Victoria Eugenie of Battenberg
Victoria Eugenie of Battenberg was Queen of Spain as the wife of King Alfonso XIII. Victoria Eugenie was born on 24 October 1887 at Balmoral Castle, in Scotland, her father was Prince Henry of Battenberg, the fourth child and third son of Prince Alexander of Hesse and by Rhine by his morganatic wife Countess Julia Hauke, her mother was Princess Beatrice, the fifth daughter and youngest child of Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom and Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha. As Prince Henry was the product of a morganatic marriage, he took his style of Prince of Battenberg from his mother, created Princess of Battenberg in her own right; as such, Henry's children would have been born with the style "Serene Highness". She was named for her grandmother Victoria and for her godmother Eugénie de Montijo, the Spanish-born French empress who lived in exile in the United Kingdom. To her family, the British general public, she was known by the last of her names, as Ena, she was baptised in the Drawing Room at Balmoral.
Her godparents were Empress Eugénie, Empress Frederick, the Princess of Battenberg, Princess Christian of Schleswig-Holstein, Prince Louis of Battenberg and the Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha. Victoria Eugenie grew up in Queen Victoria's household, as the British monarch had reluctantly allowed Beatrice to marry on the condition that she remain her mother's full-time companion and personal secretary. Therefore, she spent her childhood at Windsor Castle and Osborne House on the Isle of Wight, she was a bridesmaid at the wedding of her cousins, the Duke and Duchess of York on 6 July 1893. Her father died while on active military service after contracting fever in Africa in 1896. After the death of Queen Victoria in 1901, the Battenbergs moved to London and took up residence in Kensington Palace. In 1905, King Alfonso XIII of Spain made an official state visit to the United Kingdom. Victoria Eugenie's uncle, King Edward VII, hosted a dinner in Buckingham Palace, in honour of the Spanish king. Alfonso was seated between Princess Helena, King Edward's sister.
He noticed Victoria Eugenie and asked who the dinner guest with white hair was. Everybody knew that King Alfonso was looking for a suitable bride and one of the strongest candidates was Princess Patricia of Connaught, another niece of King Edward; as Princess Patricia seemed not to be impressed by the Spanish monarch, Alfonso indulged his interest in Victoria Eugenie, so the courtship began. When Alfonso returned to Spain he sent postcards to Victoria Eugenie and spoke of her approvingly, his mother, Queen Maria Cristina, did not like her son's choice, in part because she considered the Battenbergs non-royal because of the obscure origin of Prince Henry's mother, in part because she wanted her son to marry within her own family. Another obstacle to a marriage was religion: Alfonso was Roman Catholic, Victoria Eugenie was Anglican. Another potential problem was haemophilia, the disease that Victoria had transmitted to some of her descendants. Eugenie's brother Leopold was a haemophiliac, so there was a 50% probability that Victoria Eugenie would be a carrier, although the degree of risk was not yet known.
Still, if Alfonso married her, their issue could be affected by the disease. Nonetheless, Alfonso was not dissuaded. After a year of rumours about which princess Alfonso would marry, his mother acceded to her son's selection in January 1906 and wrote a letter to Victoria Eugenie's mother, telling her about the love Alfonso felt for her daughter and seeking unofficial contact with the king; some days at Windsor, King Edward congratulated his niece on her future engagement. Princess Beatrice and her daughter arrived in Biarritz on 22 January and stayed at the Villa Mauriscot where some days King Alfonso met them. At the Villa Mauriscot and his future bride conducted a chaperoned, three-day romance. Alfonso took Victoria Eugenie and her mother to San Sebastián to meet Queen Maria Cristina. On 3 February, the king left San Sebastian to go to Madrid and Victoria Eugenie and her mother went to Versailles where the Princess would be instructed in the Catholic faith: As the future Queen of Spain, she agreed to convert.
