death and his loss at the hands of Fung he leaves his friends and becomes homeless. Tiu Lan soon trains to fight without his eyesight, he helps fight Yeung. Duen Ying-fung portrayed by Benjamin Yuen, is Kuen's friend and occasional rival, he is a dentist, is referred to as Ngah Lo. Fung is calm and level-headed, a stark contrast to Kuen's impulsiveness. Fung is the same age as Kuen, having met when they were kids, though Fung does not learn of this encounter until on. Alvin Lau portrayed 10-year-old Fung. Fung was the son of Duen Tung-tin, a skilled Bajiquan master who used to be a protector of the walled city.
After his father's death, the family kwoon falls apart and the walled city descends into anarchy, with triads being its virtual ruler. Fung is advised by his uncle to only practice his Bajiquan in secret so he won't fall into the same fate as his father. Along with his uncle, Fung opens up a dental clinic in the walled city. Fung's good looks and kind temperament has made him quite popular with the ladies, winning the affections of Tiu Lan and her tenants. After witnessing Kuen's bravery while trying to save Yam-yam from the Fellow Association leader Fung Ha-moon, Fung decides that he can no longer stay silent. Along with Kuen, he forms the Kowloon Walled City Welfare Association to protect the walled city's people against the intimidation of the Fellow Association, his uncle, upset with this decision, alienates him. No longer welcomed back at the clinic, he moves in with Tiu Lan, he gets warped into investigating a drug operation when Bajiquan fighter Fa Man, who appears to be allied with Fellow Association leader Fung Chun-mei, asks for his hel