Fire services in the United Kingdom
The fire services in the United Kingdom operate under separate legislative and administrative arrangements in England and Wales, Northern Ireland, Scotland. Emergency cover is provided by over fifty agencies; these are known as a fire and rescue service, the term used in modern legislation and by government departments. The older terms of fire brigade and fire service survive in informal usage and in the names of a few organisations. England and Wales have local fire services which are each overseen by a fire authority, made up of representatives of local governments. Fire authorities have the power to raise a Council Tax levy for funding, with the remainder coming from the government. Scotland and Northern Ireland have centralised fire services, so their authorities are committees of the devolved parliaments; the total budget for fire services in 2014-15 was £2.9 billion. Central government maintains national standards and a body of independent advisers through the Chief Fire and Rescue Adviser, created in 2007, while Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Constabulary and Fire & Rescue Services provides direct oversight.
The devolved government in Scotland has HMFSI Scotland. Firefighters in the United Kingdom are allowed to join unions, the main one being the Fire Brigades Union, while chief fire officers are members of the National Fire Chiefs Council, which has some role in national co-ordination; the fire services have undergone significant changes since the beginning of the 21st century, a process, propelled by a devolution of central government powers, new legislation and a change to operational procedures in the light of terrorism attacks and threats. See separate article History of fire safety legislation in the United Kingdom Comprehensive list of recent UK fire and rescue service legislation: Fire services are established and granted their powers under new legislation which has replaced a number of Acts of Parliament dating back more than 60 years, but is still undergoing change. 1938: Fire Brigades Act 1938. This Act provided for centralised co-ordination of fire brigades in Great Britain and made it mandatory for local authorities to arrange an effective fire service.
1947: Fire Services Act 1947 This Act transferred the functions of the National Fire Service to local authorities. Now repealed in England and Wales by Schedule 2 of the Fire and Rescue Services Act 2004. 1959: Fire Services Act 1959 This Act amended the 1947 Act. It was repealed in Wales along with the 1947 Act. 1999: Greater London Authority Act 1999 This act was necessary to allow for the formation of the Greater London Authority and in turn the London Fire and Emergency Planning Authority. In 2002, there was a series of national fire strikes, with much of the discontent caused by the aforementioned report into the fire service conducted by Prof Sir George Bain. In December 2002, the Independent Review of the Fire Service was published with the industrial action still ongoing. Bain's report led to a change in the laws relating to firefighting. 2002: Independent Review of the Fire Service published 2004: Fire and Rescue Services Act 2004 only applying to England and Wales. 2006: The Regulatory Reform Order 2005 This piece of secondary legislation or statutory instrument replaces several other acts that dealt with fire precautions and fire safety in premises, including the now defunct process of issuing fire certificates.
It came into force on 1 October 2006. The DfCLG has published a set of guides for non-domestic premises: 2006: The Government of Wales Act 2006 gave the National Assembly for Wales powers to pass laws on "Fire and rescue services. Promotion of fire safety otherwise than by prohibition or regulation." But does not prevent future legislation being passed by the UK government which applies to two or more constituent countries. There are further plans to modernise the fire service according to the Local Government Association, its website outlines future changes, specific projects: "The aim of the Fire Modernisation Programme is to adopt modern work practices within the Fire & Rescue Service to become more efficient and effective, while strengthening the contingency and resilience of the Service to react to incidents. " The fire service in England and Wales is scrutinised by a House of Commons select committee. In June 2006, the fire and rescue service select committee, under the auspices of the Communities and Local Government Committee, published its latest report.
