Patrick Leahy (Australian politician)
Patrick James Leahy was a journalist, member of both the Queensland Legislative Council and the Queensland Legislative Assembly. Leahy was born in June 1860 at Schull, County Cork, to Patrick Leahy and his wife Mary. Educated at Schull National school, he came to Australia in 1887 to join his brother, John Leahy and began work as a journalist with the Brisbane Courier, he moved to Western Queensland where he established The Herald newspaper in Thargomindah and became secretary of the Bulloo Divisional Board. In 1900 he established the Johnstone River Advocate newspaper in Innisfail. After being a member of the Bulloo Shire Council for several years, Leahy stood as a Ministerialist candidate for the seat of Warrego at the 1902 state election, defeating the sitting Labour member, David Bowman, he held the seat until the 1907 state election. Leahy appealed the outcome on the basis that Barber was an uncertified insolvent and in September the Elections Tribunal reversed the result and Leahy was declared duly returned.
In November 1907, Leahy was appointed as Secretary for Public Works and Mines but at the 1908 state election, he lost the seat to Harry Coyne of the Labour Party. On 1 July 1912, he was called up by the Denham Ministry to the Legislative Council, he took a leading role in fighting against the abolition of the Council, making many well considered speeches against it. When the State Governor, Sir Hamilton Goold-Adams was being pressured by the Labour Government to make additional appointments to the Council, he called on Leahy, opposed to the idea to hear his views on the matter. Leahy was and strenuously opposed to any legislation that savoured of socialist or communist ideals, he had a good knowledge of law laws that applied to the land, was a Justice of the Peace. On 13 December 1885, he had married Julia Alice Costello at Thargomindah and together had five children, he died in October 1927 and was buried in Toowong Cemetery
Governor of Queensland
The Governor of Queensland is the representative in the state of Queensland of the Queen of Australia. In an analogous way to the Governor-General of Australia at the national level, the Governor performs constitutional and ceremonial functions at the state level. In particular the governor has the power to appoint and dismiss the Premier of Queensland and all other ministers in the cabinet, issue writs for the election of the state parliament; the current Governor, Paul de Jersey, was sworn in on 29 July 2014. The Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of Queensland Catherine Holmes, acts in the position of Governor in the governor’s absence; as from June 2014, the Queen, upon the recommendation of then-Premier Campbell Newman, accorded all current and living former governors the title'The Honourable' in perpetuity. The Governor of Queensland has resided at Government House, Brisbane since 1910; the mansion, set in 14 hectares of gardens and bushland in the Brisbane suburb of Bardon, is known as "Fernberg".
Unlike Fernberg, the original Government House was purpose-built and was used from 1862 to 1910. The office of Governor is established by the Constitution of Queensland. Section 29 of the Constitution as passed in 2001 provides that the office of Governor must exist and be appointed by the Sovereign, but parts of the earlier Constitution Act of 1867 relating to the Governor are still in force owing to the double entrenchment of them within the constitution by the government of Joh Bjelke-Petersen, who feared that the office and powers of State Governor might be abolished following the controversies of the 1975 Australian constitutional crisis at a federal level. In accordance with the conventions of the Westminster system of parliamentary government, the Governor nearly always acts on the advice of the head of the elected government, the Premier of Queensland; the Governor retains the reserve powers of the Crown, has the right to appoint and dismiss Ministers, issue pardons, dissolve Parliament.
The Queensland constitution expressly provides that the Governor is not subject to direction by any person and is not limited as to the Governor's sources of advice on the appointment or dismissal of Ministers, another provision inserted by the Bjelke-Petersen government in the wake of the 1975 federal dismissal. This provision worked against Bjelke-Petersen when, in the dying days of his government in November 1987, he tried and failed to convince Governor Sir Walter Campbell to remove several ministers to shore up his own support within Parliament; when the parliamentary wing of the National Party deposed Bjelke-Petersen and elected one of the dissident ministers, Mike Ahern, as new Leader of the National Party, Sir Joh refused to resign as Premier and Sir Walter resisted calls to dismiss him. Sir Joh elected to resign on 1 December 1987; the Governor is head of the Executive Council, a Queensland equivalent to the Federal Executive Council. The Council is composed of ministers from the government of the day.
