In radio and television, broadcast delay is an intentional delay when broadcasting live material. Such a delay may be short to prevent unacceptable content from being broadcast. Longer delays lasting several hours can be introduced so that the material is aired at a scheduled time to maximize viewership. A short delay is used to prevent profanity, nudity, or other undesirable material from making it to air, including more mundane problems such as technical malfunctions. In that instance, it is referred to as a'seven-second delay' or'profanity delay'. Longer delays, may be introduced to allow a show to air at the same time for the local market as is sometimes done with nationally broadcast programs in countries with multiple time zones. Considered as time shifting, achieved by a "tape delay," using a video tape recorder, modern digital video recorders, or other similar technology. Tape delay may refer to the process of broadcasting an event at a scheduled time because a scheduling conflict prevents a live telecast, or a broadcaster seeks to maximize ratings by airing an event in a certain timeslot.
That can be done because of time constraints of certain portions those that do not affect the outcome of the show, are edited out or the availability of hosts or other key production staff only at certain times of the day, it is applicable for cable television programs. Broadcasters across North America in the United States utilize a "west-coast delay" in which special events broadcast live in the Eastern or Central Time Zones are tape-delayed on the western half of the country, including California, which allows post-production staff to edit out any glitches that occurred during the live broadcast. In the U. S. however, this practice is now limited to live talent shows tape-delayed for West Coast viewers as major awards shows, beginning the 2010s, expanded to live global telecasts, including same-time continent-wide airings. Canada and Mexico, have multiple time zones but have televised all live events across both countries by the turn of the 21st century. International tape delays of live global events, intended by major television networks, dominated world television until the early 2010s.
For example, during the Sydney Olympics in 2000 and the Beijing Olympics in 2008, daytime events were occurring at early morning hours in the Americas and Europe but were aired in the afternoon and evening hours live in Asia and Oceania. That made some broadcasters show high-profile events twice, but others withheld the same event to be broadcast during prime time. Tape-delaying of those events would mean editing them down for time considerations, highlighting what the broadcaster feels are the most interesting portions of the event, or advertising. However, since many live events became available via social media in the late 2000s, tape delays have become irrelevant because of live television's resurgence as a broadcast format. Since the mid-2010s, several high-profile entertainment programs with huge live global audiences like the Academy Awards, Primetime Emmy Awards and Grammy Awards, yearly specials like the Miss Universe and Miss World pageants, major sporting events like the Olympic Games, FIFA World Cup and the National Football League's Super Bowl, air to totality live on both television and the internet all across the world's time zones in and out of their countries of origin, with mandated prime time rebroadcasts for regions that and relied on delayed telecasts on prime time among these otherwise live events.
The radio station WKAP in Allentown, introduced a tape delay system consisting of an external playback head, spaced far enough away from the record head to allow for a six-second delay. A system of rollers guided the tape over the playback head; this system was introduced in 1952. It is believed that this was the first time a telephone call-in show was broadcast with the telephone conversation "live" on the air; the FCC rules at the time prohibited the broadcasting of a live phone conversation. However, there was no rule prohibiting a taped playback of a phone call, provided that a "beep" tone was heard by the caller every 15 seconds so that the caller knew he was being recorded; the six-second delay constituted a "taped" phone conversation, thus complying with FCC regulations, that being a legal fiction. The broadcast profanity delay was invented by C. Frank Cordaro, Chief Engineer of WKAP during the 1950s and early 1960s. Ogden Davies, then-General Manager of WKAP, assigned Cordaro the task of developing a device whereby profanity during a "live" conversation could be deleted by the radio talk show host before it was broadcast.
