Royal visits to Manchester and Salford during the reign of Queen Victoria
Royal visits to Manchester and the surrounding areas in the nineteenth century signify important achievements in the city's history and offer an insight into the development of the area during this period. Moreover, Manchester's response to such visits, the preparations and public displays of loyalty to the crown, challenge the perceived political history of Victorian Manchester, famed for its Liberalist notions, Free Trade and the radical position of parties such as the Chartists. Queen Victoria's accession to the throne in 1837 was a turbulent time for Manchester, as it had been in the previous century. Manchester had been divided politically and the Industrial Revolution had created new men at all levels, including the lower social orders and dissatisfaction with the 1832 Reform Act had provoked widespread agitation among the working classes; as Victoria came to the throne, so Chartism came to the masses and in Manchester this manifested itself in the Manchester Political Union who sponsored a massive rally at Kersal Moor in Salford.
The party concerned with the working people, supported the general strikes of 1842, known as Plug Plot, in which thousands of mill workers protested against wage cuts, but shortly afterwards the Chartist movement declined. At the same time the town's cultural diversity had continued to widen, as an influx of Irish immigrants had entered the town and in the 1880s, Jewish immigrants fleeing persecution in Russia settled in Manchester. Both nationalities were representative of everything the English working man, at this time, was not, a point emphasised by Tory politics, whilst not advocating extreme sectarian attitudes, maintained that the Monarch and the Church of England were at the heart of the Englishman's national identity. Furthermore, attitudes towards the Monarchy were improving, as the public saw Queen Victoria as a better example of the constitutional monarch, not involving herself in politics, when combined with Prince Albert's philanthropic activities, in the late 1840s, with education and housing for the poor, resulted in a shift in public opinion and the popularity of the Royal family increased.
The Reform Acts of 1867 and 1884 had enabled many working men to vote, from which "popular Toryism" emerged and needless to say the party's ethos of constitution and Church attracted the working classes, which despite nineteenth-century England's shift towards a secularised state manifested itself in open displays of loyalty to the Crown. This was the first visit of a monarch to the region for a century and a half and both Manchester and Salford went to great lengths to host a memorable event; the escort for the royal party included a Guard of Honour of the Yeoman Cavalry who accompanied them as far as Cross lane, the boundary between Pendleton and Salford. However, at this point, the cavalry were dismissed "for fear of disturbances, as Peterloo was still fresh in the minds of the people." 1851 had been a significant year for Prince Albert with the Great Exhibition in Hyde Park, London, an event with which he had direct involvement and one which celebrated industry and technology, an important connection with Manchester.
They stayed at Worsley New Hall as guests of the Earl of Ellesmere. On 10 October the Queen and Prince Albert left Worsley Hall and the procession took them through Salford to Peel Park, where a suggested 80,000 Sunday school children performed the National Anthem, a moment, argued as the most celebrated of the visit for its mass public appeal, as well as religious and educational significance: "One of the great moral features of Manchester – of the manufacturing districts – is the extent to which the Sunday-School system is carried… educating thousands who would otherwise have grown up in utter and deplorable ignorance" The Queen responded with an address in which she expressed her ‘great pleasure…seeing the attention, paid to the education of the rising generation in Manchester and Salford’. From Peel Park the royal procession continued into Manchester and the combined spectator figure recorded for both boroughs was 800, 000, which the Times described as, ‘a population new on the soil mixed laborious, accustomed to hear all sides of political questions and to decide them on Utilitarian principles’.
This practical, down-to-earth stereotype of the people of Manchester was, by the 1850s visible as the warehouse, representative of the town’s trading success and the advances of industry and technology, close to the heart of Prince Albert, were at the centre of the its achievements. In May 1857 Prince Albert arrived in Manchester, one month before the Queen, to open the Art Treasures Exhibition and inaugurate one of the first portrait statues to be erected of Queen Victoria during her reign; the statue in Peel Park commemorated the Royal visit to Salford in 1851 and the aforementioned success of the 80, 000 strong, Sunday schools' performance of the National Anthem. Like 1851 the visit attracted large crowds and Manchester was awash with colour, as the Standard and Royal Arms flags decorating the majestic Watts Warehouse celebrated the city's civic pride and dedication to the crown. On 21 May the Queen visited to perform the official opening of the Manchester Ship Canal; the Ship Canal took seven years to build and stretched for 35 miles, creating the city's link to the open sea and independent shipping.
