Philippine Postal Corporation
The Philippine Postal Corporation, abbreviated as PHLPost, is a government-owned and controlled corporation responsible for providing postal services in the Philippines. The Philippine Postal Corporation has in excess of 8,000 employees and runs more than 1,355 post offices nationwide. PHLPost is based in the Philippines' primary post office, is headed by Postmaster General and CEO Mr. Joel L. Otarra; the historic Manila Central Post Office is situated at the Plaza Liwasang Bonifacio and overlooks the Pasig River. Its policy-making body is the board of directors, headed by Mr. Norman Fulgencio; the board of directors is composed of seven members, including the postmaster general, who serves as the chief executive officer. An attached agency of the Department of Transportation and Communications and the Commission on Information and Communication Technology, the Philippine Postal Corporation is under the direct jurisdiction of the Office of the President of the Philippines; the Overseas Filipino Bank the Philippine Postal Savings Bank, is one of three government-owned banks in the Philippines, organized under PHLpost.
Now it is a separate company. The Philippine postal system has a history spanning over 250 years. In 1767, the first post office in the Philippines was established in the city of Manila, organized under a new postal district of Spain. At first, the postal office served to courier government and church documents. In 1779, the postal district encompassed the entire Philippine archipelago; the postal district was reestablished on 5 December 1837. A year Manila became known as a leading center of postal services within Asia. Spain joined the Universal Postal Union in 1875, announced in the Philippines two years later. By post offices were set up not only in Manila but in many major towns and cities in the provinces. During the Philippine Revolution, President Emilio Aguinaldo ordered the establishment of a postal service to provide postal services to Filipinos, it was organized as a bureau under the Department of Trade on 5 September 1902, by virtue of Act No. 426, passed by the Philippine Commission.
The Philippines joined the Universal Postal Union, this time as a sovereign entity, on 1 January 1922. While the Manila Central Post Office building, the center of Philippine postal services and the headquarters of the then-Bureau of Posts, was completed in its present-day Neo-Classical style in 1926, it was destroyed during World War II. After the war, the Central Post Office was rebuilt in 1946. With the overhaul of the Philippine bureaucracy in 1987, the Bureau of Posts was renamed the Postal Service Office by Executive Order No. 125, issued by President Corazon Aquino on 13 April 1987. It was that order that placed the PSO under the DOTC. On 2 April 1992, by Republic Act No. 7354 the Postal Service Office became the present-day PHLPost. The law granted the Philippines Postal Corporation, the authority to reopen the Philippine Postal Savings Bank, which occurred on 21 July 1994 by President Fidel V. Ramos. Mr. Joel Otarra, a former member of the board of directors in 2011 was appointed as the new postmaster general and CEO of the Philippine Postal Corporation on December 2016 by President Rodrigo Roa Duterte.
Commission on Information and Communications Technology List of Postal Codes in the Philippines Postal addresses in the Philippines Postage stamps and postal history of the Philippines Official website Members Countries of Universal Postal Union
Quezon City Hall
The Quezon City Hall is a government building which houses the office of the Mayor of Quezon City located along the Elliptical Road. The Quezon City Council is housed within the adjacent Legislative Wing; the first location of the city hall was at the corner of Aurora Boulevard and EDSA, beside Cubao Elementary School. It was transferred within the grounds now occupied by the Ramon Magsaysay High School sometime in the 1950s during the administration of Acting Mayor Ponciano Bernardo, an engineer appointed to the political post by President Manuel Roxas. In the 1949 master plan for Quezon City, it was planned that the Quezon City Hall would be built at the site occupied by the East Avenue Medical Center; the present city hall was constructed from 1964 to 1972 and was completed under the watch of Mayor Norberto Amoranto
Quezon City is the most populous and a urbanized city in the Philippines. It was founded by and named after Manuel L. Quezon, the 2nd President of the Philippines, to replace Manila as the national capital; the city was proclaimed as such in 1948. However, since all government buildings are still in Manila, many functions of national government remained there. Quezon City held the status as the official capital until 1976 when a presidential decree was issued to designate Manila as the capital and Metro Manila as the seat of government, it is the largest city in terms of population and land area in Metro Manila, the National Capital Region of the Philippines. Quezon City is not located in and should not be confused with Quezon Province, named after the president. Quezon City now hosts a number of government offices, the most important of which are the Batasang Pambansa Complex, the Quezon City Reception House. Quezon City serves as home to the University of the Philippines Diliman—the national university—and Ateneo de Manila University.