The official reception of Victoria Eugenie into the Catholic faith took place on 5 March 1906 at Miramar Palace in San Sebastián. The terms of the marriage were settled by two agreements, a public treaty and a private contractual arrangement; the treaty was executed between Spain and the United Kingdom in London on 7 May 1906 by their respective plenipotentiaries, the Spanish Ambassador to the Court of St. James's, Don Luis Polo de Bernabé, the British Foreign Secretary, Sir Edward Grey, Bt. Ratifications were exchanged on 23 May following. Among other conditions, the treaty stipulated:BE it known unto all men by these Presents that whereas His Catholic Majesty Alfonso XIII, King of Spain, has judged it proper to announce his intention of contracting a marriage with Her Royal Highness Princess Victoria Eugénie Julia Ena, niece of His Majesty Edward VII, King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and of the British Dominions beyond the Seas, Emperor of India, daughter of Her Royal Highness the Princess Beatrice Mary Victoria
The Queen Victoria
The Queen Victoria is the Victorian public house in the BBC soap opera, EastEnders. It has the fictional address of 46 Albert Square, London E20. In the series' backstory, Albert Square was built around 1860 during the reign of Queen Victoria; the pub was to be called The Balmoral but after the death of Prince Albert it was renamed as a tribute to the mourning Queen. In reality, Albert Square is based on the real Fassett Square in Hackney, but there is no pub there so The Queen Victoria is based on what was once College Park Tavern on Harrow Road in Harlesden; the pub's exterior is first seen painted brown. This is changed to a green and cream colour scheme before Grant Mitchell sets alight to the Queen Victoria in 1992, after which it is painted red. Following another blaze in 2010, the pub is painted red and cream. On Boxing Day 2013, the new family to the square, the Carters, took over the Queen Vic and since it has had a refurbishment and has been painted red once again. During the first months of the show, The Queen Victoria has a partition wall down the middle of the bar which separates it into two sections.
The smaller section, known as the'snug', houses a dart board and fruit machines, whilst the larger section, known as the saloon bar, is used as the customer seating area. Den Watts gets permission from the brewery to remove the partition in 1985, hires Tony Carpenter to do the job. In 2007 the pub has its first refurbishment in 15 years, another in late 2010. In reality the pub exterior shell on the outdoor permanent set was built during 1984 for the new series the following year; the exterior shell was made to look. The internal sets are in a studio separate from the building situated in the Square. Inside Soap said that the pub was the most "haunted" location in EastEnders, considering the number of characters who have died in or outside the building, including Den, Archie Mitchell, Bradley Branning, Tiffany Mitchell and Tom Clements. In a storyline shown during September 2010, The Queen Victoria was damaged by a fire; this allowed for a subtle upgrade of the set. A separate set was built on the George Lucas sound stage at Elstree Studios to enable the pub interior to be set alight safely.
A team of nearly forty-five crew members were involved in the filming of the fire including makeup, stunt team, fire safety officers, lighting and the costume department. The exterior scenes were shot at the BBC studios in Borehamwood; the interior scenes took three days to film. Safety necessitated having the set re-created at the Elstree Film Studios stage facility, designed and equipped to film fire scenes. EastEnders Production Manager Rona McKendrick says "Potentially hazardous scenes like this always require specialist knowledge and we rely on their experience and advice to ensure that everything is achieved as safely as possible. We had a Stunt Team comprising our Stunt Co-ordinator and his team of Stunt Doubles. A Visual FX team designed and executed all the fire sequences and we had specialist Fire Officers providing out of vision fire cover / safety." Of the fire itself, McKendrick said "Everyone was sad to see The Vic taken out of Stage One and moved to Elstree Film Studios for the burn, I've known the set for 18 years and to see the enormous space it left was as if a piece of history had been removed".
