The United Kingdom the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, sometimes referred to as Britain, is a sovereign country located off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world; the Irish Sea lies between Great Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world, it is the 22nd-most populous country, with an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants in 2017. The UK is constitutional monarchy; the current monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 1952, making her the longest-serving current head of state.
The United Kingdom's capital and largest city is London, a global city and financial centre with an urban area population of 10.3 million. Other major urban areas in the UK include Greater Manchester, the West Midlands and West Yorkshire conurbations, Greater Glasgow and the Liverpool Built-up Area; the United Kingdom consists of four constituent countries: England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Their capitals are London, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. Apart from England, the countries have their own devolved governments, each with varying powers, but such power is delegated by the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which may enact laws unilaterally altering or abolishing devolution; the nearby Isle of Man, Bailiwick of Guernsey and Bailiwick of Jersey are not part of the UK, being Crown dependencies with the British Government responsible for defence and international representation. The medieval conquest and subsequent annexation of Wales by the Kingdom of England, followed by the union between England and Scotland in 1707 to form the Kingdom of Great Britain, the union in 1801 of Great Britain with the Kingdom of Ireland created the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. There are fourteen British Overseas Territories, the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, encompassed a quarter of the world's land mass and was the largest empire in history. British influence can be observed in the language and political systems of many of its former colonies; the United Kingdom is a developed country and has the world's fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest economy by purchasing power parity. It has a high-income economy and has a high Human Development Index rating, ranking 14th in the world, it was the world's first industrialised country and the world's foremost power during the 19th and early 20th centuries. The UK remains a great power, with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally, it is sixth in military expenditure in the world. It has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946.
It has been a leading member state of the European Union and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. The United Kingdom is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the Council of Europe, the G7, the G20, NATO, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the World Trade Organization; the 1707 Acts of Union declared that the kingdoms of England and Scotland were "United into One Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain". The term "United Kingdom" has been used as a description for the former kingdom of Great Britain, although its official name from 1707 to 1800 was "Great Britain"; the Acts of Union 1800 united the kingdom of Great Britain and the kingdom of Ireland in 1801, forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Following the partition of Ireland and the independence of the Irish Free State in 1922, which left Northern Ireland as the only part of the island of Ireland within the United Kingdom, the name was changed to the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland".
Although the United Kingdom is a sovereign country, Scotland and Northern Ireland are widely referred to as countries. The UK Prime Minister's website has used the phrase "countries within a country" to describe the United Kingdom; some statistical summaries, such as those for the twelve NUTS 1 regions of the United Kingdom refer to Scotland and Northern Ireland as "regions". Northern Ireland is referred to as a "province". With regard to Northern Ireland, the descriptive name used "can be controversial, with the choice revealing one's political preferences"; the term "Great Britain" conventionally refers to the island of Great Britain, or politically to England and Wales in combination. However, it is sometimes used as a loose synonym for the United Kingdom as a whole; the term "Britain" is used both as a synonym for Great Britain, as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Usage is mixed, with the BBC preferring to use Britain as shorthand only for Great Britain and the UK Government, while accepting that both terms refer to the United K
India known as the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh largest country by area and with more than 1.3 billion people, it is the second most populous country as well as the most populous democracy in the world. Bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, the Bay of Bengal on the southeast, it shares land borders with Pakistan to the west. In the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives, while its Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a maritime border with Thailand and Indonesia; the Indian subcontinent was home to the urban Indus Valley Civilisation of the 3rd millennium BCE. In the following millennium, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism began to be composed. Social stratification, based on caste, emerged in the first millennium BCE, Buddhism and Jainism arose. Early political consolidations took place under the Gupta empires. In the medieval era, Zoroastrianism and Islam arrived, Sikhism emerged, all adding to the region's diverse culture.
Much of the north fell to the Delhi Sultanate. The economy expanded in the 17th century in the Mughal Empire. In the mid-18th century, the subcontinent came under British East India Company rule, in the mid-19th under British Crown rule. A nationalist movement emerged in the late 19th century, which under Mahatma Gandhi, was noted for nonviolent resistance and led to India's independence in 1947. In 2017, the Indian economy was the world's sixth largest by nominal GDP and third largest by purchasing power parity. Following market-based economic reforms in 1991, India became one of the fastest-growing major economies and is considered a newly industrialised country. However, it continues to face the challenges of poverty, corruption and inadequate public healthcare. A nuclear weapons state and regional power, it has the second largest standing army in the world and ranks fifth in military expenditure among nations. India is a federal republic governed under a parliamentary system and consists of 29 states and 7 union territories.