The Queen knighted the mayor of Salford, William Henry Bailey and the lord mayor of Manchester, Anthony Marshall at the opening of the Canal. In the ru
Jubilee Clock Tower, Weymouth
The Jubilee Clock Tower is a free-standing clock tower on the Esplanade of Weymouth, England. It was built and erected in 1888 to commemorate the Golden jubilee of Queen Victoria and became Grade II Listed in 1974. Historic England described the clock as being a "florid but characteristic enrichment to the sea-front" and "boldy coloured", it is set on a Portland stone base. Weymouth's Jubilee Clock Tower was built to commemorate Queen Victoria's 50 years of reign in 1887; the tower was paid for by public subscription, with £100 having been collected during celebrations on Her Majesty's Jubilee day of 21 June 1887. The Jubilee Committee approached the council with the idea for the clock tower, accepted; as fundraising did not reach enough to provide the clock itself, Sir Henry Edwards donated one, while the gas company agreed to keep the clock illuminated for free in perpetuity. Weymouth Corporation provided the stone base; the clock tower was unveiled on 31 October 1888. Erected on Weymouth's esplanade, it was set in front of the esplanade and jutted out onto the sands of Weymouth Beach.
In the 1920s, the clock was set back from the beach as the esplanade was extended around it to protect the beach from the encroachment of shingle from the eastern end. The clock tower was painted in bright colours during the same decade
Wedding dress of Queen Victoria
The wedding dress of Queen Victoria was worn by Victoria, Queen of the United Kingdom, at her wedding to Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha on 10 February 1840. She selected a white dress, considered an unusual choice at a time when colours were more usual, made from heavy silk satin; the Honiton lace used for her wedding dress proved an important boost to Devon lace-making. Queen Victoria has been credited with starting the tradition of white weddings and white bridal gowns, although she was not the first royal to be married in white; the lace was designed by William Dyce, head of the Government School of Design, mounted on a white satin dress made by Mary Bettans. The plain, cream-coloured satin gown was made from fabric woven in Spitalfields, east London, trimmed with a deep flounce and trimmings of lace hand-made in Honiton and Beer, in Devon; this demonstrated support for English industry the cottage industry for lace. The handmade lace motifs were appliquéd onto cotton machine-made net.
Orange flower blossoms, a symbol of fertility trimmed the dress and made up a wreath, which Victoria wore instead of a tiara over her veil. The veil, which matched the flounce of the dress, was four yards in length and 0.75 yards wide. Victoria's jewellery consisted of a necklace and earrings made up of diamonds presented to her by the Sultan of Turkey, a sapphire cluster brooch given to her by Albert a day earlier; the slippers she wore matched the white colour of the dress. The train of the dress, carried by her bridesmaids, measured 18 feet in length. Queen Victoria described her choice of dress in her journal thus: "I wore a white satin dress, with a deep flounce of Honiton lace, an imitation of an old design. My jewels were my Turkish diamond necklace & earrings & dear Albert's beautiful sapphire brooch." While photography existed in 1840, the techniques were not yet developed. A series of photographs taken by Roger Fenton on 11 May 1854 of Victoria and Albert are described as wedding or reenactment photographs, with the dress identified as her wedding dress.
The Royal Collection has refuted these interpretations, stating that the images are the first photographs to show Victoria as a queen, rather than as a wife or mother, that she and Albert are wearing court dress. In 1847, Victoria commissioned Franz Xaver Winterhalter to paint a portrait of her wearing her wedding clothes as an anniversary present for Prince Albert; the portrait was copied as an enamel miniature by John Haslem. Victoria revisited the lace-makers to create the christening gown worn by her children, including Albert Edward, the future Edward VII; this gown was worn for the christening of all subsequent Royal babies until the baptism of James, Viscount Severn in 2008, when a replica was used for the first time. As a mark of support for the Honiton industry, in addition to wearing their lace on her and her children's clothes, Victoria insisted her daughters order Honiton lace for their wedding dresses. Victoria wore her wedding lace mounted on the dresses she wore to the christenings of her nine children.
