The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
World music is a musical category encompassing many different styles of music from around the globe, which includes many genres including some forms of Western music represented by folk music, Jazz, as well as selected forms of ethnic music, indigenous music, neotraditional music, music where more than one cultural tradition, such as ethnic music and Western popular music, intermingle. World music's inclusive nature and elasticity as a musical category may pose for some obstacles to a universal definition, but its ethic of interest in the culturally exotic is encapsulated in Roots magazine's description of the genre as "local music from out there"; the term was popularized in the 1980s as a marketing category for non-Western traditional music. Globalization has facilitated the expansion of scope, it has grown to include hybrid subgenres such as world fusion, global fusion, ethnic fusion, worldbeat. The term has been credited to ethnomusicologist Robert E. Brown, who coined it in the early 1960s at Wesleyan University in Connecticut, where he developed undergraduate through the doctoral programs in the discipline.
To enhance the process of learning, he invited more than a dozen visiting performers from Africa and Asia and began a world music concert series. The term became current in the 1980s as a marketing/classificatory device in the media and the music industry. There are several conflicting definitions for world music. One is that it consists of "all the music in the world", though such a broad definition renders the term meaningless; the term is taken as a classification of music that combines Western popular music styles with one of many genres of non-Western music that are described as folk music or ethnic music. However, world music is not traditional folk music, it may include cutting edge pop music styles as well. Succinctly, it can be described as "local music from out there", or "someone else's local music", it is a nebulous term with an increasing number of genres that fall under the umbrella of world music to capture musical trends of combined ethnic style and texture, including Western elements.
World music may incorporate distinctive non-Western scales, modes and/or musical inflections, features distinctive traditional ethnic instruments, such as the kora, the steel drum, the sitar or the didgeridoo. Music from around the world exerts wide cross-cultural influence as styles influence one another, in recent years world music has been marketed as a successful genre in itself. Academic study of world music, as well as the musical genres and individual artists associated with it appear in such disciplines as anthropology, performance studies and ethnomusicology. In the age of digital music production the increased availability of high-quality, ethnic music samples, sound bites and loops from every known region are used in commercial music production, which has exposed a vast spectrum of indigenous music texture to developing, independent artists; these influences proliferate in a web-based music industry, now percolating as a much larger, predominantly self-promoted menu, via an increasing number of indie-artist-friendly, streaming Internet options, such as Last.fm, Live365, Jango Artist Airplay and ReverbNation.
An amalgamation of roots music in the global, contemporary listening palette has become apparent, which weakens the role major entertainment labels can play in the cultural perception of genre boundaries. As a result, definitions of the genre have become varied, determined by wide-ranging and varied opinions. Similar terminology between distinctly different sub-categories under primary music genres, such as world and pop can be as ambiguous and confusing to industry moguls as it is to consumers; this is true in the context of world music, where branches of ethnically influenced pop trends are as genre-defined by consumer perception as they are by the music industry forums that govern the basis for categorical distinction. Academic scholars tend to agree that, in today's world of consumer music reviews and blogging, global music culture's public perception is what distils a prevailing basis for definition from genre ambiguity, regardless of how a category has been outlined by corporate marketing forums and music journalism.
The world music genre's gradual migration from a clear spectrum of roots music traditions to an extended list of hybrid subgenres is a good example of the motion genre boundaries can exhibit in a globalizing pop culture. The classic, original definition of world music was in part created to instill a perceived authenticity and distinction between indigenous music traditions and those that become diluted by pop culture, the modern debate over how possible it is to maintain that perception in the richly diverse genre of world music is ongoing. In a report on the 2014 globalFEST National Public Radio's Anastasia Tsioulcas said "Even within the "world music" community, nobody likes the term "world music." It smacks of all kinds of loaded issues, from cultural colonialism to questions about what's "authentic" and what isn't, forces an incredible array of styles that don't have anything in common under the label of "exotic Other." What's more: I believe that in many people's imaginations, "world music" means a kind of awful, hippy-ish, worldbeat fusion.