A pluralistic and multi-ethnic society, it is home to a diversity of wildlife in a variety of protected habitats. The name India is derived from Indus, which originates from the Old Persian word Hindush, equivalent to the Sanskrit word Sindhu, the historical local appellation for the Indus River; the ancient Greeks referred to the Indians as Indoi, which translates as "The people of the Indus". The geographical term Bharat, recognised by the Constitution of India as an official name for the country, is used by many Indian languages in its variations, it is a modernisation of the historical name Bharatavarsha, which traditionally referred to the Indian subcontinent and gained increasing currency from the mid-19th century as a native name for India. Hindustan is a Middle Persian name for India, it was introduced into India by the Mughals and used since then. Its meaning varied, referring to a region that encompassed northern India and Pakistan or India in its entirety; the name may refer to either the northern part of India or the entire country.
The earliest known human remains in South Asia date to about 30,000 years ago. Nearly contemporaneous human rock art sites have been found in many parts of the Indian subcontinent, including at the Bhimbetka rock shelters in Madhya Pradesh. After 6500 BCE, evidence for domestication of food crops and animals, construction of permanent structures, storage of agricultural surplus, appeared in Mehrgarh and other sites in what is now Balochistan; these developed into the Indus Valley Civilisation, the first urban culture in South Asia, which flourished during 2500–1900 BCE in what is now Pakistan and western India. Centred around cities such as Mohenjo-daro, Harappa and Kalibangan, relying on varied forms of subsistence, the civilization engaged robustly in crafts production and wide-ranging trade. During the period 2000–500 BCE, many regions of the subcontinent transitioned from the Chalcolithic cultures to the Iron Age ones; the Vedas, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism, were composed during this period, historians have analysed these to posit a Vedic culture in the Punjab region and the upper Gangetic Plain.
Most historians consider this period to have encompassed several waves of Indo-Aryan migration into the subcontinent from the north-west. The caste system, which created a hierarchy of priests and free peasants, but which excluded indigenous peoples by labeling their occupations impure, arose during this period. On the Deccan Plateau, archaeological evidence from this period suggests the existence of a chiefdom stage of political organisation. In South India, a progression to sedentary life is indicated by the large number of megalithic monuments dating from this period, as well as by nearby traces of agriculture, irrigation tanks, craft traditions. In the late Vedic period, around the 6th century BCE, the small states and chiefdoms of the Ganges Plain and the north-western regions had consolidated into 16 major oligarchies and monarchies that were known as the mahajanapadas; the emerging urbanisation gave rise to non-Vedic religious movements, two of which became independent religions. Jainism came into prominence during the life of Mahavira.
Buddhism, based on the teachings of Gautama Buddha, attracted followers from all social classes excepting the middle
The Delhi Sultanate was a sultanate based in Delhi that stretched over large parts of the Indian subcontinent for 320 years. Five dynasties ruled over the Delhi Sultanate sequentially: the Mamluk dynasty, the Khalji dynasty, the Tughlaq dynasty, the Sayyid dynasty, the Lodi dynasty; the sultanate is noted for being one of the few states to repel an attack by the Mongols, enthroned one of the few female rulers in Islamic history, Razia Sultana, who reigned from 1236 to 1240. Qutb al-Din Aibak, a former Turkic Mamluk slave of Muhammad Ghori, was the first sultan of Delhi, his Mamluk dynasty conquered large areas of northern India. Afterwards, the Khalji dynasty was able to conquer most of central India, but both failed to conquer the whole of the Indian subcontinent; the sultanate reached the peak of its geographical reach during the Tughlaq dynasty, occupying most of the Indian subcontinent. This was followed by decline due to Hindu reconquests, states such as the Vijayanagara Empire and Mewar asserting independence, new Muslim sultanates such as the Bengal Sultanate breaking off.