She wore it to the weddings of two of her children, her eldest daughter, Victoria, in 1858, her youngest son, Leopold, in 1882. Her youngest daughter, Princess Beatrice, was permitted to wear it as part of her wedding gown in 1885. Victoria wore the lace to the wedding of her grandson George to Mary of Teck in 1893, for her Diamond Jubilee official photograph in 1897; when Victoria died, she was buried with her wedding veil over her face. In 2012 it was reported that while the dress itself had been conserved and displayed at Kensington Palace that year, the lace was now too fragile to move from storage. Wearing white was adopted by wealthy, fashionable brides. Less than a decade Godey's Lady's Book would incorrectly claim that white wedding gowns were an ancient custom reflecting a bride's virginity, writing "Custom has decided, from the earliest ages, that white is the most fitting hue, whatever may be the material, it is an emblem of the purity and innocence of girlhood, the unsullied heart she now yields to the chosen one" though white had been a distinctly uncommon choice for bridal gowns before Victoria's wedding and was not chosen by a majority of brides until decades later.
Following the 2011 wedding of Prince William and Catherine Middleton, comparisons were drawn between the bride's white wedding dress and Queen Victoria's own. BBC audio slideshow featuring her wedding dress
London Fire Brigade
The London Fire Brigade is the statutory fire and rescue service for London. It was formed by the Metropolitan Fire Brigade Act of 1865, under the leadership of superintendent Eyre Massey Shaw; the LFB is the busiest of all the fire services in the United Kingdom. It is the second largest in size, after the national Scottish Fire and Rescue Service, has the largest number of wholetime firefighters, it has 5,992 staff, including 5,096 operational firefighters and officers based at 102 fire stations. The LFB is led by the Commissioner for Fire and Emergency Planning, with the post being held by Dany Cotton since January 2017; the brigade and Commissioner are overseen by the Greater London Authority, which in April 2018 took over these responsibilities from the London Fire and Emergency Planning Authority. In the 2015-16 financial year the LFB received 171,488 emergency calls; these consisted of: 48,696 false alarms of fire and 30,066 other calls for service. As well as firefighting, the LFB responds to road traffic collisions, trapped-in-lift releases, other incidents such as those involving hazardous materials or major transport accidents.
It conducts emergency planning and performs fire safety inspections and education. It does not provide an ambulance service as this function is performed by the London Ambulance Service as an independent NHS trust, although all LFB firefighters are trained in first aid and all of its fire engines carry first aid equipment. Since 2016, the LFB has provided first aid for some life-threatening medical emergencies. Following a multitude of ad-hoc firefighting arrangements and the Great Fire of London, various insurance companies established firefighting units to tackle fires that occurred in buildings that their respective companies insured; as demands grew on the primitive firefighting units they began to coordinate and co-operate with each other until, on 1 January 1833, the London Fire Engine Establishment was formed under the leadership of James Braidwood, who had founded the first professional, municipal fire brigade in Edinburgh. He introduced a uniform that, for the first time, included personal protection from the hazards of firefighting.
With 80 firefighters and 13 fire stations, the unit was still a private enterprise, funded by the insurance companies and as such was responsible for saving material goods from fire. Several large fires, most notably at the Palace of Westminster in 1834 and the 1861 Tooley Street fire, spurred the insurance companies to lobby the British government to provide the brigade at public expense and management. After due consideration, in 1865 the Metropolitan Fire Brigade Act was passed, creating the Metropolitan Fire Brigade under the leadership of Eyre Massey Shaw, a former head of police and fire services in Belfast. In 1904 it was renamed as the London Fire Brigade; the LFB moved into a new headquarters built by Higgs and Hill on the Albert Embankment in Lambeth in 1937, where it remained until 2007. During the Second World War the country's brigades were amalgamated into a single National Fire Service; the separate London Fire Brigade for the County of London was re-established in 1948. With the formation of Greater London in 1965, this absorbed most of the Middlesex Fire Brigade, the borough brigades for West Ham, East Ham and Croydon and parts of the Essex, Hertfordshire and Kent brigades.