It's a problematic, horrible term that satisfies no one." Examples of popular forms of world music include the various forms of non-European classical music (e.g. Japanese koto and Chinese guzheng music, In
A nun is a member of a religious community of women living under vows of poverty and obedience in the enclosure of a monastery. Communities of nuns exist in numerous religious traditions, including Buddhism, Hinduism and Taoism. In the Buddhist tradition, female monastics are known as Bhikkhuni, take several additional vows compared to male monastics. Nuns are most common in Mahayana Buddhism, but have more become more prevalent in other traditions. Within Christianity, women religious, known as nuns or religious sisters, are found in Catholic, Eastern Orthodox and Lutheran traditions among others. Though the terms are used interchangeably, nuns take solemn vows and live a life of prayer and contemplation in a monastery or convent, while sisters take simple vows and live an active vocation of prayer and charitable works in areas such as education and healthcare. Examples include the monastic Order of Saint Clare founded in 1212 in the Franciscan tradition, or the Missionaries of Charity founded in 1950 by Mother Teresa to care for people living in grave poverty.
All Buddhist traditions have nuns. The Buddha is reported to have allowed women into the sangha only with great reluctance, predicting that the move would lead to Buddhism's collapse after 500 years, rather than the 1,000 years it would have enjoyed otherwise. Ordained Buddhist nuns have more Patimokkha rules than the monks; the important vows are the same, however. As with monks, there is quite a lot of variation in nuns' dress and social conventions between Buddhist cultures in Asia. Chinese nuns possess the full bhikkuni ordination, Tibetan nuns do not. In Theravada countries it is believed that the full ordination lineage of bhikkunis died out, though in many places they wear the "saffron" colored robes, observing only ten precepts like novices. In Thailand, a country which never had a tradition of ordained nuns, there developed a separate order of non-ordained female renunciates called mae ji. However, some of them have played an important role in dhamma-practitioners' community. There are in Thai Forest Tradition foremost nuns such as Mae Ji Kaew Sianglam, the founder of the Nunnery of Baan Huai Saai, believed by some to be enlightened as well as Upasika Kee Nanayon.
At the beginning of the 21st century, some Buddhist women in Thailand have started to introduce the bhikkhuni sangha in their country as well if public acceptance is still lacking. Dhammananda Bhikkhuni the successful academic scholar Dr. Chatsumarn Kabilsingh, established a controversial monastery for the training of Buddhist nuns in Thailand; the active roles of Taiwanese nuns were noted by some studies. Researcher Charles Brewer Jones estimates that from 1952 to 1999, when the Buddhist Association of the ROC organized public ordination, female applicants outnumbered males by about three to one, he adds: "All my informants in the areas of Taipei and Sanhsia considered nuns at least as respectable as monks, or more so. In contrast, Shiu-kuen Tsung found in Taipei county that female clergy were viewed with some suspicion by society, she reports that while outsiders did not regard their vocation as unworthy of respect, they still tended to view the nuns as social misfits."Wei-yi Cheng studied the Luminary order in southern Taiwan.
Cheng reviewed earlier studies which suggest that Taiwan's Zhaijiao tradition has a history of more female participation, that the economic growth and loosening of family restriction have allowed more women to become nuns. Based on studies of the Luminary order, Cheng concluded that the monastic order in Taiwan was still young and gave nuns more room for development, more mobile believers helped the order; the August 2007 International Congress on Buddhist Women's Role in the Sangha, with the support of H. H. XIVth Dalai Lama, reinstated the Gelongma lineage, having been lost, in India and Tibet, for centuries. Gelongma ordination requires the presence of ten ordained people keeping the same vows; because ten nuns are required to ordain a new one, the effort to establish the Dharmaguptaka bhikkhu tradition has taken a long time. It is permissible for a Tibetan nun to receive bhikkhuni ordination from another living tradition, e.g. in Vietnam. Based on this, Western nuns ordained in Tibetan tradition, like Thubten Chodron, took full ordination in another tradition.