During and in the Delhi Sultanate, there was a synthesis of Indian civilization with that of Islamic civilization, the further integration of the Indian subcontinent with a growing world system and wider international networks spanning large parts of Afro-Eurasia, which had a significant impact on Indian culture and society, as well as the wider world. The time of their rule included the earliest forms of Indo-Islamic architecture, increased growth rates in India's population and economy, the emergence of the Hindi-Urdu language; the Delhi Sultanate was responsible for repelling the Mongol Empire's devastating invasions of India in the 13th and 14th centuries. However, the Delhi Sultanate caused large scale destruction and desecration of temples in the Indian subcontinent. In 1526, the Sultanate was succeeded by the Mughal Empire; the context behind the rise of the Delhi Sultanate in India was part of a wider trend affecting much of the Asian continent, including the whole of southern and western Asia: the influx of nomadic Turkic peoples from the Central Asian steppes.
This can be traced back to the 9th century, when the Islamic Caliphate began fragmenting in the Middle East, where Muslim rulers in rival states began enslaving non-Muslim nomadic Turks from the Central Asian steppes, raising many of them to become loyal military slaves called Mamluks. Soon, Turks were becoming Islamicized. Many of the Turkic Mamluk slaves rose up to become rulers, conquered large parts of the Muslim world, establishing Mamluk Sultanates from Egypt to Afghanistan, before turning their attention to the Indian subcontinent, it is part of a longer trend predating the spread of Islam. Like other settled, agrarian societies in history, those in the Indian subcontinent have been attacked by nomadic tribes throughout its long history. In evaluating the impact of Islam on the subcontinent, one must note that the northwestern subcontinent was a frequent target of tribes raiding from Central Asia in the pre-Islamic era. In that sense, the Muslim intrusions and Muslim invasions were not dissimilar to those of the earlier invasions during the 1st millennium.
By 962 AD, Hindu and Buddhist kingdoms in South Asia were under a wave of raids from Muslim armies from Central Asia. Among them was Mahmud of Ghazni, the son of a Turkic Mamluk military slave, who raided and plundered kingdoms in north India from east of the Indus river to west of Yamuna river seventeen times between 997 and 1030. Mahmud of Ghazni raided the treasuries but retracted each time, only extending Islamic rule into western Punjab; the wave of raids on north Indian and western Indian kingdoms by Muslim warlords continued after Mahmud of Ghazni. The raids did not extend permanent boundaries of their Islamic kingdoms; the Ghurid sultan Mu'izz ad-Din Muhammad Ghori known as Muhammad of Ghor, began a systematic war of expansion into north India in 1173. He sought to carve out a principality for himself by expanding the Islamic world. Muhammad of Ghor sought a Sunni Islamic kingdom of his own extending east of the Indus river, he thus laid the foundation for the Muslim kingdom called the Delhi Sultanate.
Some historians chronicle the Delhi Sultanate from 1192 due to the presence and geographical claims of Muhammad Ghori in South Asia by that time. Ghori was assassinated in 1206, by Ismāʿīlī Shia Muslims in some accounts or by Hindu Khokhars in others. After the assassination, one of Ghori's slaves, the Turkic Qutb al-Din Aibak, assumed power, becoming the first Sultan of Delhi. Qutb al-Din Aibak, a former slave of Mu'izz ad-Din Muhammad Ghori, was the first ruler of the Delhi Sultanate. Aibak was of Cuman-Kipchak origin, due to his lineage, his dynasty is known as the Mamluk dynasty. Aibak reigned as the Sultan of Delhi for four years, from 1206 to 1210. After Aibak died, Aram Shah assumed power in 1210, but he was assassinated in 1211 by Shams ud-Din Iltutmish. Iltutmish's power was precarious, a number of Muslim amirs challenged his authority as they had been supporters of Qutb al-Din Aibak. After a series of conquests and brutal executions of opposition, Iltutmish consolidated his power, his rule was challenged a number of times, such as by Qubacha, this led to a series of wars.
Iltumish conquered Multan and Bengal from contesting Muslim rulers, as well as Ranthambore and Siwalik from the Hindu rulers. He
The Chola dynasty was one of the longest-ruling dynasties in history. The earliest datable references to this Tamil dynasty are in inscriptions from the 3rd century BCE left by Ashoka, of the Maurya Empire; as one of the Three Crowned Kings of Tamilakam, the dynasty continued to govern over varying territory until the 13th century CE. The heartland of the Cholas was the fertile valley of the Kaveri River, but they ruled a larger area at the height of their power from the half of the 9th century till the beginning of the 13th century; the whole country south of the Tungabhadra was united and held as one state for a period of three centuries and more between 907-1215 AD. Under Rajaraja Chola I and his successors Rajendra Chola I, Rajadhiraja Chola, Virarajendra Chola and Kulothunga Chola I the dynasty became a military and cultural power in South Asia and South-East Asia; the power of the new empire was proclaimed to the eastern world by the expedition to the Ganges which Rajendra Chola I undertook and by the naval raids on cities of the maritime empire of Srivijaya, as well as by the repeated embassies to China.