In 1986 the Greater London Council was disbanded and a new statutory authority, the London Fire and Civil Defence Authority, was formed to take responsibility for the LFB. The LFCDA was replaced in 2000 by the London Emergency Planning Authority. At the same time, the Greater London Authority was established to administer the LFEPA and coordinate emergency planning for London. Consisting of the Mayor of London and other elected members, the GLA takes responsibility for the Metropolitan Police Service, Transport for London and other functions. In 2007 the LFB moved to a site in Union Street, Southwark. In the same year, the Department for Communities and Local Government announced that LFB Commissioner Ken Knight had been appointed as the first Chief Fire and Rescue Adviser to the government. Knight was succeeded as Commissioner at that time by Ron Dobson, who served for ten years. Dany Cotton took over in 2017. Dany Cotton is the current commissioner, having taken up the role in January 2017, she holds the Queen's Fire Service Medal.
Ron Dobson was the prior commissioner and served in the LFB from 1979. 1833 to 1861: James Braidwood 1861 to 1891: Capt. Eyre Massey Shaw 1891 to 1896: James Sexton Simmonds 1896 to 1903: Capt. Lionel de Latour Wells 1903 to 1909: RAdm. James de Courcy Hamilton 1909 to 1918: Lt. Cdr. Sir Sampson Sladen 1918 to 1933: Arthur Reginald Dyer, KPM 1933 to 1938: Maj. Cyril Morris, MC 1938 to 1941: Cdr. Sir Aylmer Firebrace, CBE 1939 to 1941: Maj. Frank Jackson, CBE 1941 to 1948: all fire brigades nationalised 1948 to 1962: Sir Frederick Delve, CBE 1962 to 1970: Leslie Leete, CBE 1970 to 1976: Joseph Milner 1976 to 1980: Peter Darby 1980 to 1987: Ronald Bullers 1987 to 1991: Gerald Clarkson 1991 to 2003: Brian Robinson, CBE 2003 to 2007: Sir Ken Knight, CBE 2007 to 2016: Ron Dobson, CBE 2017 to present: Dany Cotton Historically, the London Fire Brigade was organised into two divisions: Northern and Southern, divided in most places by the River Thames
Golden Jubilee of Queen Victoria
The Golden Jubilee of Queen Victoria was celebrated on 20 June 1887 on the occasion of the fiftieth anniversary of Queen Victoria's accession on 20 June 1837. It was celebrated with a banquet to which princes were invited. On 20 June 1887 the Queen had breakfast outdoors under the trees at Frogmore, where Prince Albert had been buried, she travelled by train from Windsor station to Paddington to Buckingham Palace for a royal banquet that evening. Fifty foreign kings and princes, along with the governing heads of Britain's overseas colonies and dominions, attended, she wrote in her diary: Had a large family dinner. All the Royalties assembled in the Bow Room, we dined in the Supper-room, which looked splendid with the buffet covered with the gold plate; the table was a large horseshoe one, with many lights on it. The King of Denmark took me in, Willy of Greece sat on my other side; the Princes were all in uniform, the Princesses were all beautifully dressed. Afterwards we went into the Ballroom; the following day, she participated in a procession in an open landau through London to Westminster Abbey escorted by Colonial Indian cavalry.