Committee report The committee's brief is described on its website: The Communities and Local Government Committee is appointed by the House of Commons to examine the expenditure and policy of the Department for Communities and Local Government and its associated bodies. Government response This document, the subsequent government response in September 2006, are important as they outlined progress on the FiReControl, efforts to address diversity and the planned closure of HMFSI in 2007 among many issues. Both documents are interesting as they refer back to Professor Bain's report and the many recommendations it made and continue to put forward the notion that there is an ongoing need to modernise FRSs. For example, where FRSs were inspected by HMFSI, much of this work is now carried out by the National Audit Office. Fire Control On 8 February 2010 the House of Commons Communities and Local Governm
Launceston is a town, ancient borough, civil parish in Cornwall, United Kingdom. It is 1 mile west of the middle stage of the River Tamar, which constitutes the entire border between Cornwall and Devon; the landscape of the town is steep at a sharp south-western knoll topped by Launceston Castle. These gradients fall down to smaller tributaries; the town centre itself is no longer physically a main thoroughfare. The A388 still runs through the town close to the centre; the town remains figuratively the "gateway to Cornwall", due to having the A30, one of the two dual carriageways into the county pass directly next to the town. The other dual carriageway and alternative main point of entry is at Saltash over the Tamar Bridge and was completed in 1962. There are smaller points of entry to Cornwall on minor roads. Launceston Steam Railway narrow-gauge heritage railway runs as a tourist attraction during the summer months, it was restored for aesthetic and industrial heritage purposes and runs along a short rural route, it is popular with visitors but does not run for much of the year.
Launceston Castle was built by Count of Mortain c. 1070 to control the surrounding area. Launceston was the caput of the feudal barony of Launceston and of the Earldom of Cornwall until replaced by Lostwithiel in the 13th century. Launceston was the county town of Cornwall until 1835 when Bodmin replaced it. Two civil parishes serve the town and its outskirts, of which the central more built-up administrative unit housed 8,952 residents at the 2011 census. Three electoral wards include reference to the town, their total population, from 2011 census data, being 11,837 and two ecclesiastical parishes serve the former single parish, with three churches and a large swathe of land to the north and west part of the area. Launceston's motto "Royale et Loyale" is a reference to its adherence to the Cavalier cause during the English Civil War of the mid-17th century; the Cornish name of "Launceston", means the "church enclosure of St Stephen" and is derived from the former monastery at St Stephen's a few miles north-west and the Common Brittonic placename element lan-.
Dunheved was the Southwestern Brittonic name for the town in the West Saxon period. The earliest known Cornish mint was at Launceston, which operated on a minimal scale at the time of Æthelred the Unready before Cornwall received full diocesan jurisdiction in 994. Only one specimen is known to exist. In the reign of William the Conqueror, the mint was moved to Dunheved and remained in existence until the reign of Henry II, 1160. During the reign of Henry III of England, another mint was established in Launceston. Launceston Castle, in good repair, is a Norman motte-and-bailey castle, was built by Robert, Count of Mortain c. 1070 to dominate the surrounding area. Launceston was the caput of the feudal barony of Launceston and of the Earldom of Cornwall until replaced by Lostwithiel in the 13th century. Launceston was the county town of Cornwall until 1835 when Bodmin replaced it; the lands of Robert, Count of Mortain, became the core holdings of the feudal barony of Launceston, the Fleming family continued to hold most of their manors from that barony, as can be seen from entries in the Book of Fees.
In the Domesday Book it is recorded that Launceston was held by the Count of Mortain, that he had his castle there. There was land for 10 ploughs, 1 villein and 13 smallholders with 4 ploughs, 2 mills which paid 40 shillings and 40 acres of pasture; the value of the manor was only £4 though it had been worth £20. The Roman Catholic martyr Cuthbert Mayne was executed at Launceston — a legacy of memorials and a church exists. During the English Civil War Launceston was known to be Royale et Loyale to Charles I of England, hence its coat of arms, his son, crowned Charles II of England, stayed in the town for a couple of days en route to the Cavalier army based further west. In 1643, the Parliamentarian forces under the command of Major General James Chudleigh advanced in an attempt to capture Launceston from the Royalists; the Royalist commander, Ralph Hopton, 1st Baron Hopton, stationed his forces on the summit of Beacon Hill, a steep hill which overlooks the town. The Parliamentarians captured the foot of the hill, but were unable to dislodge the Royalist forces from the top.