This new device was to be used on the Open Mic radio talk show. The device Cordaro developed was the first tape delay system. WKAP was one of several stations owned by the Rahal brothers of West Virginia. First tested and used at WKAP, this tape system for broadcast profanity delay was installed at the other Rahal-owned radio stations. From the Rahal brothers' stations, the broadcast profanity delay went into common usage throughout the US. John Nebel, who began a pioneering radio talk show in New York City in 1954, was one of the early users of a t
Queueing theory is the mathematical study of waiting lines, or queues. A queueing model is constructed so that waiting time can be predicted. Queueing theory is considered a branch of operations research because the results are used when making business decisions about the resources needed to provide a service. Queueing theory has its origins in research by Agner Krarup Erlang when he created models to describe the Copenhagen telephone exchange; the ideas have since seen applications including telecommunication, traffic engineering, computing and in industrial engineering, in the design of factories, shops and hospitals, as well as in project management. The spelling "queueing" over "queuing" is encountered in the academic research field. In fact, one of the flagship journals of the profession is named Queueing Systems. Simple description and analogyA queue, or "queueing node" can be thought of as nearly a black box. Jobs or "customers" arrive to the queue wait some time, take some time being processed, depart from the queue.
The queueing node is not quite a pure black box, since there is some information we need to specify about the inside of the queuing node. The queue has one or more "servers" which can each be paired with an arriving job until it departs, after which that server will be free to be paired with another arriving job. An analogy used is that of the cashier at a supermarket. There are other models, but this is one encountered in the literature. Customers arrive, are processed by the cashier, depart; each cashier processes one customer at a time, hence this is a queueing node with only one server. A setting, where a customer will leave when in arriving he finds the cashier busy, is called a queue with no buffer. A setting with a waiting zone for up to n customers is called a queue with a buffer of size n. Birth-death processThe behaviour / state of a single queue can be described by a Birth-death process, which describe the arrivals and departures from the queue, along with the number of jobs in the system.
An arrival increases the number of jobs by 1, a departure decreases k by 1. Kendall's notationSingle queueing nodes are described using Kendall's notation in the form A/S/c where A describes the distribution of durations between each arrival to the queue, S the distribution of service times for jobs and c the number of servers at the node. For an example of the notation, the M/M/1 queue is a simple model where a single server serves jobs that arrive according to a Poisson process and have exponentially distributed service times. In an M/G/1 queue, the G stands for general and indicates an arbitrary probability distribution for inter-arrival times. In 1909, Agner Krarup Erlang, a Danish engineer who worked for the Copenhagen Telephone Exchange, published the first paper on what would now be called queueing theory, he modeled the number of telephone calls arriving at an exchange by a Poisson process and solved the M/D/1 queue in 1917 and M/D/k queueing model in 1920. In Kendall's notation: M stands for Markov or memoryless and means arrivals occur according to a Poisson process.
If there are more jobs at the node than there are servers jobs will queue and wait for service The M/G/1 queue was solved by Felix Pollaczek in 1930, a solution recast in probabilistic terms by Aleksandr Khinchin and now known as the Pollaczek–Khinchine formula. After the 1940s queueing theory became an area of research interest to mathematicians. In 1953 David George Kendall solved the GI/M/k queue and introduced the modern notation for queues, now known as Kendall's notation. In 1957 Pollaczek studied the GI/G/1 using an integral equation. John Kingman gave a formula for the mean waiting time in a G/G/1 queue: Kingman's formula. Leonard Kleinrock worked on the application of queueing theory to message switching and packet switching, his initial contribution to this field was his doctoral thesis at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1962, published in book form in 1964 in the field of digital message switching. His theoretical work after 1967 underpinned the use of packing switching in the ARPANET, a forerunner to the Internet.
The matrix geometric method and matrix analytic methods have allowed queues with phase-type distributed inter-arrival and service time distributions to be considered. Problems such as performance metrics for the M/G/k queue remain an open problem. Various scheduling policies can be used at queuing nodes: First in first out Also called first-come, first-served, this principle states that customers are served one at a time and that the customer, waiting the longest is served first. Last in first out This principle serves customers one at a time, but the customer with the shortest waiting time will be served first. Known as a stack. Processor sharing Service capacity is shared between customers. Priority Customers with high priority are served first. Priority queues can be of two types, preemptive. No work is lost in either model. Shortest job first The next job to be served is the one with the smallest sizePreemptive shortest job first The next job to be served is the one with the
General Services Administration
The General Services Administration, an independent agency of the United States government, was established in 1949 to help manage and support the basic functioning of federal agencies. GSA supplies products and communications for U. S. government offices, provides transportation and office space to federal employees, develops government-wide cost-minimizing policies and other management tasks. GSA employs about 12,000 federal workers and has an annual operating budget of $20.9 billion. GSA oversees $66 billion of procurement annually, it contributes to the management of about $500 billion in U. S. federal property, divided chiefly among 8,700 owned and leased buildings and a 215,000 vehicle motor pool. Among the real estate assets managed by GSA are the Ronald Reagan Building and International Trade Center in Washington, D. C. – the largest U. S. federal building after the Pentagon – and the Hart-Dole-Inouye Federal Center. GSA's business lines include the Federal Acquisition Service and the Public Buildings Service, as well as several Staff Offices including the Office of Government-wide Policy, the Office of Small Business Utilization, the Office of Mission Assurance.