In the EastEnders series spin-off CivvyStreet life in Albert Square is featured between 1939 and 1945, The Queen Victoria freehold is owned by the brewery, Luxford & Copley. Ray and Lil Sewell are the landlords; when the series begins, the brewery remain owners and Den and Angie Watts have been landlords for ten years. Angie is served with divorce papers by Den on Christmas Day 1986 and two years he passes control to Frank and Pat Butcher. In 1990, Frank and Pat hand over the pub to Eddie Royle. Eddie is murdered by Nick Cotton the following year, the daughter of Den and Angie, Sharon Watts, becomes the first licensee when she buys the freehold of The Queen Vic with the assistance of her husband Grant Mitchell and his brother Phil. Grant sets fire to the pub in 1992 in an insurance scam and it is refurbished. Grant and Sharon divorce and their share of The Queen Vic is sold to Peggy. Peggy marries Frank in 1999 and he again becomes a landlord; when Grant leaves Walford, Peggy's alcoholic son Phil sells his share of pub to Dan Sullivan for a mere £5 to spite his domineering mother.
However, he subsequently evicts Dan from The Queen Vic. After Frank disappears and leaves her penniless, Peggy is forced to sell the pub in early 2001; the new buyer is revealed to be Sharon, in partnership with Steve Owen. Steve has to sell his share to raise ransom money for his wife Mel and Phil buys back part of The Queen Vic. In 2002, Sharon sells up to Phil and the pub returns to the control of the Mitchells. Peggy appoints Alfie Moon as manager that year. In 2004, Den tricks his way back into ownership of The Queen Vic, within a few months he is killed by his second wife, Chrissie (Tracy-An
Victoria was Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death. On 1 May 1876, she adopted the additional title of Empress of India. Victoria was the daughter of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of King George III. Both the Duke and the King died in 1820, Victoria was raised under close supervision by her mother, Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, she inherited the throne at the age of 18, after her father's three elder brothers had all died, leaving no surviving legitimate children. The United Kingdom was an established constitutional monarchy, in which the sovereign held little direct political power. Victoria attempted to influence government policy and ministerial appointments. Victoria married her first cousin Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha in 1840, their nine children married into royal and noble families across the continent, tying them together and earning her the sobriquet "the grandmother of Europe". After Albert's death in 1861, Victoria avoided public appearances.
As a result of her seclusion, republicanism temporarily gained strength, but in the latter half of her reign, her popularity recovered. Her Golden and Diamond Jubilees were times of public celebration, her reign of 63 years and seven months was longer than that of any of her predecessors and is known as the Victorian era. It was a period of industrial, political and military change within the United Kingdom, was marked by a great expansion of the British Empire, she was the last British monarch of the House of Hanover. Her son and successor, Edward VII, initiated the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, the line of his father. Victoria's father was Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of the reigning King of the United Kingdom, George III; until 1817, Edward's niece, Princess Charlotte of Wales, was the only legitimate grandchild of George III. Her death in 1817 precipitated a succession crisis that brought pressure on the Duke of Kent and his unmarried brothers to marry and have children.
In 1818 he married Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, a widowed German princess with two children—Carl and Feodora —by her first marriage to the Prince of Leiningen. Her brother Leopold was Princess Charlotte's widower; the Duke and Duchess of Kent's only child, was born at 4.15 a.m. on 24 May 1819 at Kensington Palace in London. Victoria was christened by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Charles Manners-Sutton, on 24 June 1819 in the Cupola Room at Kensington Palace, she was baptised Alexandrina after one of her godparents, Emperor Alexander I of Russia, Victoria, after her mother. Additional names proposed by her parents—Georgina and Augusta—were dropped on the instructions of Kent's eldest brother, the Prince Regent. At birth, Victoria was fifth in the line of succession after the four eldest sons of George III: George, the Prince Regent; the Prince Regent had no surviving children, the Duke of York had no children. The Duke of Clarence and the Duke of Kent married on the same day in 1818, but both of Clarence's legitimate daughters died as infants.