The ordination of monks and nuns in Tibetan Buddhism distinguishes three stages: rabjung-ma, getshül-ma and gelong-ma. The clothes of the nuns in Tibet are the same as those of monks, but there are differences between novice and gelong robes. Hokke-ji in 747 was established by the consort of the Emperor, it took charge of provincial convents, performed ceremonies for the protection of the state, became the site of pilgrimages. Aristocratic Japanese women became Buddhist nuns in the premodern period, it was thought they could not gain salvation because of the Five Hindrances, which said women could not attain Buddhahood until they changed into men. However, in 1249, 12 women received full ordination as priests. In the Roman Catholic tradition, there are a large number of religious institutes of nuns and sisters, each with its own charism or special character. Traditionally, nuns are members of enclosed religious orders and take solemn religious vows, while sisters do not live in the papal enclosu
Gertrude Caroline Ederle was an American competition swimmer, Olympic champion, former world record-holder in five events. On August 6, 1926, she became the first woman to swim across the English Channel. Among other nicknames, the press sometimes called her "Queen of the Waves." Gertrude Ederle was born on October 29 1905 in New York City. She was the third of six children and the daughter of German immigrants, Gertrude Anna Haberstroh and Henry Ederle. According to a biography of Ederle, America's Girl, her father ran a butcher shop on Amsterdam Avenue in Manhattan, her father taught her to swim in New Jersey, where the family owned a summer cottage. Ederle trained at the Women's Swimming Association, which produced such competitors as Ethelda Bleibtrey, Charlotte Boyle, Helen Wainwright, Aileen Riggin, Eleanor Holm and Esther Williams, her yearly dues of $3 allowed Trudy to swim at the tiny Manhattan indoor pool. But, according to America's Girl, "the WSA was the center of competitive swimming, a sport, becoming popular with the evolution of a bathing suit that made it easier to get through the water."
The director, Charlotte "Eppy" Epstein, had urged the AAU to endorse women's swimming as a sport in 1917 and in 1919 pressured the AAU to "allow swimmers to remove their stockings for competition as long as they put on a robe once they got out of the water." That wasn't the only advantage of belonging to the WSA. The American crawl, a variation of the Australian crawl, was developed at the WSA by Louis Handley. According to America's Girl, "Handley thought the Australian crawl, in which swimmers did three kicks and turned on their side to take a breath and do a scissors kick, could be improved... The finished product – and its eight-beat variation, which Ederle would use – became the American crawl, Handley was its proud father." Along with Handley, Epstein made New York female swimmers a force to be reckoned with. Ederle joined the club; the same year, she set her first world record in the 880 yard freestyle, becoming the youngest world record holder in swimming. She set eight more world records after seven of them in 1922 at Brighton Beach.
In total, Ederle held 29 US national and world records from 1921 until 1925. At the 1924 Summer Olympics in Paris, Ederle won a gold medal as a member of the first-place U. S. team in the 4×100 meter freestyle relay. Together with her American relay teammates Euphrasia Donnelly, Ethel Lackie and Mariechen Wehselau, she set a new world record of 4:58.8 in the event final. Individually, she received bronze medals for finishing third in the women's 100-meter freestyle and women's 400-meter freestyle races. Trudy had been favored to win a gold in all three events and "would say her failure to win three golds in the games was the biggest disappointment of her career." Still, she was proud to have been a part of the American team that brought home 99 medals from the Paris Olympics. It was an illustrious Olympic team – swimmer Johnny Weissmuller, oarsman Benjamin Spock, tennis player Helen Wills, long-jumper DeHart Hubbard, according to America's Girl, was "the first black man to win an individual gold."