As part of FAS, GSA's Technology Transformation Services helps federal agencies improve delivery of information and services to the public. Key initiatives include FedRAMP, Cloud.gov, the USAGov platform, Data.gov, Performance.gov, Challenge.gov. GSA is a member of the Procurement G6, an informal group leading the use of framework agreements and e-procurement instruments in public procurement. In 1947 President Harry Truman asked former President Herbert Hoover to lead what became known as the Hoover Commission to make recommendations to reorganize the operations of the federal government. One of the recommendations of the commission was the establishment of an "Office of the General Services." This proposed office would combine the responsibilities of the following organizations: U. S. Treasury Department's Bureau of Federal Supply U. S. Treasury Department's Office of Contract Settlement National Archives Establishment All functions of the Federal Works Agency, including the Public Buildings Administration and the Public Roads Administration War Assets AdministrationGSA became an independent agency on July 1, 1949, after the passage of the Federal Property and Administrative Services Act.
General Jess Larson, Administrator of the War Assets Administration, was named GSA's first Administrator. The first job awaiting Administrator Larson and the newly formed GSA was a complete renovation of the White House; the structure had fallen into such a state of disrepair by 1949 that one inspector of the time said the historic structure was standing "purely from habit." Larson explained the nature of the total renovation in depth by saying, "In order to make the White House structurally sound, it was necessary to dismantle, I mean dismantle, everything from the White House except the four walls, which were constructed of stone. Everything, except the four walls without a roof, was stripped down, that's where the work started." GSA worked with President Truman and First Lady Bess Truman to ensure that the new agency's first major project would be a success. GSA completed the renovation in 1952. In 1986 GSA headquarters, U. S. General Services Administration Building, located at Eighteenth and F Streets, NW, was listed on the National Register of Historic Places, at the time serving as Interior Department offices.
In 1960 GSA created the Federal Telecommunications System, a government-wide intercity telephone system. In 1962 the Ad Hoc Committee on Federal Office Space created a new building program to address obsolete office buildings in Washington, D. C. resulting in the construction of many of the offices that now line Independence Avenue. In 1970 the Nixon administration created the Consumer Product Information Coordinating Center, now part of USAGov. In 1974 the Federal Buildings Fund was initiated, allowing GSA to issue rent bills to federal agencies. In 1972 GSA established the Automated Data and Telecommunications Service, which became the Office of Information Resources Management. In 1973 GSA created the Office of Federal Management Policy. GSA's Office of Acquisition Policy centralized procurement policy in 1978. GSA was responsible for emergency preparedness and stockpiling strategic materials to be used in wartime until these functions were transferred to the newly-created Federal Emergency Management Agency in 1979.
In 1984 GSA introduced the federal government to the use of charge cards, known as the GMA SmartPay system. The National Archives and Records Administration was spun off into an independent agency in 1985; the same year, GSA began to provide governmentwide policy oversight and guidance for federal real property management as a result of an Executive Order signed by President Ronald Reagan. In 2003 the Federal Protective Service was moved to the Department of Homeland Security. In 2005 GSA reorganized to merge the Federal Supply Service and Federal Technology Service business lines into the Federal Acquisition Service. On April 3, 2009, President Barack Obama nominated Martha N. Johnson to serve as GSA Administrator. After a nine-month delay, the United States Senate confirmed her nomination on February 4, 2010. On April 2, 2012, Johnson resigned in the wake of a management-deficiency report that detailed improper payments for a 2010 "Western Regions" training conference put on by the Public Buildings Service in Las Vegas.