The first of these was Princess Charlotte, born and died on 27 March 1819, two months before Victoria was born. Victoria's father died in January 1820. A week her grandfather died and was succeeded by his eldest son as George IV. Victoria was third in line to the throne after York and Clarence. Clarence's second daughter was Princess Elizabeth of Clarence who lived for twelve weeks from 10 December 1820 to 4 March 1821 and, while Elizabeth lived, Victoria was fourth in line; the Duke of York died in 1827. When George IV died in 1830, he was succeeded by his next surviving brother, Clarence, as William IV, Victoria became heir presumptive; the Regency Act 1830 made special provision for Victoria's mother to act as regent in case William died while Victoria was still a minor. King William distrusted the Duchess's capacity to be regent, in 1836 he declared in her presence that he wanted to live until Victoria's 18th birthday, so that a regency could be avoided. Victoria described her childhood as "rather melancholy".
Her mother was protective, Victoria was raised isolated from other children under the so-called "Kensington System", an elaborate set of rules and protocols devised by the Duchess and her ambitious and domineering comptroller, Sir John Conroy, rumoured to be the Duchess's lover. The system prevented the princess from meeting people whom her mother and Conroy deemed undesirable, was designed to render her weak and dependent upon them; the Duchess avoided the court because she was scandalised by the presence of King William's illegitimate children. Victoria shared a bedroom with her mother every night, studied with private tutors to a regular timetable, spent her play-hours with her dolls and her King Charles Spaniel, Dash, her lessons included French, German and Latin, but she spoke only English at home. In 1830, the Duchess of Kent and Conroy took Victoria across the centre of England to visit the Malvern Hills, stopping at towns and great country houses along the way. Similar journeys to oth
Chasselas or Chasselas blanc is a wine grape variety grown in Switzerland, Germany, Hungary, New Zealand and Chile. Chasselas is vinified to be a full and fruity white wine, it is suitable as a table grape, grown for this purpose in Turkey and Hungary. Genetic analyses made in 2009 in a laboratory of the University of Dieppe showed that Chasselas is a grape variety originating in western Switzerland, its name was first mentioned in the 16th century. In 1940, Chasselas was crossed with Silvaner to produce the white grape variety Nobling. Chasselas is grown in Switzerland, where it has several regional synonym names, the main one being Fendant in the canton of Valais, it is considered an ideal pairing for fondue. Chasselas is known as Perlan in the Mandement district of Geneva. In 2009, it was Switzerland's second-most planted grape variety at 4,013 hectares. In Germany, with 1,123 hectares, it is exclusively grown in the wine region of Baden under the name Gutedel. In France it is grown in the Loire region, where it is blended with Sauvignon blanc to produce a wine called "Pouilly-sur-Loire".
Californian and Australian growers know this variety under the names Chasselas Doré and Golden Chasselas. Michel Chapoutier has stated that he is looking for land for a vineyard in England, which would be planted with Chasselas, he said that he believed Chasselas would suit the English climate and terroir well
Trollinger is a red German/Italian wine grape variety, first cultivated in the wine regions of South Tyrol and Trentino, but today is exclusively cultivated on steep, sunny locations in the Württemberg wine region of Baden-Württemberg. It is known under the synonyms Trollinger in Germany, Vernatsch in South Tyrol and Schiava in other Italian regions; as a table grape the variety is sometimes known as Black Hamburg, confused with the similar synonym for Black Muscat—a variety, a cross of Trollinger and Muscat of Alexandria. According to wine expert Oz Clarke, Trollinger has moderate acidity and tends to produce light bodied wines with fruity strawberry and subtle smokey notes. While the grape is northern Italian in origin, the synonym Schiava is related to the Italian word for "Slave" and may hint to the type of vine plant in Roman times. Records show that the grape has been growing in the Trentino-Alto Adige region since at least the 13th century; the German synonym Trollinger appears to be a corruption of the word Tirolinger meaning "of Tyrol".