The U. S. Olympic team had its own ticker-tape parade in 1924. In 1925, Ederle turned professional; the same year she swam the 22 miles from Battery Park to Sandy Hook in 7 hours and 11 minutes, a record time which stood for 81 years before being broken by Australian swimmer Tammy van Wisse. Ederle's nephew Bob described his aunt's swim as a "midnight frolic" and a "warm-up" for her swim across the English channel; the Women's Swimming Association sponsored Helen Wainwright and Trudy for an attempt at swimming the Channel. Helen Wainwright pulled out at the last minute because of an injury, but Trudy decided to go to France on her own, she trained with a swimmer who had attempted to swim the Channel 22 times. During the training, Wolffe continually tried to slow Trudy's pace, saying that she would never last at that speed; the training with Wolffe did not go well. In her first attempt at the Channel on August 18, 1925, Trudy was disqualified when Wolffe ordered another swimmer, Ishak Helmy, to recover her from the water.
According to Trudy and other witnesses, she was not resting, floating face-down. Trudy bitterly disagreed with Wolffe's decision. Wolffe had commented that women may not be capable of swimming the channel and it was speculated that he did not want Ederle to succeed, her successful Channel swim – this time training with coach Bill Burgess who had swum the Channel in 1911 – began one year at Cape Gris-Nez in France at 07:08 on the morning of August 6, 1926. She came ashore at Kent, 14 hours and 34 minutes later, her record stood until Florence Chadwick swam the channel in 1950 in 20 minutes. Ederle used motorcycle goggles to protect her eyes from salty water, as did Burgess in 1911. However, while Burgess swam breaststroke, she used crawl, therefore had her goggles sealed with paraffin to render them water tight. Gertrude possessed a contract from both the New York Daily News and Chicago Tribune when she attempted the Channel swim a second time; the money she received provided her with a modest salary.
It gave her a bonus in exchange for exclusive rights to her personal story. The Daily News and the Chicago Tribune got the jump on every other newspaper in America. Another American swimmer in France in 1926 to try and swim the Channel was Lillian Cannon from Baltimore, she was sponsored by a newspaper, the Baltimore Post, which tried to create a rivalry between her and Ederle in the weeks spent t
1900 Galveston hurricane
The Great Galveston Hurricane, known regionally as the Great Storm of 1900, was the deadliest natural disaster in United States history, one of the deadliest hurricanes to affect Canada, the fourth-deadliest Atlantic hurricane overall. The hurricane left between 12,000 fatalities in the United States. Most of these deaths occurred in the vicinity of Galveston after storm surge inundated the entire island with 8 to 12 feet of water. In addition to the number killed, every house in the city sustained damage, with at least 3,636 destroyed. 10,000 people in the city were left homeless, out of a total population of nearly 38,000. The disaster ended the Golden Era of Galveston, as the hurricane alarmed potential investors, who turned to Houston instead; the Gulf of Mexico shoreline of Galveston island was subsequently raised by 17 ft and a 10 mi seawall erected. The first observed hurricane of the season, the tropical cyclone was first detected by a ship well east of the Windward Islands on August 27.
At tropical storm intensity, it strengthened while moving west-northwestward and entered the northeastern Caribbean Sea on August 30. The storm made landfall in the Dominican Republic as a weak tropical storm on September 2, it weakened while crossing Hispaniola, before re-emerging into the Caribbean Sea that day. On September 3, the cyclone struck modern day Santiago de Cuba Province and slowly drifted along the southern coast of Cuba. Upon reaching the Gulf of Mexico on September 6, the storm strengthened into a hurricane. Significant intensification followed and the system peaked as a Category 4 hurricane with maximum sustained winds of 145 mph on September 8. Early on the next day, it made landfall near Texas; the cyclone weakened after moving inland and fell to tropical storm intensity late on September 9. The storm turned east-northeastward and became extratropical over Iowa on September 11; the extratropical system strengthened while accelerating across the Midwestern United States, New England, Eastern Canada before reaching the Gulf of Saint Lawrence on September 13.