The Chief Justice of Queensland and other judges in the Queensland judicial system are appointed by the Governor acting on the advice of the Executive Council. The first Australian- born Governor of Queensland was Lieutenant-General Sir John Lavarack, his successor, Sir Henry Abel Smith was British. All subsequent governors have been Australian-born, except for Leneen Forde, born in Canada but who emigrated to Australia at an early age. Four former governors of Queensland are alive; the most recent death of a former governor was that of Sir Walter Campbell, on 4 September 2004. Administrators and Lieutenant-Governors are deputy roles appointed to carry out the duties of the Governor when the Governor is unavailable, due to travel or illness. If one is not appointed the duties are carried out by the Chief Justice of Queensland; the following are the Administrators and Lieutenant-Governors of Queensland: Official Website of the Governor of Queensland
Alfred James Jones
Alfred James Jones was an Australian politician who served as a Member of the Queensland Legislative Assembly, a Member of the Queensland Legislative Council and as Lord Mayor of Brisbane. Alfred James Jones was born at Gayndah, the son of Joseph Jones and his wife Ann, he became a stockman and miner. He was a Cobb & Co driver and spent six years mining, he married Martha Elizabeth Leggett in Gayndah on 1 May 1895 and they had five sons and five daughters: Alfred Stevens, Claude Mills, Gladys Mary, Edward Joseph, Nellie Ann Millicent, Molly Nundah, Burnett Cranbrook, Allan Halley, Dorothy Clara. Jones contested four Legislative Assembly of Queensland seats for the Labor Party, held three of them, he won Burnett in 1904 with 68% of the vote, but lost the seat after one term and failed to regain it in the 1912 election. He won Maryborough in 1915 with about 56% of the vote. Jones resigned on 14 February 1917 to enter the Queensland Legislative Council. Jones was appointed to the Queensland Legislative Council on 14 February 1917, where he was the representative of the Government and Minister for Mines.
He resigned from the Legislative Council on 16 September 1920 in order to contest the lower house seat of Carnarvon in 1920 but was not elected, was returned to the upper house on 21 October 1920. He was one of the last members of the Queensland Legislative Council, as he led the vote to abolish the upper house in 1921, leading to its abolition on 3 March 1922. Jones won Paddington in 1922 and held the seat until 1932 when the district was abolished due to redistribution. Jones was Secretary for Mines for most of the period from 1917 to 1929. Jones was Lord Mayor of Brisbane from 1934 to 1940, he attempted to solidify the Greater Brisbane vision of the 1925 amalgamation with a large system of civic loans. With universal suffrage restored to Brisbane City Council elections, Alfred Jones and the Labor Party won picking up 14 of the 20 wards. Once again Brisbane was led by popularly elected Mayor. Harry Massey the independent Alderman for Toowong was convinced by the conservative Citizens Municipal Organization to run as their Lord Mayoral candidate for the 1937 election.
On 24 April 1937, Jones won increasing his margin of victory. The CMO won two new wards to Labor's one for a net gain of 1 ward. Allegations that his administration was plagued by accusations of corruption and inefficiency lead to a complete Labor collapse in the 1940 election, when he lost the mayoralty to John Beals Chandler. Jones died in Brisbane General Hospital on 7 October 1945, his funeral service was held on 8 October 1945 at St John's Cathedral, after which he was cremated at the Mt Thompson Crematorium. A number of street names in the Brisbane suburb of Carina Heights are identical to the surnames of former Members of the Queensland Legislative Assembly. One of these is Jones Road. List of mayors and lord mayors of Brisbane Media related to Alfred James Jones at Wikimedia Commons Jones, Alfred James. Australian Dictionary of Biography
Maurice Charles O'Connell (Australian politician)
Maurice Charles O'Connell, was a Queensland pioneer and president of the Queensland Legislative Council. O'Connell was born at Sydney in 1812, his father was Sir Maurice Charles O'Connell, his mother was Mary a daughter of Governor William Bligh. He was educated at Edinburgh. O'Connell joined the 73rd Regiment at Gibraltar. In 1835 he volunteered for foreign service with the British Legion as colonel which he himself had raised in the county of Cork and other parts of Munster in Spain, to sustain the cause of the Spanish Queen and constitution against the insurgent Carlists. On he became Deputy Adjutant-General, succeeded Sir De Lacy Evans as general of brigade in command of the British Auxiliary Legion in Spain; the Legion was disbanded on 8 December 1837, after taking heavy casualties during the battle of Andoain. Sir Maurice O'Connell was rewarded for his services by having the knighthood of several Spanish orders conferred upon him. On his return to England he was appointed to the 51st Regiment, afterwards becoming captain in the 28th, was appointed military secretary on the staff of his father in New South Wales in 1835.