The Quezon Memorial Circle is a national shrine located in Quezon City. The park is an ellipse bounded by the Elliptical Road, its main feature is a mausoleum containing the remains of President Quezon and his wife, First Lady Aurora Quezon. Before Quezon City was created, its land was settled by the small individual towns of San Francisco del Monte and Balintawak. On August 23, 1896, the Katipunan, led by its Supremo Andrés Bonifacio, launched the Philippine Revolution against the Spanish Empire at the house of Melchora Aquino in Pugad Lawin. In the early 20th century, President Manuel L. Quezon dreamt of a city that would become the future capital of the country to replace Manila, it is believed that his earlier trip in Mexico influenced his vision. In 1938, President Quezon created the People's Homesite Corporation and purchased 15.29 km2 from the vast Diliman Estate of the Tuason family. The National Assembly of the Philippines passed Commonwealth Act 502, known as the Charter of Quezon City proposed as "Balintawak City.
President Quezon allowed the bill to lapse into law without his signature on October 12, 1939, thus establishing Quezon City. When Quezon City was created in 1939, the following barrios or sitios: Balingasa, Galas, Kangkong, La Loma, Masambong, San Isidro, San Jose and Tatalon from Caloocan. Instead of opposing them, the six towns willingly gave land to Quezon City in the belief that it would benefit the country's new capital. However, in 1941, the area within Wack Wack Golf and Country Club was reverted to Mandaluyong, Barangka and Jesus de la Peña to Marikina. In addition, the land of Camp Crame was part of San Juan. On 1 January 1942, President Quezon issued an executive order from the tunnel of Corregidor designating Jorge Vargas Mayor of Greater Manila, a new political entity comprising, aside from Manila proper, Quezon City, Pasay, San Juan, Mandaluyong and Parañaque. Greater Manila would be expanded to include Las Piñas, Navotas. Imperial Japanese forces occupied Quezon City in 1942 during World War II.
In October of that year, the Japanese authorities divided the City of Greater Manila into twelve districts, two of which were formed from Quezon City: Balintawak which consisted of San Francisco del Monte, La Loma. In 1945, combined Filipino and American troops under the United States Army, Philippine Commonwealth Army, Philippine Constabulary, with help from recognized guerrilla units and recaptured Quezon City in a few months, expelling Imperial Japanese forces. Heavy fighting occurred near Novaliches, which at that time was in Rizal Province, New Manila, a strongpoint. Toward the end of the Battle of Manila, Pres. Sergio Osmeña dissolved the Greater Manila Complex, which included the Japanese-created districts of Balintawak and Diliman, formed from the prewar Quezon City. After the war, Republic Act No. 333, which redefined the Caloocan–Quezon City boundary, was signed by President Elpidio Quirino on July 17, 1948, declaring Quezon City to be the national capital, specifying the city's area to be 156.60 km2.