The synonym Vernatsch appears to have a similar origins as Vernaccia in having the same root word as "vernacular" or "local". British Master of Wine Nicolas Belfrage has interpreted this association as further evidence that the grape originated in the South Tyrol/Alto Adige region. At some point the grape migrated northwards to the southern regions of Germany though the exact date of its arrival is unknown. In Württemberg, viticulture has existed since at least the 8th century when monks from Burgundy established monasteries and vineyards in the region. In nearby Lauffen am Neckar, it was established earlier during Roman times, but the earliest records for Trollinger growing in the Württemberg region can only be traced back to 14th century. In the Trentino-Alto Adige region, several sub-varieties or clones of Trollinger have been identified; these include the large berry Schiava Grossa, the highest yielding clone, but tends to produce light bodied and neutral tasting wine, the smaller berry Schiava Gentile, which tends to produce more aromatic wines and Tschaggle, the lowest yielding clone, but produces the most critically acclaimed wines.
Other known clones include Schiava Piccola. In Württemberg, Trollinger was crossed with the white grape Riesling to produce the cross Kerner in 1929; the new crossing was named after Justinus Kerner. The variety was crossed with Muscat of Alexandria to produce Black Muscat. In 2010, DNA analysis suggested that the Emilia-Romagna wine grape Uva Tosca may be a natural crossing between Trollinger/Schiava Grossa and Crepallochi. Trollinger is a late ripening variety ripening and being harvested much than Riesling. In the Trento province, Trollinger is sometimes confused with the Italian/Slovenian wine grape Piccola nera; the vast majority of the nearly 2,300 hectares of Trollinger in Germany are grown in the Württemberg around the town of Stuttgart and throughout the Neckar valley. The region is the fifth largest in Germany with nearly a third of all plantings in Württemberg being Trollinger. While there are several clones of the variety in Italy, nearly all of the Trollinger found in Germany is the high yielding Schiava Grossa clone.
Here the grape is blended with Lemberger. In Italy it is a permitted variety in several Denominazione di Origine Controllata s including the Santa Maddalena DOC located east of the city of Bolzano in the South Tyrol/Alto Adige region. There the grape must make up a minimum of 90% of the blend with Lagrein and Pinot noir permitted to round out the remaining 10%. Grapes are limited to a yield of 12.5 tonnes/hectare with the finished wine needing to attain a minimum alcohol level of 11.5%. Some producers use the German name "Saint Magdalener" on the wine labels. Other Italian DOCs where Trollinger/Schiava/Vernatsch is a permitted variety include: Alto Adige DOC – Varietal label Schiava must have a minimum 95% of the variety from grapes harvested limited to 14 tonnes/ha with the finished wine having a minimum alcohol level of 10.5%. Caldaro DOC – Also known as Kalterer See/Lago di Caldaro. Minimum 85% Schiava with Pinot noir and Lagrein permitted up to 15% from grapes harvested limited to 14 tonnes/ha with the finished wine having a minimum alcohol level of 10.5%.
A classico bottling can be made from grapes grown around the communes of Caldaro, Termeno, Vadena, Montagna and Bronzolo. A superiore bottling can be made from the classico area provided the finished wine has a minimum alcohol level of 11%. Casteller DOC – A multi-grape blend from this DOC near the border of the province of Verona. Schiava must account for a minimum of 30% of the blend up to 40% Lambrusco, 30% Merlot and 10% other red grape varieties. Yields are limited to 13.5 tonnes/ha with the finished wine needing to attain a minimum alcohol level of 11%. Colli di Bolzano DOC – Schiava must account for a minimum 90% of the blend with Lagrein and Pinot noir permitted to fill in the remaining 10%. Yields are limited to 13 tonnes/ha with the finished wine needing to attain a minimum alcohol level of 11%. Meranese di Collina DOC – 100% Schiava but a field blend of several clones including Grossa and Tschaggle. Yields are limited to 12.5 tonnes/ha with the finished wine needing to attain a minimum alcohol level of 10.5%.