Hopton led a counterattack down the hill and, despite fierce fighting and the arrival of Parliamentary reinforcements, forced Chudleigh's troops to retreat. Sir Richard Grenville, 1st Baronet was committed by Prince Charles to Launceston Prison for refusing to obey Lord Hopton. Launceston has the only document in the UK signed by Mary II of England and her husband, William III of England. Launceston is said to have gained its historical importance from being the furthest into Cornwall that Justices and other Officers of the Crown felt safe to venture; when the situation had been improved Bodmin became the county town. Launceston's role as the de facto county town of Cornwall became established in the 13th century but it was never designated as the county town. Viscount Launceston was a title of nobility created in 1726 but
Helston is a town and civil parish in Cornwall, United Kingdom. It is situated at the northern end of the Lizard Peninsula 12 miles east of Penzance and 9 miles south-west of Falmouth. Helston is the most southerly town on the island of Great Britain and is around 1.5 miles farther south than Penzance. The population in 2011 was 11,700; the former stannary and cattle market town is best known for the annual Furry Dance, said to originate from the medieval period. However, the Hal-an-Tow is reputed to be of Celtic origin; the song, music, associated with the Furry Dance is known to have been written in 1911. In 2001, the town celebrated the 800th anniversary of the granting of its Charter; the name comes from the Cornish'hen lis' or'old court' and'ton' added to denote a Saxon manor. Only one edition refers to'Henlistona', it was granted its charter for the price of forty marks of silver. It was here that tin ingots were weighed to determine the tin coinage duty due to the Duke of Cornwall when a number of stannary towns were authorised by royal decree.
A document of 1396 examined by Charles Henderson shows that the old form "Hellys" was still in use The manor of Helston in Kerrier was one of the seventeen Antiqua maneria of the Duchy of Cornwall. The seal of the borough of Helston was St Michael his wings standing on a gateway; the two towers domed upon the up-turned dragon, impaling it with his spear and bearing upon his left arm an escutcheon of the arms of England, viz Gu three lions passant guardant in pale Or, with the legend "Sigillum comunitatis helleston burg". It is a matter of debate as to. A common belief is that in the 13th-century Loe Bar formed a barrier across the mouth of the River Cober cutting the town off from the sea. Geomorphologists believe the bar was most formed by rising sea levels, after the last ice age, blocking the river and creating a barrier beach; the beach is formed of flint and the nearest source is found offshore under the drowned terraces of the former river that flowed between England and France, now under the English Channel.
Daniel Defoe describes Helston in his tour around Great Britain thus, ″This town is large and populous, has four spacious streets, a handsome church, a good trade: this town sends members to Parliament.' He mentions that the River Cober makes a tolerable good harbour and several ships are loaded with tin, although over one hundred years before Defoe, Richard Carew described Loe Bar as "The shingle was porous and fresh water could leave and seawater enter depending, on the relative heights of the pool and sea". Defoe's description seems to be the first and the origin of other sources claiming Helston to be a port in the historic period. Loe Pool is referred to in a document of 1302, implying the existence of Loe Bar at this date, if not much earlier, thus precluding the passage of shipping up the Cober. At the same time it was recorded that the burgesses of Helston exercised jurisdiction over the ships anchored at Gweek, but no mention was made of ships at Helston, no customs records or other documentation of port traffic relating to Helston survives.
There is no known archaeological evidence for the existence of a port at Helston* and there is no primary evidence to support Defoe’s account. However, contributing to the belief of a port at Helston was the discovery of what some people believe to be slipways and mooring rings, during excavations around 1980. There was no known shipping from the sea after 1260, but before 1200, in'the 1182 record of Godric of Helleston paying a fine of ten marks for exporting his corn out of England from Helston without a licence.' This could be considered the most significant piece of documentary evidence signifying Helston's former port days, though it does not prove the case. At the time of Domesday Book, Gweek had no inhabitants whilst Helston was the largest settlement in the west of Cornwall, with 113 households. In 1837 a plan was drawn up to open Loe Pool to shipping using a pier to counteract siltation, but it was never carried out; the site of Helston's castle is now a bowling green near the Grylls Monument, there since 1760.
The castle was a simple pre-1086 motte and bailey structure, known as Henliston Castle, replaced in around 1280 by a stone structure of a similar design for Edmund, Earl of Cornwall. By 1478 it had fallen into ruin; the Helston parliamentary constituency was created in 1298 and elected two members to the Unreformed House of Commons. Helston is now part of the St Ives constituency, which covers the western part of Cornwall and the Isles of Scilly; the current member is Derek Thomas. Helston is within the South West England European Parliamentary Constituency. At local government level, the town is administered by Helston Town Council. Helston is situated along the banks of the River Cober in Cornwall. Downstream is Cornwall's largest natural lake Loe Pool, formed when a shingle bar blocked the mouth of the river by rising sea levels forming a barrier beach. To the south is the Lizard Peninsula, an area important for its complex geology and wildlife habitats. Helston is on the A394 road. To the west, the A394 leads to Penzance.