After striking Newfoundland that day, the remnants entered the far North Atlantic Ocean and weakened dissipating near Iceland on September 15. The great storm brought flooding and severe thunderstorms to portions of the Caribbean Cuba and Jamaica, it is that much of South Florida experienced tropical storm force winds, though minor damage occurred overall. Hurricane force winds and storm surge inundated portions of southern Louisiana, though no significant structural damage or fatalities were reported; the hurricane brought strong winds and storm surge to a large portion of east Texas, with Galveston suffering the brunt of the impact. Further north, the storm and its remnants continued to produce heavy rains and gusty winds, which downed telegraph wires and trees in several states. There were fifteen deaths in Ohio, six in Wisconsin, two in Illinois, two in New York, one in Missouri. Damage from storm throughout the United States was over $34 million; the remnants brought severe impact to Canada.
In Ontario, damage reached about $1.35 million, with $1 million to crops. There were at least 52 deaths – and as many as 232 deaths – in Canada due to sunken vessels near Newfoundland and the French territory of Saint-Pierre. Throughout its path, the hurricane caused more than $35.4 million in damage. The storm's origins are unclear, because of the limited observational methods available to meteorologists at the time. Ship reports were the only reliable tool for observing hurricanes at sea, because wireless telegraphy was in its infancy, these reports were not available until the ships put in at a harbor; the 1900 storm, like many powerful Atlantic hurricanes, is believed to have begun as a Cape Verde hurricane—a tropical wave moving off the western coast of Africa. The first formal sighting of the hurricane's precursor occurred on August 27, about 1,000 miles east of the Windward Islands, when a ship recorded an area of "unsettled weather"; the storm passed through the Leeward Islands on August 30 as a tropical depression as indicated by barometric pressure reports from Antigua.
Three days Antigua reported a severe thunderstorm passing over, followed by the hot, humid calmness that occurs after the passage of a tropical cyclone. By September 1, U. S. Weather Bureau observers were reporting on a "storm of moderate intensity" southeast of Cuba. Continuing westward, the storm made landfall on southwest Cuba on September 3. On September 5, it emerged into the Florida Straits as a weak hurricane. Conditions in the Gulf of Mexico were favorable for further strengthening of the storm; the Gulf had seen little cloud cover for several weeks, the seas were "as warm as bathwater", according to one report. The Weather Bureau ignored reports from Cuban meteorologists because they expected the storm to curve northeast along the coast of North America: "Assumption became fact as the official government reports stated, that the storm was traveling northeast in the Atlantic." However, a region of high pressure had pushed the storm to the west into the Gulf of Mexico. The storm was reported to be north of Key West on September 6, Late on September 6, the ship Louisiana encountered the hurricane after departing New Orleans.
Captain Halsey estimated wind speeds of 100 mph, which corresponds to Category 2 intensity on the modern-day Saffir–Simpson Hurricane Scale. In the early morning hours of Friday, September 7, the Weather Bureau office in Ne
Sisters of Charity of the Incarnate Word
The Congregation of the Sisters of Charity of the Incarnate Word is the name of two Roman Catholic religious institutes based in the U. S. state of Texas. They use the abbreviation C. C. V. I.. The Congregation of the Sisters of Charity of the Incarnate Word, Houston is a religious institute of women begun in 1866, at the request of French-born Claude Marie Dubuis, the second Catholic bishop of the Diocese of Galveston, which included the entire state of Texas. Texas was suffering from the ravages of the Civil War, coupled with the tragedy of a spreading cholera epidemic. In 1866, Dubuis contacted his friend Mother Angelique Hiver, Superioress of the Order of the Incarnate Word and Blessed Sacrament in Lyons, France; the Sisters could not fulfill his request since the Order was cloistered and was committed to the ministry of education. Bishop Duibuis applied for the admission of three young women who had volunteered, they were received into the monastery for the purpose of receiving formation and the rule of the Order, with the understanding that a new order was being formed.