During prayers for the Queen at the Abbey, a beam of sunlight fell upon her bowed head, which the future Queen Liliuokalani of Hawaii observing noted as a mark of divine favor. On her return to the Palace, she was cheered by the crowd. In the ballroom she distributed. In the evening, she put on a gown embroidered with silver roses and shamrocks and attended a banquet. Afterwards she received a procession of Indian princes, she was wheeled in her chair to sit and watch fireworks in the palace garden. At the Jubilee she engaged two Indian Muslims as waiters. A commemorative bust of Victoria was commissioned from the sculptor Francis John Williamson. Many copies were made, distributed throughout the British Empire. A special Golden Jubilee Medal was instituted and awarded to participants of the jubilee celebrations. Writer and geographer John Francon Williams published The Jubilee Atlas of the British Empire to commemorate Victoria's Jubilee and her Jubilee year; the Queen of the United Kingdom The German Crown Princess and Crown Prince, the Queen's daughter and son-in-law Prince and Princess Wilhelm of Prussia, the Queen's grandson and granddaughter-in-law The Hereditary Princess and Hereditary Prince of Saxe-Meiningen, the Queen's granddaughter and grandson-in-law Princess Feodora of Saxe-Meiningen, the Queen's great-granddaughter Prince Henry of Prussia, the Queen's grandson Princess Viktoria of Prussia, the Queen's granddaughter Princess Sophia of Prussia, the Queen's granddaughter Princess Margaret of Prussia, the Queen's granddaughter The Prince and Princess of Wales, the Queen's son and daughter-in-law Prince Albert Victor of Wales, the Queen's grandson Prince George of Wales, the Queen's grandson Princess Louise of Wales, the Queen's granddaughter Princess Victoria of Wales, the Queen's granddaughter Princess Maud of Wales, the Queen's granddaughter The Grand Duke of Hesse, the Queen's son-in-law Princess and Prince Louis of Battenberg, the Queen's granddaughter and grandson-in-law Grand Duchess Elizabeth Feodorovna and Grand Duke Sergei Alexandrovich of Russia, the Queen's granddaughter and grandson-in-law Princess Irene of Hesse and by Rhine, the Queen's granddaughter The Hereditary Grand Duke of Hesse, the Queen's grandson Princess Alix of Hesse and by Rhine, the Queen's granddaughter The Duke and Duchess of Edinburgh, the Queen's son and daughter-in-law Prince Alfred of Edinburgh, the Queen's grandson Princess Marie of Edinburgh, the Queen's granddaughter Princess Victoria Melita of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, the Queen's granddaughter Princess Alexandra of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, the Queen's granddaughter Princess and Prince Christian of Schleswig-Holstein, the Queen's daughter and son-in-law Prince Christian Victor of Schleswig-Holstein, the Queen's grandson Prince Albert of Schleswig-Holstein, the Queen's grandson Princess Helena Victoria of Schleswig-Holstein, the Queen's granddaughter Princess Marie Louise of Schleswig-Holstein, the Queen's granddaughter The Marchioness and Marquess of Lorne, the Queen's daughter and son-in-law The Duke and Duchess of Connaught and Strathearn, the Queen's son and daughter-in-law Princess Margaret of Connaught, the Queen's granddaughter Prince Arthur of Connaught, the Queen's grandson The Duchess of Albany, the Queen's daughter-in-law Princess and Prince Henry of Battenberg, the Queen's daughter and son-in-law The Duke of Cambridge, the Queen's first cousin The Grand Duchess and Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, the Queen's first cousin and her husband The Hereditary Grand Duke and Hereditary Grand Duchess of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, the Queen's first cousin once removed and his wife The Duchess and Duke of Teck, the Queen's first cousin and her husband Princess Mary of Teck, the Queen's first cousin once removed Prince Adolphus of Teck, the Queen's first cousin once removed Prince Francis of Teck, the Queen's first cousin once removed Prince Alexander of Teck, the Queen's first cousin once removed Princess Frederica of Hanover and Baron Alphons von Pawel-Rammingen, the Queen's first cousin once removed and her husband The Hon. Aubrey FitzClarence, great-grandson of King William IV The Prince and Princess of Leiningen, the Queen's half-nephew and half-niece-in-law Princess Alberta of Leiningen, the Queen's half-great-niece The Prince of Hohenlohe-Langenburg, the Queen's half-nephew Prince and Princess Victor of Hohenlohe-Langenburg, the Queen's half-nephew and half-niece-in-law Countess Feodora Gleichen, the Queen's half-great-niece Count Edward Gleichen, the Queen's half-great-nephew Countess Victoria Gleichen, t
Princess Louise, Duchess of Argyll
Princess Louise, Duchess of Argyll, was the sixth child and fourth daughter of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert. In her public life, she was a strong proponent of the arts and higher education and of the feminist cause, her early life was spent moving among the various royal residences in the company of her family. When her father, the prince consort, died on 14 December 1861, the court went into a long period of mourning, to which with time Louise became unsympathetic. Louise was an able sculptor and artist, several of her sculptures remain today, she was a supporter of the feminist movement, corresponding with Josephine Butler, visiting Elizabeth Garrett. Before her marriage, from 1866 to 1871, Louise served as an unofficial secretary to her mother, the Queen; the question of Louise's marriage was discussed in the late 1860s. Suitors from the royal houses of Prussia and Denmark were suggested, but Victoria did not want her to marry a foreign prince, therefore suggested a high-ranking member of the British aristocracy.