The B3297 runs north from Helston to Re
The Victorian restoration was the widespread and extensive refurbishment and rebuilding of Church of England churches and cathedrals that took place in England and Wales during the 19th-century reign of Queen Victoria. It was not the same process. Against a background of poorly maintained church buildings; the change was embraced by the Church of England which saw it as a means of reversing the decline in church attendance. The principle was to "restore" a church to how it might have looked during the "Decorated" style of architecture which existed between 1260 and 1360, many famous architects such as George Gilbert Scott and Ewan Christian enthusiastically accepted commissions for restorations, it is estimated that around 80% of all Church of England churches were affected in some way by the movement, varying from minor changes to complete demolition and rebuilding. Influential people like John Ruskin and William Morris were opposed to such large-scale restoration, their activities led to the formation of societies dedicated to building preservation, such as the Society for the Protection of Ancient Buildings.
In retrospect, the period of Victorian restoration has been viewed in a unfavourable light. A number of factors working together led to the spate of Victorian restoration. From the time of the English Reformation onwards, apart from necessary repairs so that buildings might remain in use, the addition of occasional internal commemorative adornments, English churches and cathedrals were subjected to little building work and only piecemeal restoration; this situation lasted for about 250 years with the fabric of many churches and cathedrals suffering from neglect. The severity of the problem was demonstrated when the spire of Chichester Cathedral telescoped in on itself in 1861. In addition since the mid-17th century Puritan reforms which were typified by a minimum of ritual and decoration and by an unambiguous emphasis on preaching there had been an ongoing removal of any emotion or colour from English religious services as a means of distancing itself from what was seen as the excesses of Catholicism.
But towards the end of the 18th century the burgeoning Gothic Revival and interest in medievalism encouraged people to seek more interest in their religious services. The popularity of the Gothic Revival was seen by Church officials as a way to reverse the decline in church attendance, thereby start to reassert the Church's power and influence, they therefore pushed for massive restoration programs. As a third factor, the industrial revolution had resulted in many people living in cities that had few churches to cater for their religious needs—for instance Stockport had a population of nearly 34,000 but church seating for only 2,500; the rise in dissenter denominations, such as Methodism and the Religious Society of Friends, was seen as further evidence of this shortfall. To fulfil this need, between 1818 and 1824 the Government had granted £1.5 million for building new churches. Known as Commissioners' churches, most of them cost only £4,000 to £5,000 each to build, dissatisfaction with their indifferent design and cheap construction provoked a strong reaction.
Equivalent movements existed in most of Europe northern Europe, with the French architect and architectural historian Eugène Viollet-le-Duc associated with the French manifestation. One of the main driving forces for the restoration of churches was the Cambridge Camden Society, founded in 1839 by two Cambridge undergraduates, John Mason Neale and Benjamin Webb, as a club for those who shared a common interest in Gothic church design, it became popular: its membership increased from 8 to 180 in its first 12 months. Although a society for recording and discussing medieval church features, the members of the CCS soon began to expostulate in their journal The Ecclesiologist and in their Few Words to Church-builders of 1844 that the only "correct" form for a church building was the "middle pointed" or "Decorated" style, in which churches had been built during the hundred years centred on 1300. Ecclesiology struck a chord in society: it was linked with the ongoing interest in medievalism and the Gothic Revival.
The CCS's firm insistence on one style being correct proved to be a beacon for those who were no longer able to judge for themselves what was "good" in architecture—the certainties of the Vitruvian rules having lost their power during the Romantic movement, in vogue since the middle of the 18th century. The CCS stated; as Kenneth Clark put it, they said that one could "either restore each of the various alterations and additions in its own style, or restore the whole church to the best and purest style of which traces remain". The Society wholeheartedly recommended the second option and since every medieval church had at least some small remnant of decorated style, maybe a porch or just a window, the whole church would be "restored" to match it, and if the earliest portions were too late it was a candidate for a complete rebuild in the "correct" style."To restore," The Ecclesiologist declared, "is to revive the original appearance... lost by decay, accident or ill-judged alteration". They did admit, that such "restoration" might create an ideal state that the building had never been in.