The Chola fleet represented the zenith of ancient Indian sea power. During the period 1010–1153, the Chola territories stretched from the islands of the Maldives in the south to as far north as the banks of the Godavari River in Andhra Pradesh. Rajaraja Chola conquered peninsular South India, annexed parts of, now Sri Lanka and occupied the islands of the Maldives. Rajendra Chola sent a victorious expedition to North India that touched the river Ganges and defeated the Pala ruler of Pataliputra, Mahipala, he successfully invaded cities of Srivijaya of Malaysia and Indonesia. The Chola dynasty went into decline at the beginning of the 13th century with the rise of the Pandyan dynasty, which caused their downfall; the Cholas left a lasting legacy. Their patronage of Tamil literature and their zeal in the building of temples has resulted in some great works of Tamil literature and architecture; the Chola kings were avid builders and envisioned the temples in their kingdoms not only as places of worship but as centres of economic activity.
They established a disciplined bureaucracy. The Chola school of art spread to Southeast Asia and influenced the architecture and art of Southeast Asia; the Cholas are known as the Choda. There is little information available in regarding their origin, its antiquity is evident in inscriptions. Medieval Cholas claimed a long and ancient lineage. Mentions in the early Sangam literature indicate that the earliest kings of the dynasty antedated 100 CE. Cholas were mentioned in Ashokan Edicts of 3rd Century BCE as one of the neighboring countries existing in the South. A held view is that Chola is, like Chera and Pandya, the name of the ruling family or clan of immemorial antiquity; the annotator Parimelazhagar said: "The charity of people with ancient lineage are forever generous in spite of their reduced means". Other names in common use for the Cholas are Killi and Sembiyan. Killi comes from the Tamil kil meaning dig or cleave and conveys the idea of a digger or a worker of the land; this word forms an integral part of early Chola names like Nedunkilli, Nalankilli and so on, but drops out of use in times.
Valavan is most connected with "valam" – fertility and means owner or ruler of a fertile country. Sembiyan is taken to mean a descendant of Shibi – a legendary hero whose self-sacrifice in saving a dove from the pursuit of a falcon figures among the early Chola legends and forms the subject matter of the Sibi Jataka among the Jataka stories of Buddhism. In Tamil lexicon Chola means Soazhi or Saei denoting a newly formed kingdom, in the lines of Pandya or the old country. There is little written evidence available of the Cholas prior to the 7th century. Historic records exist thereafter, including inscriptions on temples. During the past 150 years, historians have gleaned significant knowledge on the subject from a variety of sources such as ancient Tamil Sangam literature, oral traditions, religious texts and copperplate inscriptions; the main source for the available information of the early Cholas is the early Tamil literature of the Sangam Period. There are brief notices on the Chola country and its towns and commerce furnished by the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea, in the later work of the geographer Ptolemy.
Mahavamsa, a Buddhist text written down during the 5th century CE, recounts a number of conflicts between the inhabitants of Ceylon and Cholas in the 1st century BCE. Cholas are mentioned in the Pillars of Ashoka inscriptions, where they are mentioned among the kingdoms which, though not subject to Ashoka, were on friendly terms with him; the history of the Cholas falls into four periods: the Early Cholas of the Sangam literature, the interregnum between the fall of the Sangam Cholas and the rise of the Imperial medieval Cholas under Vijayalaya, the dynasty of Vijayalaya, the Later Chola dynasty of Kulothunga Chola I from the third quarter of the 11th century. The earliest Chola kings for whom there is tangible evidence are mentioned in the Sangam literature. Scholars agree that this literature belongs to the second or first few centuries of the common era; the internal chronology of this literature is still far from settled, at present a connected account of the history of the period cannot be derived.