Despite opposition from members of the royal family, Louise fell in love with John, Marquess of Lorne, the heir of the Duke of Argyll. Victoria consented to the marriage, which took place on 21 March 1871. Despite a happy beginning, the two drifted apart because of their childlessness and the queen's constraints on their activities. In 1878, Lorne was appointed Governor General of Canada, a post he held 1878–1884. Louise was viceregal consort, her names were used to name many features in Canada. Following Victoria's death in 1901, Louise entered the social circle established by her brother, the new king, Edward VII. Louise's marriage survived thanks to long periods of separation. After the end of the First World War in 1918, at the age of 70, she began to retire from public life, undertaking few public duties outside Kensington Palace, where she died at the age of 91. Louise was born on 18 March 1848 at London, she was the fourth daughter and sixth child of the reigning British monarch, Queen Victoria, her husband, Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha.
Her birth coincided with revolutions which swept across Europe, prompting the queen to remark that Louise would turn out to be "something peculiar". The queen's labour with Louise was the first to be aided with chloroform. Albert and Victoria chose the names Louisa Caroline Alberta, she was baptized on 13 May 1848 in Buckingham Palace's private chapel by John Bird Sumner, the Archbishop of Canterbury. Though she was christened Louisa at the service, she was invariably known as Louise throughout her life, her godparents were Duke Gustav of Mecklenburg-Schwerin. During the ceremony, the Duchess of Gloucester, one of the few children of King George III, still alive, forgot where she was, got up in the middle of the service and knelt at the queen's feet, much to the queen's horror. Like her siblings, Louise was brought up with the strict programme of education devised by her father, Prince Albert, his friend and confidant, Baron Stockmar; the young children were taught practical tasks, such as cooking, household tasks and carpentry.
From her early years, Louise was a talented and intelligent child, her artistic talents were recognised. On his visit to Osborne House in 1863, Hallam Tennyson, the son of the poet Alfred, Lord Tennyson, remarked that Louise could "draw beautifully"; because of her royal rank, an artistic career was not considered. However, the queen first allowed her to attend art school under the tutelage of the sculptor Mary Thornycroft, allowed her to study at the National Art Training School, now The Royal College of Art. South Kensington. Louise became an able dancer, Victoria wrote, after a dance, that Louise "danced the sword dance with more verve and accuracy than any of her sisters", her wit and intelligence made her a favourite with her father, with her inquisitive nature earning her the nickname "Little Miss Why" from other members of the royal family. Louise's father, Prince Albert, died at Windsor on 14 December 1861; the queen was devastated, ordered her household to move from Windsor to Osborne House on the Isle of Wight.
The atmosphere of the royal court became gloomy and morbid in the wake of the prince's death, entertainments became dry and dull. Louise became dissatisfied with her mother's prolonged mourning. For her seventeenth birthday in 1865, Louise requested the ballroom to be opened for a debutante dance, the like of which had not been performed since Prince Albert's death, her request was refused, her boredom with the mundane routine of travelling between the different royal residences at set times irritated her mother, who considered Louise to be indiscreet and argumentative. The queen comforted herself by rigidly continuing with Prince Albert's plans for their children. Princess Alice was married to Prince Louis, the future Grand Duke of Hesse, at Osborne on 1 June 1862. In 1863, the Prince of Wales, married Princess Alexandra of Denmark; the queen made it a tradition that the eldest unmarried daughter would become her unofficial secretary, a position which Louise filled in 1866, despite the queen's concern that she was indiscreet.
Louise, proved to be good at the job: Victoria wrote shortly afterwards: "She is a clever de
Princess Beatrice of the United Kingdom
Princess Beatrice of the United Kingdom, was the fifth daughter and youngest child of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert. Beatrice was the last of Queen Victoria's children to die, 66 years after the first, her elder sister Alice. Beatrice's childhood coincided with Queen Victoria's grief following the death of her husband Albert, Prince Consort on 14 December 1861; as her elder sisters married and left their mother, Queen Victoria came to rely on the company of her youngest daughter, whom she called "Baby" for most of her childhood. Beatrice was brought up to stay with her mother always and she soon resigned herself to her fate. Queen Victoria was so set against her youngest daughter marrying that she refused to discuss the possibility. Many suitors were put forward, including Louis Napoléon, Prince Imperial, the son of the exiled Emperor Napoleon III of France, Louis IV, Grand Duke of Hesse, the widower of Beatrice's older sister Alice, she was attracted to the Prince Imperial and there was talk of a possible marriage, but he was killed in the Anglo-Zulu War in 1879.