Church restorations were strongly influenced by the Oxford Movement
England is a country, part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to Scotland to the north-northwest; the Irish Sea lies west of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south; the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight. The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Palaeolithic period, but takes its name from the Angles, a Germanic tribe deriving its name from the Anglia peninsula, who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries. England became a unified state in the 10th century, since the Age of Discovery, which began during the 15th century, has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world; the English language, the Anglican Church, English law – the basis for the common law legal systems of many other countries around the world – developed in England, the country's parliamentary system of government has been adopted by other nations.
The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the world's first industrialised nation. England's terrain is chiefly low hills and plains in central and southern England. However, there is upland and mountainous terrain in the west; the capital is London, which has the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. England's population of over 55 million comprises 84% of the population of the United Kingdom concentrated around London, the South East, conurbations in the Midlands, the North West, the North East, Yorkshire, which each developed as major industrial regions during the 19th century; the Kingdom of England – which after 1535 included Wales – ceased being a separate sovereign state on 1 May 1707, when the Acts of Union put into effect the terms agreed in the Treaty of Union the previous year, resulting in a political union with the Kingdom of Scotland to create the Kingdom of Great Britain. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The name "England" is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means "land of the Angles"; the Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages. The Angles came from the Anglia peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea; the earliest recorded use of the term, as "Engla londe", is in the late-ninth-century translation into Old English of Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People. The term was used in a different sense to the modern one, meaning "the land inhabited by the English", it included English people in what is now south-east Scotland but was part of the English kingdom of Northumbria; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle recorded that the Domesday Book of 1086 covered the whole of England, meaning the English kingdom, but a few years the Chronicle stated that King Malcolm III went "out of Scotlande into Lothian in Englaland", thus using it in the more ancient sense.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its modern spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, in which the Latin word Anglii is used; the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars. How and why a term derived from the name of a tribe, less significant than others, such as the Saxons, came to be used for the entire country and its people is not known, but it seems this is related to the custom of calling the Germanic people in Britain Angli Saxones or English Saxons to distinguish them from continental Saxons of Old Saxony between the Weser and Eider rivers in Northern Germany. In Scottish Gaelic, another language which developed on the island of Great Britain, the Saxon tribe gave their name to the word for England. An alternative name for England is Albion; the name Albion referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus the 4th-century BC De Mundo: "Beyond the Pillars of Hercules is the ocean that flows round the earth.
In it are two large islands called Britannia. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, i.e. it was written in the Graeco-Roman period or afterwards. The word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins, it either derives from a cognate of the Latin albus meaning white, a reference to the white cliffs of Dover or from the phrase the "island of the Albiones" in the now lost Massaliote Periplus, attested through Avienus' Ora Maritima to which the former served as a source. Albion is now applied to England in a more poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England and made popular by its use in Arthurian legend; the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximate
Marazion is a civil parish and town, on the shore of Mount's Bay in Cornwall, England, UK. It is 2 miles east of Penzance and the tidal island of St Michael's Mount is half-a-mile offshore. At low water a causeway links it to the town and at high water passenger boats carry visitors between Marazion and St Michael's Mount. Marazion is a thriving tourist resort with an active community of artists who produce and sell paintings and pottery in the town's art galleries. Marazion lies within the Cornwall Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty. A third of Cornwall has AONB designation, with the same status and protection as a National Park. On the western side of the town is Marazion Marsh, a RSPB reserve and a Site of Special Scientific Interest. Remains of an ancient bronze furnace, discovered near the town, tend to prove that tin smelting was practised here at an early period. Marazion was not recorded in the Domesday Book of 1088, its only charter was granted by Queen Elizabeth I. The charter attributed to Robert, Count of Mortain granted lands and liberties to St Michael's Mount opposite Marazion and included a market on Thursdays.