In July 1991 GSA contractors began the excavation of what is now the Ted Weiss Federal Building in New York City. The planning for that buildin
Telecommunication is the transmission of signs, messages, writings and sounds or information of any nature by wire, optical or other electromagnetic systems. Telecommunication occurs when the exchange of information between communication participants includes the use of technology, it is transmitted either electrically over physical media, such as cables, or via electromagnetic radiation. Such transmission paths are divided into communication channels which afford the advantages of multiplexing. Since the Latin term communicatio is considered the social process of information exchange, the term telecommunications is used in its plural form because it involves many different technologies. Early means of communicating over a distance included visual signals, such as beacons, smoke signals, semaphore telegraphs, signal flags, optical heliographs. Other examples of pre-modern long-distance communication included audio messages such as coded drumbeats, lung-blown horns, loud whistles. 20th- and 21st-century technologies for long-distance communication involve electrical and electromagnetic technologies, such as telegraph and teleprinter, radio, microwave transmission, fiber optics, communications satellites.
A revolution in wireless communication began in the first decade of the 20th century with the pioneering developments in radio communications by Guglielmo Marconi, who won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1909, other notable pioneering inventors and developers in the field of electrical and electronic telecommunications. These included Charles Wheatstone and Samuel Morse, Alexander Graham Bell, Edwin Armstrong and Lee de Forest, as well as Vladimir K. Zworykin, John Logie Baird and Philo Farnsworth; the word telecommunication is a compound of the Greek prefix tele, meaning distant, far off, or afar, the Latin communicare, meaning to share. Its modern use is adapted from the French, because its written use was recorded in 1904 by the French engineer and novelist Édouard Estaunié. Communication was first used as an English word in the late 14th century, it comes from Old French comunicacion, from Latin communicationem, noun of action from past participle stem of communicare "to share, divide out.
Homing pigeons have been used throughout history by different cultures. Pigeon post had Persian roots, was used by the Romans to aid their military. Frontinus said; the Greeks conveyed the names of the victors at the Olympic Games to various cities using homing pigeons. In the early 19th century, the Dutch government used the system in Sumatra, and in 1849, Paul Julius Reuter started a pigeon service to fly stock prices between Aachen and Brussels, a service that operated for a year until the gap in the telegraph link was closed. In the Middle Ages, chains of beacons were used on hilltops as a means of relaying a signal. Beacon chains suffered the drawback that they could only pass a single bit of information, so the meaning of the message such as "the enemy has been sighted" had to be agreed upon in advance. One notable instance of their use was during the Spanish Armada, when a beacon chain relayed a signal from Plymouth to London. In 1792, Claude Chappe, a French engineer, built the first fixed visual telegraphy system between Lille and Paris.
However semaphore suffered from the need for skilled operators and expensive towers at intervals of ten to thirty kilometres. As a result of competition from the electrical telegraph, the last commercial line was abandoned in 1880. On 25 July 1837 the first commercial electrical telegraph was demonstrated by English inventor Sir William Fothergill Cooke, English scientist Sir Charles Wheatstone. Both inventors viewed their device as "an improvement to the electromagnetic telegraph" not as a new device. Samuel Morse independently developed a version of the electrical telegraph that he unsuccessfully demonstrated on 2 September 1837, his code was an important advance over Wheatstone's signaling method. The first transatlantic telegraph cable was completed on 27 July 1866, allowing transatlantic telecommunication for the first time; the conventional telephone was invented independently by Alexander Bell and Elisha Gray in 1876. Antonio Meucci invented the first device that allowed the electrical transmission of voice over a line in 1849.