When the 28th was recalled to England, Sir Maurice sold out, engaged in pastoral pursuits. He afterwards took up land. O'Connell was elected a member of the New South Wales Legislative Council in August 1845 for the electoral district of Port Phillip, he was appointed commissioner of crown lands for the Burnett district in 1848, became government resident at Port Curtis in 1854, held this position until 1860. He was nominated as one of the original members of the Queensland Legislative Council in 1860, was a minister without portfolio in the first ministry under Herbert, introduced in July of that year a bill to provide for primary education in Queensland. Shortly afterwards he was elected president of the legislative council and retained this position until his death. In 1863, O'Connell was one of the founders and original trustees of the Queensland Turf Club, having arranged a land grant of 322 acres of land at Eagle Farm in Brisbane for the purpose of horse racing, now known as the Eagle Farm Racecourse.
The other trustees were George Harris. O'Connell was knighted in 1871, he was commandant of the local military forces, on four occasions was acting-governor of Queensland and showed tact and ability in this position. He was president of the Australasian Association, of the Queensland Turf Club, was a vice-president of the National Agricultural Association. O'Connell died of cancer in Brisbane on 23 March 1879 at Queensland Parliament House, he was buried in Toowong Cemetery. Serle, Percival. "O'Connell, Maurice Charles". Dictionary of Australian Biography. Sydney: Angus and Robertson
Australia the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands. It is the world's sixth-largest country by total area; the neighbouring countries are Papua New Guinea and East Timor to the north. The population of 25 million is urbanised and concentrated on the eastern seaboard. Australia's capital is Canberra, its largest city is Sydney; the country's other major metropolitan areas are Melbourne, Brisbane and Adelaide. Australia was inhabited by indigenous Australians for about 60,000 years before the first British settlement in the late 18th century, it is documented. After the European exploration of the continent by Dutch explorers in 1606, who named it New Holland, Australia's eastern half was claimed by Great Britain in 1770 and settled through penal transportation to the colony of New South Wales from 26 January 1788, a date which became Australia's national day; the population grew in subsequent decades, by the 1850s most of the continent had been explored and an additional five self-governing crown colonies established.
On 1 January 1901, the six colonies federated. Australia has since maintained a stable liberal democratic political system that functions as a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy, comprising six states and ten territories. Being the oldest and driest inhabited continent, with the least fertile soils, Australia has a landmass of 7,617,930 square kilometres. A megadiverse country, its size gives it a wide variety of landscapes, with deserts in the centre, tropical rainforests in the north-east and mountain ranges in the south-east. A gold rush began in Australia in the early 1850s, its population density, 2.8 inhabitants per square kilometre, remains among the lowest in the world. Australia generates its income from various sources including mining-related exports, telecommunications and manufacturing. Indigenous Australian rock art is the oldest and richest in the world, dating as far back as 60,000 years and spread across hundreds of thousands of sites. Australia is a developed country, with the world's 14th-largest economy.
It has a high-income economy, with the world's tenth-highest per capita income. It is a regional power, has the world's 13th-highest military expenditure. Australia has the world's ninth-largest immigrant population, with immigrants accounting for 26% of the population. Having the third-highest human development index and the eighth-highest ranked democracy globally, the country ranks in quality of life, education, economic freedom, civil liberties and political rights, with all its major cities faring well in global comparative livability surveys. Australia is a member of the United Nations, G20, Commonwealth of Nations, ANZUS, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, World Trade Organization, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, Pacific Islands Forum and the ASEAN Plus Six mechanism; the name Australia is derived from the Latin Terra Australis, a name used for a hypothetical continent in the Southern Hemisphere since ancient times. When Europeans first began visiting and mapping Australia in the 17th century, the name Terra Australis was applied to the new territories.
Until the early 19th century, Australia was best known as "New Holland", a name first applied by the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman in 1644 and subsequently anglicised. Terra Australis still saw occasional usage, such as in scientific texts; the name Australia was popularised by the explorer Matthew Flinders, who said it was "more agreeable to the ear, an assimilation to the names of the other great portions of the earth". The first time that Australia appears to have been used was in April 1817, when Governor Lachlan Macquarie acknowledged the receipt of Flinders' charts of Australia from Lord Bathurst. In December 1817, Macquarie recommended to the Colonial Office. In 1824, the Admiralty agreed that the continent should be known by that name; the first official published use of the new name came with the publication in 1830 of The Australia Directory by the Hydrographic Office. Colloquial names for Australia include "Oz" and "the Land Down Under". Other epithets include "the Great Southern Land", "the Lucky Country", "the Sunburnt Country", "the Wide Brown Land".