It records the names of the kings and the princ
Hindustan Shipyard Limited is a shipyard located in Visakhapatnam on the east coast of India. Founded as the Scindia Shipyard, it was built by industrialist Walchand Hirachand as a part of The Scindia Steam Navigation Company Ltd. Walchand selected Visakhapatnam as a strategic and ideal location and took possession of land in November 1940; the World War II was going in April 1941, the Japanese bombed the town. However, Walchand was unfettered and decided to go ahead with his plan of building a shipbuilding industry in India. In the days when it was unthinkable of foundation ceremony to be done by anyone other than British officials, the patriotic Walchand decided to break the tradition and the foundation stone for the shipyard was laid by Dr. Rajendra Prasad on 21 June 1941, acting Congress President at that time; the first ship to be constructed in India after independence was built at the Scindia Shipyard and named Jal Usha. It was launched in 1948 by Jawaharlal Nehru by the first Prime Minister of India, at a ceremony where the families of Seth Walchand Hirachnd, late Narottam Morarjee and Tulsidas Kilachand, the partners of Scindia Shipyard, were present along with other dignitaries and industrialists.
Walchand died in 1953, the Scindia Shipyard continued to flourish under next of kins of founders. However on the government of India decided to nationalise the Scindia Shipyard, as it was a sensitive and strategic sector related to defence sector of the country; the shipyard was nationalised in 1961 and renamed Hindustan Shipyard Limited. In 2010, HSL was transferred from the Ministry of Shipping to the Ministry of Defence; the yard played a critical role in the development of Arihant class submarine. The shipyard is compact at 46.2 hectares. It is equipped with the plasma cutting machines, steel processing and welding facilities, material handling equipment, cranes and storage facilities, it has testing and measuring facilities. It has a covered building dock for building vessels up to 80,000 DWT. There are a 550 metres fitting-out jetty. HSL has wet basin and repair delphin for ship and submarine repair and retrofitting. HSL had built over 180 vessels till now and repaired 2000 ships, it builds bulk carriers, offshore patrol vessels, survey ships, drill ships, offshore platforms and repair and support vessels.
It conducts major overhauls of Indian Navy submarines, is being equipped to construct nuclear-powered submarines. However, the shipyard has a history of protracted refits; the submarines Vela and Sindhukirti each spent 10 years for a single refit at HSL. Where a Russian shipyard would deploy 200 workers in three shifts to complete the refit in two years, HSL deployed only 50 workers to work on Sindhukirti. However, the progress of ongoing project INS Sindhuvir is on schedule
South Central Railway zone
The South Central Railway is one of the 18 zones of Indian Railways. The jurisdiction of the zone is spread over the states of Maharashtra and some portions of Madhya Pradesh, it has three divisions under its administration, which include Nanded, Hyderabad. The zone was formed on 2 October 1966 by merging the carved out divisions of Hubli, Vijayawada of Southern Railway zone and Solapur, Secunderabad of Central Railway zone. On 2 October 1977, Guntakal division of Southern Railway zone was merged and the merged division of Solapur was demerged from the zone and became part of its former Central Railway zone. On 17 February 1978, Hyderabad division was formed by splitting the existing Secunderabad railway division. On 1 April 2003, two new divisions of Guntur and Nanded were created in this zone and the Hubli division was demerged and became part of South Western Railway zone. Khandwa Akola section was merged into Bhusaval Division of Central Railways as the line was taken up for Gauge Conversion in 2017.
On 27 February 2019, AP part of Waltair Division, Vijayawada and Guntakal divisions were merged into newly formed South Coast Railway zone. The zone is organized into three divisions: Hyderabad and Nanded, spread over the states of Telangana and parts of Madhya Pradesh; the list of divisions are shown below: Secunderabad Jn. - Gadwal Jn.-Dhone Jn Gadwal Jn. – Raichur Jn. Secunderabad Jn. – Nizamabad Jn. – Mudkhed Jn. Jankampet Jn. – Bodhan. Wadi Jn. --Hyderabad Deccan--Secunderabad Jn--Kazipet Jn--Kondapalli Kazipet Jn.--Balharshah Jn. Peddapalli junction to Nizamabad Jn. Dornakal Jn. to Manuguru. Balharshah Jn. to Gadchandur. Vikarabad Jn --Parli Vaijnath Jn Khanapur Jn.--Kalaburagi Jn Telapur Jn. --Ramachandrapuram Motamarri to Mellacheruvu. Kesarapalli to Singareni. Mudkhed Jn.-Manmad Jn. Mudkhed Jn. – Adilabad--Pimpalkutti Purna Jn. – Akola Jn.-Khandwa Jn. Parbhani Jn. -- Parli Vaijnath The zone has mechanical workshops at Lallaguda. The zone has diesel loco sheds at Moula-Ali; the zone has electric loco sheds at Kazipet.