This appears to have been held from the first on the mainland. From it is derived the Marghasbighan of the earlier and the Marghasyewe or Marketjew of the charters, it may be added that a Jewish origin has been erroneously ascribed to the place from the name Marketjew. It is certain that Richard, Earl of Cornwall provided that the three fairs, on the two feasts of St Michael and at Mid-Lent, the three markets which had hitherto been held by the priors of St Michael's Mount on land not their own at Marghasbighan, should in future be held on their own land at Marchadyou, he transferred in fact the fairs and markets from the demesne lands of the Bloyous in Marazion to those of the prior. Its earliest known charter was granted in 1257. To remedy the loss incurred by this measure Ralph Bloyou in 1331 procured for himself and his heirs a market on Mondays and a fair on the vigil and morrow of St Andrew at Marghasyon. In Leland's time the market was held at Marhasdeythyow, both Norden and Carew tell us that Marcajewe signifies the Thursday's market, whether etymologically sound or not, shows that the prior's market had prevailed over its rival.
In 1595 Queen Elizabeth granted to Marazion a charter of incorporation. This ratified the grant of St Andrew's fair, provided for another on the Feast of St Barnabas and established a market on Saturdays; the corporation was to consist of eight aldermen and twelve capital burgesses. This corporation continued to administer the affairs of the borough until it was dissolved under the Municipal Corporations Act 1835, when the property belonging to it was vested in charity commissioners; the chairman of the commissioners retains possession of the regalia. Of the fairs, only the Michaelmas fair has survived and all the markets have gone, it is stated that Marazion had the right of returning two members to parliament, but that owing to its inability to pay the members' expenses the right was lost. The seal of the borough of Marazion was On a shield the arms three castles triple turreted, with the legend "Semper Eadem". Under the Commonwealth an attempt was made to secure or recover the right, two members are said to have been returned, but they were not allowed to take their seats.
Marazion was once a flourishing town, owing its prosperity to the throng of pilgrims who came to visit St Michael's Mount. During the first half of the 16th century it was twice plundered; the rise and progress of the neighbouring borough of Penzance in the 17th century marginalised Marazion. Penwith is believed to be the last part of Cornwall to speak Cornish as a community language. Dolly Pentreath, the last recorded speaker came from Paul in Penwith. A year following the death of Dolly Pentreath, Barrington received a letter, written in Cornish and accompanied by an English translation, from a fisherman in Mousehole named William Bodinar stating that he knew of five people who could speak Cornish in that village alone. Barrington speaks of a John Nancarrow from Marazion, a native speaker and survived into the 1790s; the graveyard of Gulval church is home to the remains of local pirate and smuggler John'Eyebrows' Thomas of Marazion. The West Cornwall Railway opened Marazion railway station on 11 March 1852 and its goods yard handled a large volume of perishable traffic – fish and vegetables – from the surrounding farms and harbours.
Marazion station closed to passenger traffic in October 1964 and to freight in December 1965. For many years the site of the closed station was home to Pullman railway carriages which were used as camping coaches; the site, though not conveniently located, is on Cornwall's still-operating passenger main-line, so there are aspirations to re-open it. The Royal National Lifeboat Institution opened a'Marazion Lifeboat Station' in 1990, although the D-class inshore lifeboat was kept in a shed on the quayside on St Michael's Mount; the station was closed on 31 October 2001 as it was proving difficult to find enough volunteer crew members. The boat was transferred to the neighbouring Penlee Lifeboat Station at Newlyn on the other side of Mounts Bay where there is a larger population to draw the crews from. At the end of the Second World War a number of naval vessels, the most famous of, the battleship HMS Warspite were broken up on the beaches at Marazion. HMS Warspite was beached and broken up in 1947.
The local community radio station is Coast FM (formerly Penwith R
Bodmin is a civil parish and historic town in Cornwall, United Kingdom. It is situated south-west of Bodmin Moor; the extent of the civil parish corresponds closely to that of the town so is urban in character. It is bordered to the east by Cardinham parish, to the southeast by Lanhydrock parish, to the southwest and west by Lanivet parish, to the north by Helland parish. Bodmin had a population of 14,736 as of the 2011 Census, it was the county town of Cornwall until the Crown Courts moved to Truro, the administrative centre. Bodmin was in the administrative North Cornwall District until local government reorganisation in 2009 abolished the District; the town is part of the North Cornwall parliamentary constituency, represented by Scott Mann MP. Bodmin Town Council is made up of sixteen councillors; each year, the Council elects one of its number as Mayor to serve as the town's civic leader and to chair council meetings. Bodmin lies in the east of south-west of Bodmin Moor, it has been suggested that the town's name comes from an archaic word in the Cornish language "bod" and a contraction of "menegh".