Beatrice fell in love with Prince Henry of Battenberg, the son of Prince Alexander of Hesse and by Rhine and Julia von Hauke and brother-in-law of her niece Princess Victoria of Hesse and by Rhine. After a year of persuasion, Queen Victoria, whose consent was required pursuant to the Royal Marriages Act agreed to the marriage, which took place at Whippingham on the Isle of Wight on 23 July 1885. Queen Victoria consented on condition that Beatrice and Henry make their home with her and that Beatrice continue her duties as the Queen's unofficial secretary; the Prince and Princess had four children, but 10 years into their marriage, on 20 January 1896, Prince Henry died of malaria while fighting in the Anglo-Asante War. Beatrice remained at her mother's side until Queen Victoria died on 22 January 1901. Beatrice devoted the next 30 years to editing Queen Victoria's journals as her designated literary executor and continued to make public appearances, she died at 87, outliving all her siblings, two of her children, several nieces and nephews including George V and Wilhelm II.
Beatrice was born at Buckingham Palace. She was the fifth daughter and youngest of the nine children of the reigning British monarch, Queen Victoria, her husband, Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha; the birth caused controversy when it was announced that Queen Victoria would seek relief from the pains of delivery through the use of chloroform administered by Dr John Snow. Chloroform was considered dangerous to mother and child and was frowned upon by the Church of England and the medical authorities. Queen Victoria was used "that blessed chloroform" for her last pregnancy. A fortnight Queen Victoria reported in her journal, "I was amply rewarded and forgot all I had gone through when I heard dearest Albert say'It's a fine child, a girl!'" Albert and Queen Victoria chose the names Beatrice Mary Victoria Feodore: Mary after Princess Mary, Duchess of Gloucester, the last surviving child of King George III of the United Kingdom. She was baptised in the private chapel at Buckingham Palace on 16 June 1857.
Her godparents were the Duchess of Kent. From birth, Beatrice became a favoured child; the elder favourite daughter of Prince Albert, the Princess Royal, was about to take up residence in Germany with her new husband, Frederick of Prussia. At the same time, the newly arrived Beatrice showed promise. Albert wrote to Augusta, Fritz's mother, that "Baby practises her scales like a good prima donna before a performance and has a good voice!" Although Queen Victoria was known to dislike most babies, she liked Beatrice, whom she considered attractive. This provided Beatrice with an advantage over her elder siblings. Queen Victoria once remarked that Beatrice was "a pretty and flourishing child... with fine large blue eyes, pretty little mouth and fine skin". Her long, golden hair was the focus of paintings commissioned by Queen Victoria, who enjoyed giving Beatrice her bath, in marked contrast to her bathing preferences for her other children. Beatrice showed intelligence, which further endeared her to the Prince Consort, amused by her childhood precociousness.
He wrote to Baron Stockmar that Beatrice was "the most amusing baby we have had." Despite sharing the rigorous education programme designed by Prince Albert and his close adviser, Baron Stockmar, Beatrice had a more relaxed infancy than her siblings because of her relationship with her parents. By four years of age, the youngest, the acknowledged last royal child, Beatrice was not forced to share her parents' attention the way her siblings had, her amusing ways provided comfort to her faltering father. In March 1861, Queen Victoria's mother Victoria, Duchess of Kent, died at Frogmore; the Queen broke down in guilt over their estrangement at the beginning of her reign. Beatrice tried to console her mother by reminding her that the Duchess of Kent was "in heaven, but Beatrice hopes she will return"; this comfort was significant because Queen Victoria had isolated herself from her children except the eldest unmarried, Princess Alice, Beatrice. Queen Victoria again relied on Beatrice and Alice after the death of Albert, of typhoid fever, on 14 December.
The depth of the Queen's grief over the death of her husband surprised her family, courtiers and general populace. As when her mother died, she shut herself off from h