The zone has one EMU Car shed at Moula-Ali EMU. The zone has Passenger coach care depots at Hyderabad, Kacheguda, Kazipet and Purna. Additionally, Ramagundam,bellampally have wagon maintenance depots; the zone has training institutes for imparting and learning railway techniques serving both Indian as well foreign railway staffs at Secunderabad and Washim. Railway Hospitals located in these areas Lallaguda and Nanded have healthcare facilities serving for the employees of Indian railways and their families. Electric loco shed, Guntakal Midlife Coach factory, Kurnool Periodc Wagon overhauling workshop, Kazipet Bogi Components Manufacturing unit, Thottambedu South Central Railway achieved earnings of 12,100 crore during the financial year 2016-17.. Secunderabad, Kacheguda, Kazipet, Nanded,Parbhani, Aurangabad are the important railway stations of this zone. South Central Railway topped among all railway zones of India in terms of train Punctuality and passenger earnings in 2016-17; the South Central Railway has become the first railway zone in the country to complete 100 per cent LED lighting at all 733 stations under its jurisdiction.
MMTS Hyderabad Zones and divisions of Indian Railways All India Station Masters' Association South Central Railway zone
Rashtriya Ispat Nigam
Rashtriya Ispat Nigam Ltd known as Vizag Steel, is a Public steel producer based in Visakhapatnam, India. Rashtriya Ispat Nigam Limited is the corporate entity of Visakhapatnam Steel Plant, India’s first shore-based integrated Steel Plant built with state-of-the-art technology and a prime producer of long steel products in the country having extensive market in infrastructure, automobile and forging industry. With an annual turnover of around `17,000 crores, VSP is gearing up production to achieve rated capacity of 7.3 Mtpa liquid steel having three Captive Mines and 25 Marketing Branches Pan India. Forged Wheel Plant is another unit of RINL being set up at Uttar Pradesh; the Steel plant is located in the southern part of Visakhapatnam city, Andhra Pradesh state of India. The company has blast furnace grade Limestone captive mine at Jaggayyapeta, a captive mine for Dolomite at Madharam, a manganese ore captive mine at Cheepurupalli, it has mining lease for river sand of river Champavathi. Making the Impossible possible lies in man's determination and Sri Tenneti Viswanadham was one such personality.
Struggle of thousands of such personalities has paved a way for establishing such a big steel plant. The activities kicked off by appointing site selection committee in June 1970 and subsequently committee report was approved for site. In January 1971 PM of India has laid the foundation stone. Consultants were appointed in February 1971 and feasibility reports were submitted in 1972; the first block of land was taken over in April 1974. M/s M. N Dastur&Co was appointed as the consultant for preparing the detailed project report in April 1975, in October 1977 they have submitted the report for 3.4 MTPA of liquid steel. With the government of erstwhile USSR's offer for assistance, a revised project concept was evolved. DPR for a plant capacity of 3.4 MTPA was prepared by M.s M. N. Dastur&Co in November 1980. In February 1981 contract was signed with Soviet-Union for preparation of working drawings for coke ovens, blast furnace and sinter plant; the blast furnace foundation was laid with first mass concreting in the project in January 1982.
The construction of township started. RINL was wholly owned by the Government of India but due to huge loss government sold its share so it is now Public. In November 2010, the company was granted the Navratna status by the Government of India. In September 2011, the government announced plans to divest 10% of its stake in RINL via an initial public offering. RINL operates a 7.3 million tonne per annum capacity steel plant in Visakhapatnam. During the initial periods, the company suffered huge losses; the profits have gone up by 200% making it the only steel industry to achieve such target. Its annual capacity is expected to reach 7.5 million tonnes by 2020. RINL plans to invest ₹60,000 crore to increase the capacity to 20 million tonnes by 2027. RINL has commissioned its next phase despite some major setbacks with blasts in its new blast furnace. Another unit of RINL is coming in Uttar Pradesh. With an investment of 1688 Crores,RINL is establising plant for Rail wheels under make in india initiative.
This plant will be equipped with ultra modern technology. It will produce 1 lakh wheels per year