The barrios of Baesa, Banlat, Novaliches Proper, Pasong Putik, Pasong Tamo, Pugad Lawin, San Bartolome and Talipapa, which belonged to Novaliches and had a combined area of about 8,100 hectares, were taken from Caloocan and ceded to Quezon City. This caused the territorial division of Caloocan into two non-contiguous parts, the South section being the more urbanized part, the North half being sub-rural. On June 16, 1950, the Quezon City Charter was revised by Republic Act No. 537, changing the city's boundaries to an area of 153.59 km2. Six years after on Ju
National Library of the Philippines
The National Library of the Philippines is the official national library of the Philippines. The complex is located in Ermita on a portion of Rizal Park facing T. M. Kalaw Avenue, neighboring culturally significant buildings such as the Museum of Philippine Political History and the National Historical Commission. Like its neighbors, it is under the jurisdiction of the National Commission for Culture and the Arts; the library is notable for being the home of the original copies of the defining works of José Rizal: Noli Me Tangere, El Filibusterismo and Mi último adiós. The National Library of the Philippines can trace its history to the establishment of the Museo-Biblioteca de Filipinas, established by a royal order of the Spanish government on August 12, 1887, it opened on October 24, 1891 at the Intendencia in Intramuros home of the Manila Mint, with around 100 volumes and with both Julian Romero and Benito Perdiguero as director and archivist-librarian, respectively. Romero resigned in 1893 and was replaced by Tomas Torres of the Escuela de Artes y Ofícios in Bacolor, who in turn was replaced by Don Pedro A. Paterno on March 31, 1894.
By that time, the library had moved to a site in Quiapo near the present site of the Masjid Al-Dahab. On, Paterno published the first issue of the Boletin del Museo-Biblioteca de Filipinas on January 15, 1895; the Museo-Biblioteca was abolished upon the onset of the American colonization of the Philippines. By the time of its abolition, the library held around 1,000 volumes and averaged around 25–30 visitors a day; the entire collection would be transferred at Paterno's expense to his own private library, of which some books would form the basis for the Filipiniana collection of subsequent incarnations of the National Library. As the Philippine–American War died down and peace returned to the Philippines, Americans who had come to settle in the islands saw the need for a wholesome recreational outlet. Recognizing this need, Mrs. Charles Greenleaf and several other American women organized the American Circulating Library, dedicated in memory of American soldiers who died in the Philippine–American War.
The ACL opened on March 9, 1900 with 1,000 volumes donated by the Red Cross Society of California and other American organizations. By 1901, the ACL's collection grew to 10,000 volumes, consisting of American works of fiction and newspapers; the rapid expansion of the library proved to be such a strain on the resources of the American Circulating Library Association of Manila, the organization running the ACL, that it was decided that the library's entire collection should be donated to the government. The Philippine Commission formalized the acceptance of the ACL's collections on March 5, 1901 through Act No. 96, today observed as the birthdate of both the National Library and the Philippine public library system. With the ACL now a Philippine government institution, a board of trustees and three personnel, led by librarian Nelly Y. Egbert, were appointed by the colonial government. At the same time, the library moved to Rosario Street in Binondo before its expansion warranted its move up the street to the Hotel de Oriente on Plaza Calderón de la Barca in 1904.
It was noted in the 1905 annual report of the Department of Public Instruction that the new location "was not spacious but at least it was comfortable and accessible by tramway from every part of the city". At the same time, the ACL, acting on its mandate to make its collections available to American servicemen stationed in the Philippines, established five traveling libraries, serving various, if not unusual, clientele across the islands. In November 1905, Act No. 1407 placed the library under the Bureau of Education and subsequently moved to its headquarters at the corner of Cabildo and Recoletos Streets in Intramuros, on which today the offices of the Manila Bulletin stand. On June 2, 1908, Act No. 1849 was passed, mandating the consolidation of all government libraries in the Philippines into the ACL. Subsequently, Act No. 1935 was passed in 1909, renaming the ACL the Philippine Library and turning it into an autonomous body governed by a five-member Library Board. At the same time, the Act mandated the division of the library into four divisions: the law, scientific and Filipiniana divisions.