However Meucci's device was of little practical value because it relied upon the electrophonic effect and thus required users to place the receiver in their mouth to "hear" what was being said. The first commercial telephone services were set-up in 1878 and 1879 on both sides of the Atlantic in the cities of New Haven and London. Starting in 1894, Italian inventor Guglielmo Marconi began developing a wireless communication using the newly discovered phenomenon of radio waves, showing by 1901 that they could be transmitted across the Atlantic Ocean; this was the start of wireless telegraphy by radio. Voice and music had little early success. World War I accelerated the development of radio for military communications. After the war, commercial radio AM broadcasting began in the 1920s and became an important mass medium for entertainment and news. World War II again accelerated development of radio for the wartime purposes of aircraft and land communication, radio navigation and radar. Development of stereo FM broadcasting of radio
A router is a networking device that forwards data packets between computer networks. Routers perform the traffic directing functions on the Internet. Data sent through the internet, such as a web page or email, is in the form of data packets. A packet is forwarded from one router to another router through the networks that constitute an internetwork until it reaches its destination node. A router is connected to two or more data lines from different networks; when a data packet comes in on one of the lines, the router reads the network address information in the packet to determine the ultimate destination. Using information in its routing table or routing policy, it directs the packet to the next network on its journey; the most familiar type of routers are home and small office routers that forward IP packets between the home computers and the Internet. An example of a router would be the owner's cable or DSL router, which connects to the Internet through an Internet service provider. More sophisticated routers, such as enterprise routers, connect large business or ISP networks up to the powerful core routers that forward data at high speed along the optical fiber lines of the Internet backbone.
Though routers are dedicated hardware devices, software-based routers exist. When multiple routers are used in interconnected networks, the routers can exchange information about destination addresses using a routing protocol; each router builds up a routing table listing the preferred routes between any two systems on the interconnected networks. A router has two types of network element components organized onto separate planes: Control plane: A router maintains a routing table that lists which route should be used to forward a data packet, through which physical interface connection, it does this using internal preconfigured directives, called static routes, or by learning routes dynamically using a routing protocol. Static and dynamic routes are stored in the routing table; the control-plane logic strips non-essential directives from the table and builds a forwarding information base to be used by the forwarding plane. Forwarding plane: The router forwards data packets between incoming and outgoing interface connections.
It forwards them to the correct network type using information that the packet header contains matched to entries in the FIB supplied by the control plane. A router may have interfaces for different types of physical layer connections, such as copper cables, fiber optic, or wireless transmission, it can support different network layer transmission standards. Each network interface is used to enable data packets to be forwarded from one transmission system to another. Routers may be used to connect two or more logical groups of computer devices known as subnets, each with a different network prefix. Routers may provide connectivity within enterprises, between enterprises and the Internet, or between internet service providers' networks; the largest routers may be used in large enterprise networks. Smaller routers provide connectivity for typical home and office networks. All sizes of routers may be found inside enterprises; the most powerful routers are found in ISPs, academic and research facilities.
Large businesses may need more powerful routers to cope with ever-increasing demands of intranet data traffic. A hierarchical internetworking model for interconnecting routers in large networks is in common use. Access routers, including small office/home office models, are located at home and customer sites such as branch offices that do not need hierarchical routing of their own, they are optimized for low cost. Some SOHO routers are capable of running alternative free Linux-based firmware like Tomato, OpenWrt or DD-WRT. Distribution routers aggregate traffic from multiple access routers. Distribution routers are responsible for enforcing quality of service across a wide area network, so they may have considerable memory installed, multiple WAN interface connections, substantial onboard data processing routines, they may provide connectivity to groups of file servers or other external networks. In enterprises, a core router may provide a collapsed backbone interconnecting the distribution tier routers from multiple buildings of a campus, or large enterprise locations.
They lack some of the features of edge routers. External networks must be considered as part of the overall security strategy of the local network. A router may include a firewall, VPN handling, other security functions, or these may be handled by separate devices. Routers commonly perform network address translation which restricts connections initiated from external connections but is not recognised as a security feature by all experts.. Some experts argue that open source routers are more secure and reliable than closed source routers because open source routers allow mistakes to be found and corrected. Routers are often distinguished on the basis of the network in which they operate. A router in a local area network of a single organisation is called an interior router. A router, operated in the Internet backbone is described as exterior router. While a router that connects a LAN with the Internet or a wide area network is called a border router, or gateway router. Routers intended for ISP and major enterprise connectivity exchange routing information using the Border Gateway Protocol.