The latter two both derive from Dorothea Mackellar's 1908 poem "My Country". Human habitation of the Australian continent is estimated to have begun around 65,000 to 70,000 years ago, with the migration of people by land bridges and short sea-crossings from what is now Southeast Asia; these first inhabitants were the ancestors of modern Indigenous Australians. Aboriginal Australian culture is one of the oldest continual civilisations on earth. At the time of first European contact, most Indigenous Australians were hunter-gatherers with complex economies and societies. Recent archaeological finds suggest. Indigenous Australians have an oral culture with spiritual values based on reverence for the land and a belief in the Dreamtime; the Torres Strait Islanders, ethnically Melanesian, obtained their livelihood from seasonal horticulture and the resources of their reefs and seas. The northern coasts and waters of Australia were visited s
The Northern Territory is an Australian territory in the central and central northern regions of Australia. It shares borders with Western Australia to the west, South Australia to the south, Queensland to the east. To the north, the territory looks out to the Timor Sea, the Arafura Sea and the Gulf of Carpentaria, including Western New Guinea and other Indonesian islands; the NT covers 1,349,129 square kilometres, making it the third-largest Australian federal division, the 11th-largest country subdivision in the world. It is sparsely populated, with a population of only 246,700, making it the least-populous of Australia's eight states and major territories, with fewer than half as many people as Tasmania; the archaeological history of the Northern Territory begins over 40,000 years ago when Indigenous Australians settled the region. Makassan traders began trading with the indigenous people of the Northern Territory for trepang from at least the 18th century onwards; the coast of the territory was first seen by Europeans in the 17th century.
The British were the first Europeans to attempt to settle the coastal regions. After three failed attempts to establish a settlement, success was achieved in 1869 with the establishment of a settlement at Port Darwin. Today the economy is based on tourism Kakadu National Park in the Top End and the Uluṟu-Kata Tjuṯa National Park in central Australia, mining; the capital and largest city is Darwin. The population is concentrated along the Stuart Highway; the other major settlements are Palmerston, Alice Springs, Katherine and Tennant Creek. Residents of the Northern Territory are known as "Territorians" and as "Northern Territorians", or more informally as "Top Enders" and "Centralians". Indigenous Australians have lived in the present area of the Northern Territory for an estimated 40,000 years, extensive seasonal trade links existed between them and the peoples of what is now Indonesia for at least five centuries. With the coming of the British, there were four early attempts to settle the harsh environment of the northern coast, of which three failed in starvation and despair.
The Northern Territory was part of colonial New South Wales from 1825 to 1863, except for a brief time from February to December 1846, when it was part of the short-lived colony of North Australia. It was part of South Australia from 1863 to 1911. Under the administration of colonial South Australia, the overland telegraph was constructed between 1870 and 1872. From its establishment in 1869 the Port of Darwin was the major Territory supply for many decades. A railway was built between Palmerston and Pine Creek between 1883 and 1889; the economic pattern of cattle raising and mining was established so that by 1911 there were 513,000 cattle. Victoria River Downs was at one time the largest cattle station in the world. Gold was found at Grove Hill in 1872 and at Pine Creek, Brocks Creek and copper was found at Daly River. On 1 January 1911, a decade after federation, the Northern Territory was separated from South Australia and transferred to federal control. Alfred Deakin opined at this time "To me the question has been not so much commercial as national, second and last.
Either we must accomplish the peopling of the northern territory or submit to its transfer to some other nation." In late 1912 there was growing sentiment. The names "Kingsland", "Centralia" and "Territoria" were proposed with Kingsland becoming the preferred choice in 1913. However, the name change never went ahead. For a brief time between 1927 and 1931 the Northern Territory was divided into North Australia and Central Australia at the 20th parallel of South latitude. Soon after this time, parts of the Northern Territory were considered in the Kimberley Plan as a possible site for the establishment of a Jewish Homeland, understandably considered the "Unpromised Land". During World War II, most of the Top End was placed under military government; this is the only time since Federation that part of an Australian state or territory has been under military control. After the war, control for the entire area was handed back to the Commonwealth; the Bombing of Darwin occurred on 19 February 1942. It was the largest single attack mounted by a foreign power on Australia.