The "monks' dwelling" may refer to an early monastic settlement instituted by St. Guron, which St. Petroc took as his site. Guron is said to have departed to St Goran on the arrival of Petroc; the hamlets of Cooksland and Turfdown are in the parish. St. Petroc founded a monastery in Bodmin in the 6th century and gave the town its alternative name of Petrockstow; the monastery was deprived of some of its lands at the Norman conquest but at the time of Domesday still held eighteen manors, including Bodmin and Rialton. Bodmin is one of the oldest towns in Cornwall, the only large Cornish settlement recorded in the Domesday Book in 1086. In the 15th century the Norman church of St Petroc was rebuilt and stands as one of the largest churches in Cornwall. Built at that time was an abbey of canons regular, now ruined. For most of Bodmin's history, the tin industry was a mainstay of the economy; the name of the town derives from the Cornish "Bod-meneghy", meaning "dwelling of or by the sanctuary of monks".
Variant spellings recorded include Botmenei in 1100, Bodmen in 1253, Bodman in 1377 and Bodmyn in 1522. The Bodman spelling appears in sources and maps from the 16th and 17th centuries, most notably in the celebrated map of Cornwall produced by John Speed but engraved by the Dutch cartographer Jodocus Hondius the Elder in Amsterdam in 1610, it is unclear whether the Bodman spelling signifies any historical or monastic connection with the ancient settlement of Bodman at the western end of the Bodensee in the German province of Baden. An inscription on a stone built into the wall of a summer house in Lancarffe furnishes proof of a settlement in Bodmin in the early Middle Ages, it has been dated from the 6th to 8th centuries. Arthur Langdon records three Cornish crosses at Bodmin. There is Carminow Cross at a road junction southeast of the town; the Black Death killed half of Bodmin's population in the mid 14th century. Bodmin was the centre of three Cornish uprisings; the first was the Cornish Rebellion of 1497 when a Cornish army, led by Michael An Gof, a blacksmith from St. Keverne and Thomas Flamank, a lawyer from Bodmin, marched to Blackheath in London where they were defeated by 10,000 men of the King's army under Baron Daubeny.
In the autumn of 1497, Perkin Warbeck tried to usurp the throne from Henry VII. Warbeck was proclaimed King Richard IV in Bodmin but Henry had little difficulty crushing the uprising. In 1549, allied with other rebels in neighbouring Devon, rose once again in rebellion when the staunchly Protestant Edward VI tried to impose a new Prayer Book; the lower classes of Cornwall and Devon were still attached to the Roman Catholic religion and again a Cornish army was formed in Bodmin which marched across the border into Devon to lay siege to Exeter. This became known as the Prayer Book Rebellion. Proposals to translate the Prayer Book into Cornish were suppressed and in total 4,000 people were killed in the rebellion; the Borough of Bodmin was one of the 178 municipal boroughs which under the auspices of the Municipal Corporations Act 1835 was mandated to create an electable council and a Police Watch Committee responsible for overseeing a police force in the town. The new system directly replaced the Parish Constables that had policed the borough since time immemorial and brought paid and accountable law enforcement for the first time.
Bodmin Borough Police was the municipal police force for the Borough of Bodmin from 1836 to 1866. The creation of the Cornwall Constabulary in 1857 put pressure on smaller municipal police forces to merge with the county; the two-man force of Bodmin came under threat immediately, but it would take until 1866 for the Mayor of Bodmin and the Chairman of the Police Watch Committee to agree on the terms of amalgamation. After a public enquiry, the force was disbanded in January 1866 and policing of the borough was deferred to the county from thereon; the song "Bodmin Town" was collected from the Cornishman William Nichols at Whitchurch, Devon, in 1891 by Sabine Baring-Gould who published a version in his A Garland of Country Song. The existing church building is