A special bottling known as Bulgraviato or Burggräfler can be produced from grapes grown around t
Victoria, Princess Royal
Victoria, Princess Royal was German Empress and Queen of Prussia by marriage to German Emperor Frederick III. She was the eldest child of Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom and Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, was created Princess Royal in 1841, she was the mother of German Emperor. Educated by her father in a politically liberal environment, she was betrothed at the age of sixteen to Prince Frederick of Prussia and supported him in his views that Prussia and the German Empire should become a constitutional monarchy on the British model. Criticised for this attitude and for her English origins, Victoria suffered ostracism by the Hohenzollerns and the Berlin court; this isolation increased after the arrival of Otto von Bismarck to power in 1862. Victoria was empress and queen of Prussia for only a few months, during which she had opportunity to influence the policy of the German Empire. Frederick III died in 1888 – just 99 days after his accession – from laryngeal cancer and was succeeded by their son William II, who had much more conservative views than his parents.
After her husband's death, she became known as Empress Frederick. The empress dowager settled in Kronberg im Taunus, where she built Friedrichshof, a castle, named in honour of her late husband. Isolated after the weddings of her younger daughters, Victoria died of breast cancer a few months after her mother in 1901; the correspondence between Victoria and her parents has been preserved completely: 3,777 letters from Queen Victoria to her eldest daughter, about 4,000 letters from the empress to her mother are preserved and catalogued. These give a detailed insight into the life of the Prussian court between 1858 and 1900. Princess Victoria was born on 21 November 1840 at London, she was her husband, Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha. When she was born, the doctor exclaimed sadly: "Oh Madame, it's a girl!" And the Queen replied: "Never mind, next time it will be a prince!". She was baptised in the Throne Room of Buckingham Palace on 10 February 1841 by the Archbishop of Canterbury, William Howley.
The Lily font was commissioned for the occasion of her christening. Her godparents were Queen Adelaide, the King of the Belgians, the Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, the Duke of Sussex, the Duchess of Gloucester and the Duchess of Kent; as a daughter of the sovereign, Victoria was born a British princess. On 19 January 1841, she was made Princess Royal, a title sometimes conferred on the eldest daughter of the sovereign. In addition, she was heir presumptive to the throne of the United Kingdom, before the birth of her younger brother Prince Albert Edward on 9 November 1841. To her family, she was known as "Vicky"; the royal couple decided to give their children as complete an education as possible. In fact, Queen Victoria, who succeeded her uncle King William IV at the age of 18, believed that she herself had not been sufficiently prepared for the government affairs. For his part, Prince Albert, born in the small Duchy of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, had received a more careful education, thanks to his uncle King Leopold I of Belgium.
Shortly after the birth of Victoria, Prince Albert wrote a memoir detailing the tasks and duties of all those involved with the royal children. Another 48-page document, written a year and a half by the Baron Stockmar, intimate of the royal couple, details the educational principles which were to be used with the little princes; the royal couple, had only a vague idea of the proper educational development of a child. Queen Victoria, for example, believed that the fact that her baby sucked on bracelets was a sign of deficient education. According to Hannah Pakula, biographer of the future German empress, the first two governesses of the princess were therefore well chosen. Experienced in dealing with children, Lady Lyttelton directed the nursery through which passed all royal children after Victoria's second year; the diplomatic young woman managed to soften the unrealistic demands of the royal couple. Sarah Anne Hildyard, the children's second governess, was a competent teacher who developed a close relationship with her students.
Precocious and intelligent, Victoria began to learn French at the age of 18 months, she began to study German when aged four. She learned Greek and Latin. From the age of six, her curriculum included lessons of arithmetic and history, her father tutored her in politics and philosophy, she studied science and literature. Her school days, interrupted by three hours of recreation, began at 8:20 and finished at 18:00. Unlike her brother, whose educational program was more severe, Victoria was an excellent student, always hungry for knowledge. However, she showed an obstinate character. Queen Victoria and her husband wanted to remove their children from court life as much as possible, so they acquired Osborne House on the Isle of Wight. Near the main building, Albert built for his children a Swiss-inspired cottage with a small kitchen and a carpentry workshop. In this building, the royal children learned practical life. Prince Albert was involved in the education of their offspring, he followed the progress of his children and gave some of their lessons himself, as well as spending time playing with them.
Victoria is described as having "idolised" her father and having inherited his li