Evidence of Darwin's World War II history is found at a variety of preserved sites in and around the city, including ammunition bunkers, oil tunnels and museums. The port was damaged in the 1942 Japanese air raids, it was subsequently restored. In the late 1960s improved roads in adjoining States linking with the territory, port delays and rapid economic development led to uncertainty in port and regional infrastructure development; as a result of the Commission of Enquiry established by the Administrator, port working arrangements were changed, berth investment deferred and a port masterplan prepared. Extension of rail transport was not considered because of low freight volumes. Indigenous Australians had struggled for rights to fair wages and land. An important event in this struggle was the strike and walk off by the Gurindji people at Wave Hill Cattle Station in 1966; the federal government of Gough Whitlam set up the Woodward Royal Commission in February 1973, which set to enquire into how land rights might be achieved in the Northern Territory.
Justice Woodward's first report in July 1973 recommended that a Central Land Council and a Northern Land Council be established to present to him the views of
Secretary of State for the Colonies
The Secretary of State for the Colonies or Colonial Secretary was the British Cabinet minister in charge of managing the United Kingdom's various colonial dependencies. The position was first created in 1768 to deal with the troublesome North American colonies, following passage of the Townsend Acts. Colonial responsibilities were held jointly by the Lords of Trade and Plantations and the Secretary of State for the Southern Department, responsible for Southern England, Ireland, the American colonies, relations with the Catholic and Muslim states of Europe. Joint responsibility continued under the Secretary of State for the Colonies, but led to a diminution of the board's status, it became an adjunct to the new Secretary's Department. Following the loss of the American colonies, both the board and the short-lived secretaryship were dismissed by the king on 2 May 1782. Following this, colonial duties given to the Home Secretary Lord Sydney. Following the Treaty of Paris 1783, a new board, named the Committee of Council on Trade and Plantations was established under William Pitt the Younger, by an Order in Council in 1784.
In 1794, a new office was created for Henry Dundas — the Secretary of State for War, which now took responsibility for the Colonies, was renamed the Secretary of State for War and the Colonies in 1801. In 1854, military reforms led to the Colonial and Military responsibilities of this secretary of state being split into two separate offices, with Sir George Grey becoming the first Secretary of State for the Colonies under the new arrangement. In the latter part of the nineteenth century, Britain gained control over a number of territories with the status of "protectorate"; the ministerial responsibility for these territories was held by the Foreign Secretary. However, by the early years of the twentieth century the responsibility for each of these territories had been transferred to the Colonial Secretary as well; the League of Nations mandated territories acquired as a result of the Treaty of Versailles became a further responsibility of the Colonial Office in the aftermath of the First World War.
In 1925, part of the Colonial Office was separated out as the Dominions Office, with its own Secretary of State. The new office was responsible for dealing with the Dominions together with a small number of other territories. In the twenty years following the end of the Second World War, much of the British Empire was dismantled as its various territories gained independence. In consequence, the Colonial Office was merged in 1966 with the Commonwealth Relations Office to form the Commonwealth Office, while ministerial responsibility was transferred to the Secretary of State for Commonwealth Affairs. In 1968, the Commonwealth Office was subsumed into the Foreign Office, renamed the Foreign and Commonwealth Office; the Colonial Secretary never had responsibility for the provinces and princely states of India, which had its own Secretary of State. From 1768 until 1966 the Secretary of State was supported by an Under-Secretary of State for the Colonies, latterly by a Minister of State. Sometimes referred to as Secretary of State for the American Colonies.
Office abolished in 1782 after the loss of the American Colonies. Responsibility for the Colonies thereafter held by: Home Secretary 1782–1801 Secretary of State for War and the Colonies 1801–1854 Secretary of State for the Colonies from 1854 Responsibility for the colonies held by: Secretary of State for Commonwealth Affairs 1966–1968 Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs 1968–presentFollowing the British Nationality Act 1981 the term "colony" ceased to be used. Britain retains certain overseas territories. Notes A few title holders were born in colonies under their portfolio and some beyond: Andrew Bonar Law - born in pre-Canada colony of New Brunswick and moved to the United Kingdom Victor Bruce, 9th Earl of Elgin - born in Canada during his father's, James Bruce, 8th Earl of Elgin, term as Governor General of Canada and a British appointee Alfred Milner, 1st Viscount Milner - born in Grand Duchy of Hesse to Charles Milner Leo Amery - born in British India to an English father serving in India