RFC 4098 standard defines the types of BGP routers according to their functions: Edge router: Also called a provider edge router, is placed at the edge of an ISP network. The router uses External BGP to EBGP
In online gaming, lag is a noticeable delay between the action of players and the reaction of the server supporting the game. The tolerance for lag depends on the type of game. For instance, a strategy game or a turn-based game with a low pace may have a high threshold or be unaffected by high delays, whereas a twitch gameplay game such as a first-person shooter with a higher pace may require lower delay to be able to provide satisfying gameplay. However, the specific characteristics of the game matter. For example, fast chess is a turn-based game, fast action and may not tolerate high lag; some twitch games can be designed such that only events that don't impact the outcome of the game introduce lag, allowing for fast local response most of the time. Ping refers to the network latency between a player's client and the game server as measured with the ping utility or equivalent. Ping is reported quantitatively as an average time in milliseconds; the lower one's ping is, the less lag the player will experience.
High ping and low ping are used terms in online gaming, where high ping refers to a ping that causes a severe amount of lag. This usage is a gaming cultural colloquialism and is not found or used in professional computer networking circles. In games where timing is key, such as first-person shooter and real-time strategy games, a low ping is always desirable, as a low ping means smoother gameplay by allowing faster updates of game data between the players' clients and game server. High latency can cause lag. Game servers may disconnect a client if the latency is too high and may pose a detriment to other players' gameplay. Client software will mandate disconnection if the latency is too high. High ping may cause servers to crash due to instability. In some first-person shooter games, a high ping may cause the player to unintentionally gain unfair advantages, such as disappearing from one location and instantaneously reappearing in another, simulating the effect of teleportation, thus making it hard for other players to judge their character's position and subsequently making the player much more difficult to target.
To counter this, many game servers automatically kick players with a ping higher than average. Conversely, a high ping can make it difficult for the player to play the game due to negative effects occurring, making it difficult for the player to track other players and move their character. Rather than using the traditional ICMP echo request and reply network packets to determine ping times, video game programmers build their own latency detection into existing game packets instead; some factors that might affect ping include: communication protocol used, Internet throughput, the quality of a user's Internet service provider and the configuration of firewalls. Ping is affected by geographical location. For instance, if someone is in India, playing on a server located in the United States, the distance between the two is greater than it would be for players located within the US, therefore it takes longer for data to be transmitted. However, the amount of packet-switching and network hardware in between the two computers is more significant.
For instance, wireless network interface cards must modulate digital signals into radio signals, more costly than the time it takes an electrical signal to traverse a typical span of cable. As such, lower ping can result in faster internet upload rates. While a single-player game maintains the main game state on the local machine, an online game requires it to be maintained on a central server in order to avoid inconsistencies between individual clients; as such, the client has no direct control over the central game state and may only send change requests to the server, can only update the local game state by receiving updates from the server. This need to communicate causes a delay between the clients and the server, is the fundamental cause behind lag. While there may be numerous underlying reasons for why a player experiences lag, they can be summarized as insufficient hardware in either the client or the server, or a poor connection between the client and server. Hardware related issues cause lag due to the fundamental structure of the game architecture.
Games consist of a looped sequence of states, or "frames". During each frame, the game performs necessary calculations; when all processing is finished, the game will update the game state and produce an output, such as a new image on the screen and/or a packet to be sent to the server. The frequency at which frames are generated is referred to as the frame rate; as the central game state is located on the server, the updated information must be sent from the client to the server in order to take effect. In addition, the client must receive the necessary information from the server in order to update the state. Generating packets to send to the server and processing the received packets can only be done as as the client is able to update its local state. Although packets could theoretically be generated and sent faster than this, it would only result in sending redundant data if the game state cannot be updated between each packet. A low frame rate would therefore make the game less responsive to updates and may force it to skip outdated data.