For a long time, the Lyons community continued to direct and support the Sisters of Charity of the Incarnate Word, as the new community came to be known. Sisters Mary Blandine, Mary Joseph and Mary Ange arrived in Galveston and started Charity Hospital, the first Catholic hospital in Texas; this would become St. Mary's Infirmary & St. Mary's Hospital; as a result of the yellow fever epidemic that struck Galveston, the St. Mary's Orphanage was started, first in the hospital, was moved just outside town, away from the epidemic; this epidemic struck two of the sisters: Mother Mary Blandine would die of yellow fever on August 18, 1867. In 1867 and 1868 other sisters and professed in the same convent at Lyons, came to offer their assistance. Sister Mary Joseph would continue the work in Galveston. In the early part of the 20th century, with the rapid growth of the City of Houston, the institute's headquarters were relocated from the Island city to Houston. Today the Sisters have missions in Ireland, Guatemala, El Salvador and the United States.
They are involved in ministries in health care and social justice. They are involved in fighting illiteracy and AIDS; the Sisters of Charity of the Incarnate Word, San Antonio is the largest group of religious women in Texas. The institute was founded in San Antonio in 1869, as a sister house of the Sisters of Charity of the Incarnate Word, Texas. In 1869, Bishop Dubuis chose three from the Galveston community, Sister St. Madeleine Chollet, Sister St. Pierre Cinquin, Sister Agnes Buisson to begin a new house in San Antonio and open the first hospital in the area, he named Mother St. Madeleine superior of the new community. Three years he appointed Mother St. Pierre Cinquin as her successor, she remained in office until her death twenty years later. On 31 March 1869, Bishop C. M. Dubuis sent from Galveston a colony of these sisters to found a convent at San Antonio. Sisters Madeleine Chollet, Pierre Cinquin and Agnes Buisson came to help the people of San Antonio who were being ravaged by a severe cholera epidemic.
It was just after the Civil War and San Antonio had a population of 12,000. When the three Sisters arrived, they founded the institute of the Sisters of Charity of the Incarnate Word, they founded San Antonio's first public hospital, known today as Christus Santa Rosa Hospital. Previous to 1874, the sisters had been occupied in caring for the sick, the aged, orphans, but following the counsel of Rt. Rev. A. D. Pellicer, first Bishop of San Antonio, they began to engage in educational work. In 1881, the Sisters founded the Incarnate Word Academy, known today as the University of the Incarnate Word. In 1885 the Sisters opened a school in Mexico. By 1891 the Sisters had founded St. Joseph's Infirmary in Texas, they administered seven railroad hospitals scattered throughout Texas, Missouri and New Mexico. They are involved in ministries in health care, care for the elderly and social justice; the Village at Incarnate Word is a not-for-profit corporation, established by the Sisters of Charity of the Incarnate Word of San Antonio in 1988, to provide a retirement community for people of all faiths.
The sisters work in United States, Mexico and Zambia. The story of the Saint Mary's Orphan Asylum run by the Sisters of Charity of the Incarnate Word became an integral part of the story of the Galveston Hurricane of 1900; this hurricane was so destructive that it remains, more than a century not just the most destructive hurricane to hit the United States, but the most destructive natural disaster to befall the United States. More than 6,000 people died - one-sixth the population of Texas; the orphanage housed at that time 10 sisters. The hurricane arrived on September 7, 1900; the full force of the Galvestion Hurricane of 1900 would not be felt until the next day, September 8. The story of the hurricane and of what happened at the orphanage remains a central story of the hurricane itself. On September 8, 1900, the hurricane began to erode away the sand dunes that surrounded St. Mary's Orphanage; the sisters in charge decided to move the children into
A hymn is a type of song religious written for the purpose of adoration or prayer, addressed to a deity or deities, or to a prominent figure or personification. The word hymn derives from Greek ὕμνος, which means "a song of praise". A writer of hymns is known as a hymnodist; the singing or composition of hymns is called hymnody. Collections of hymns are known as hymnals or hymn books. Hymns may not include instrumental accompaniment. Although most familiar to speakers of English in the context of Christianity, hymns are a fixture of other world religions on the Indian subcontinent. Hymns survive from antiquity from Egyptian and Greek cultures; some of the oldest surviving examples of notated music are hymns with Greek texts. Ancient hymns include the Egyptian Great Hymn to the Aten, composed by Pharaoh Akhenaten; the Western tradition of hymnody begins with the Homeric Hymns, a collection of ancient Greek hymns, the oldest of which were written in the 7th century BC, praising deities of the ancient Greek religions.