The newly renamed library was headed by James Alexander Robertson, an American scholar who, in collaboration with Emma Helen Blair, wrote The Philippine Islands, 1493–1898, recognized today as both the first director of the modern National Library and the father of Philippine library science. Robertson would abolish the library's subscription fees for books in general circulation in 1914. Act No. 2572, passed on January 31, 1916, merged the Philippine Library with two other government institutions: the Division of Archives, Patents and Trademarks and the Law Library of the Philippine Assembly, forming the Philippine Library and Museum. In addition, the Philippine Library and Museum was placed under the supervision of the Department of Justice. However, on December 7, 1928, Act No. 3477 was passed, splitting the Philippine Library and Museum into the National Library and the National Museum. The newly formed National Library was placed under the supervision of the Phili
An academic or scholarly journal is a periodical publication in which scholarship relating to a particular academic discipline is published. Academic journals serve as permanent and transparent forums for the presentation and discussion of research, they are peer-reviewed or refereed. Content takes the form of articles presenting original research, review articles, book reviews; the purpose of an academic journal, according to Henry Oldenburg, is to give researchers a venue to "impart their knowledge to one another, contribute what they can to the Grand design of improving natural knowledge, perfecting all Philosophical Arts, Sciences."The term academic journal applies to scholarly publications in all fields. Scientific journals and journals of the quantitative social sciences vary in form and function from journals of the humanities and qualitative social sciences; the first academic journal was Journal des sçavans, followed soon after by Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, Mémoires de l'Académie des Sciences.
The first peer-reviewed journal was Medical Essays and Observations. The idea of a published journal with the purpose of " people know what is happening in the Republic of Letters" was first conceived by Eudes de Mazerai in 1663. A publication titled Journal littéraire général was supposed to be published to fulfill that goal, but never was. Humanist scholar Denis de Sallo and printer Jean Cusson took Mazerai's idea, obtained a royal privilege from King Louis XIV on 8 August 1664 to establish the Journal des sçavans; the journal's first issue was published on 5 January 1665. It was aimed at people of letters, had four main objectives: review newly published major European books, publish the obituaries of famous people, report on discoveries in arts and science, report on the proceedings and censures of both secular and ecclesiastical courts, as well as those of Universities both in France and outside. Soon after, the Royal Society established Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society in March 1665, the Académie des Sciences established the Mémoires de l'Académie des Sciences in 1666, which more focused on scientific communications.
By the end of the 18th century, nearly 500 such periodical had been published, the vast majority coming from Germany and England. Several of those publications however, in particular the German journals, tended to be short lived. A. J. Meadows has estimated the proliferation of journal to reach 10,000 journals in 1950, 71,000 in 1987. However, Michael Mabe warns that the estimates will vary depending on the definition of what counts as a scholarly publication, but that the growth rate has been "remarkably consistent over time", with an average rates of 3.46% per year from 1800 to 2003. In 1733, Medical Essays and Observations was established by the Medical Society of Edinburgh as the first peer-reviewed journal. Peer review was introduced as an attempt to increase the pertinence of submissions. Other important events in the history of academic journals include the establishment of Nature and Science, the establishment of Postmodern Culture in 1990 as the first online-only journal, the foundation of arXiv in 1991 for the dissemination of preprints to be discussed prior to publication in a journal, the establishment of PLOS One in 2006 as the first megajournal.
There are two kinds of article or paper submissions in academia: solicited, where an individual has been invited to submit work either through direct contact or through a general submissions call, unsolicited, where an individual submits a work for potential publication without directly being asked to do so. Upon receipt of a submitted article, editors at the journal determine whether to reject the submission outright or begin the process of peer review. In the latter case, the submission becomes subject to review by outside scholars of the editor's choosing who remain anonymous; the number of these peer reviewers varies according to each journal's editorial practice – no fewer than two, though sometimes three or more, experts in the subject matter of the article produce reports upon the content and other factors, which inform the editors' publication decisions. Though these reports are confidential, some journals and publishers practice public peer review; the editors either choose to reject the article, ask for a revision and resubmission, or accept the article for publication.