Conversely, the same holds true for the server. The frame rate of the server determines how it can process data from clients and send updates; this type of problem is difficult to compensate for. Apart
Computer engineering is a branch of engineering that integrates several fields of computer science and electronic engineering required to develop computer hardware and software. Computer engineers have training in electronic engineering, software design, hardware-software integration instead of only software engineering or electronic engineering. Computer engineers are involved in many hardware and software aspects of computing, from the design of individual microcontrollers, personal computers, supercomputers, to circuit design; this field of engineering not only focuses on how computer systems themselves work but how they integrate into the larger picture. Usual tasks involving computer engineers include writing software and firmware for embedded microcontrollers, designing VLSI chips, designing analog sensors, designing mixed signal circuit boards, designing operating systems. Computer engineers are suited for robotics research, which relies on using digital systems to control and monitor electrical systems like motors and sensors.
In many institutions of higher learning, computer engineering students are allowed to choose areas of in-depth study in their junior and senior year because the full breadth of knowledge used in the design and application of computers is beyond the scope of an undergraduate degree. Other institutions may require engineering students to complete one or two years of general engineering before declaring computer engineering as their primary focus. Computer engineering began in 1939 when John Vincent Atanasoff and Clifford Berry began developing the world's first electronic digital computer through physics and electrical engineering. John Vincent Atanasoff was once a physics and mathematics teacher for Iowa State University and Clifford Berry a former graduate under electrical engineering and physics. Together, they created the Atanasoff-Berry computer known as the ABC which took 5 years to complete. While the original ABC was dismantled and discarded in the 1940s a tribute was made to the late inventors, a replica of the ABC was made in 1997 where it took a team of researchers and engineers four years and $350,000 to build.
The first computer engineering degree program in the United States was established in 1971 at Case Western Reserve University in Cleveland, Ohio. As of 2015, there were 250 ABET-accredited computer engineering programs in the U. S. In Europe, accreditation of computer engineering schools is done by a variety of agencies part of the EQANIE network. Due to increasing job requirements for engineers who can concurrently design hardware, software and manage all forms of computer systems used in industry, some tertiary institutions around the world offer a bachelor's degree called computer engineering. Both computer engineering and electronic engineering programs include analog and digital circuit design in their curriculum; as with most engineering disciplines, having a sound knowledge of mathematics and science is necessary for computer engineers. Computer engineering is referred to as computer engineering at some universities. Most entry-level computer engineering jobs require at least a bachelor's degree in computer engineering.
One must learn an array of mathematics such as calculus and trigonometry and some computer science classes. Sometimes a degree in electronic engineering is accepted, due to the similarity of the two fields; because hardware engineers work with computer software systems, a strong background in computer programming is necessary. According to BLS, "a computer engineering major is similar to electrical engineering but with some computer science courses added to the curriculum"; some large firms or specialized jobs require a master's degree. It is important for computer engineers to keep up with rapid advances in technology. Therefore, many continue learning throughout their careers; this can be helpful when it comes to learning new skills or improving existing ones. For example, as the relative cost of fixing a bug increases the further along it is in the software development cycle, there can be greater cost savings attributed to developing and testing for quality code as soon as possible in the process, before release.
There are two major specialties in computer engineering: software. According to the BLS, Job Outlook employment for computer hardware engineers, the expected ten-year growth from 2014 to 2024 for computer hardware engineering was an estimated 3% and there was a total of 77,700 jobs that same year." And is down from 7% for the 2012 to 2022 BLS estimate and is further down from 9% in the BLS 2010 to 2020 estimate." Today, computer hardware is somehow equal to electronic and computer engineering and has divided into many subcategories, the most significant of them is Embedded system design. According to the U. S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, "computer applications software engineers and computer systems software engineers are projected to be among the faster than average growing occupations" The expected ten-year growth as of 2014 for computer software engineering was an estimated seventeen percent and there was a total of 1,114,000 jobs that same year; this is down from the 2012 to 2022 BLS estimate of 22% for software developers.
And, further down from the 30% 2010 to 2020 BLS estimate. In addition, growing concerns over cybersecurity add up to put computer software engineering high above the average rate of increase for all fields. However, some of the work will be outsourced in foreign countries. Due to this, job growth will not be as fast as during the last