Surviving from the 3rd century BC is a collection of six literary hymns by the Alexandrian poet Callimachus. Patristic writers began applying the term ὕμνος, or hymnus in Latin, to Christian songs of praise, used the word as a synonym for "psalm". Modeled on the Book of Psalms and other poetic passages in the Scriptures, Christian hymns are directed as praise to the Christian God. Many refer to Jesus Christ either indirectly. Since the earliest times, Christians have sung "psalms and hymns and spiritual songs", both in private devotions and in corporate worship. Non-scriptural hymns from the Early Church still sung today include'Phos Hilaron','Sub tuum praesidium', and'Te Deum'. One definition of a hymn is "...a lyric poem and devotionally conceived, designed to be sung and which expresses the worshipper's attitude toward God or God's purposes in human life. It should be simple and metrical in form, genuinely emotional and literary in style, spiritual in quality, in its ideas so direct and so apparent as to unify a congregation while singing it."Christian hymns are written with special or seasonal themes and these are used on holy days such as Christmas and the Feast of All Saints, or during particular seasons such as Advent and Lent.
Others are used to encourage reverence for the Bible or to celebrate Christian practices such as the eucharist or baptism. Some hymns praise or address individual saints the Blessed Virgin Mary. A writer of hymns is known as a hymnodist, the practice of singing hymns is called hymnody. A collection of hymns is called a hymnary; these may not include music. A student of hymnody is called a hymnologist, the scholarly study of hymns and hymnody is hymnology; the music to which a hymn may be sung is a hymn tune. In many Evangelical churches, traditional songs are classified as hymns while more contemporary worship songs are not considered hymns; the reason for this distinction is unclear, but according to some it is due to the radical shift of style and devotional thinking that began with the Jesus movement and Jesus music. Of note, in recent years, Christian traditional hymns have seen a revival in some churches more Reformed or Calvinistic in nature, as modern hymn writers such as Keith and Kristyn Getty and Sovereign Grace Music have reset old lyrics to new melodies, revised old hymns and republished them, or written a song in accordance with Christian hymn standards such as the hymn, In Christ Alone.
In ancient and medieval times, string instruments such as the harp and lute were used with psalms and hymns. Since there is a lack of musical notation in early writings, the actual musical forms in the early church can only be surmised. During the Middle Ages a rich hymnody developed in the form of Gregorian plainsong; this type was sung in unison, in one of eight church modes, most by monastic choirs. While they were written in Latin, many have been translated. Hymnody in the Western church introduced four-part vocal harmony as the norm, adopting major and minor keys, came to be led by organ and choir, it shares many elements with classical music. Today, except for choirs, more musically inclined congregations and a cappella congregations, hymns are sung in unison. In some cases complementary full settings for organ are published, in others organists and other accompanists are expected to transcribe the four-part vocal score for their instrument of choice. To illustrate Protestant usage, in the traditional services and liturgies of the Methodist churches, which are based upon Anglican practice, hymns are sung during the processional to the altar, during the receiving of communion, during the recessional, sometimes at other points during the service.
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