Accepted articles are subjected to further editing by journal editorial staff before they appear in print. The peer review can take from several weeks to several months. Review articles called "reviews of progress," are checks on the research published in journals; some journals are devoted to review articles, some contain a few in each issue, others do not publish review articles. Such reviews cover the research from the preceding year, some for longer or shorter terms; some journals are enumerative. Yet others are evaluative; some journals are published in series, each covering a complete subject field year, or covering specific fields through several years. Unlike original research article
National Commission for Culture and the Arts
The National Commission for Culture and the Arts of the Philippines, is the official government agency for culture in the Philippines. It is the overall policy making body and grants giving agency for the preservation and promotion of Philippine arts and culture; the successful overthrow of the dictatorship in 1986 through the People Power Revolution inspired the different sectors of society to rally behind the new government towards the restoration of democracy. In March 12, 1986, the Alliance of Artists for the Creation of a Ministry of Culture drafted and adopted a proposal for the establishment of a Ministry of Culture; the group cited the inability of the Ministry of Education and Sports to devote time and attention to cultural planning due to the gargantuan task of addressing the problems of the educational system. President Corazon Aquino responded by issuing Executive Order 118 on January 30, 1987 which established the Presidential Commission on Culture and the Arts, it was a diminutive agency compared to the proposal of AACMC but the said order was cognizant of the existence of specialized cultural agencies and that these should only be placed under the umbrella of one agency to coordinate their efforts.
In 1992, under the new constitution, Congress enacted Republic Act No. 7356 which institutionalized the establishment of the National Commission for Culture and the Arts replacing PCCA. This said law mandated the formulation of national cultural policies and programs according to the following principles: a) pluralistic, fostering deep respect for the cultural identity of each locality, region or ethno-linguistic locality, as well as elements assimilated from other cultures through the natural process of acculturation; the establishment of the NCCA prompted the cultural agencies that were attached to it, by virtue of the same law, to review its existing mandates and programs to harmonize the delivery of cultural services. CCP, for its part, transformed itself to become the national coordinating center for the performing arts, it sought to remove its “elitist” image by strengthening its outreach programs and developing partnerships with local arts councils. As governed by RA 7356, The National Commission for Culture and the Arts is governed by a Board of Commissioners composed of 15 members, namely: Hon. Virgilio S. Almario, NCCA Chairman Hon. Francis Joseph G. Escudero Hon. Ramon Durano VI Hon. Alberto T. Muyot, Commissioner Hon. Falconi V. Millar.
Undersecretary, Department of Tourism Hon. Rene R. Escalante, Hon. Jeremy R. Barns, Commissioner Hon. Cesar Gilbert Q. Adriano, Commissioner Hon. Victorino Mapa Manalo, Commissioner Hon. Aresenio J. Lizaso, Commissioner Hon. Harold Ll. Rentoria, OSA, Commissioner Hon. Teddy Co, Commissioner Hon. Orlando B. Magno, Commissioner Hon. Alphonsus Tesoro, Commissioner Hon. Rico S. Pableo, Jr, it is responsible for the annual celebration of: National Arts Month UNESCO-ITI World Theatre Week National Heritage Month National Dance Week National Literature Month Linggo ng Musikang Pilipino Indigenous Peoples Month Museums and Galleries Month Library and Information Services Month The NCCA logo is the Alab ng Haraya, which symbolizes the spring of Filipino art and culture. It is composed of two basic elements -- the censer; the fire is a stylized character "ka" of the Philippine indigenous script Baybayin, that stands for kadakilaan or greatness. The fire represents the highest level of imagination and emanates from a three-tiered censer.
The three tiers stand for organization, economic support, an orientation rooted on a thorough grasp of tradition and history, which the NCCA provides. It is done in gold to symbolize the immense wealth of Philippine culture; the agung is a knobbed metal gong of the Philippines used in various communal rituals. Suspended in the air by rope or metal chains, the musical instrument is employed by some indigenous groups as a means to announce community events, as an indicator of the passage of time. Agung, the official newsletter of the NCCA is published on a bimonthly basis. In celebration of the 150th birth ann
Metropolitan Manila is the seat of government and one of the three defined metropolitan areas of the Philippines. It is known as the National Capital Region, is known as Metro Manila or Manila, it is made up of 16 cities namely: the City of Manila, Quezon City, Las Piñas, Malabon, Marikina, Navotas, Parañaque, Pasig, San Juan and Valenzuela, as well as the municipality of Pateros. The region encompasses an area of 619.57 km2 and has a population of 12,877,253 as of 2015. It is the most densely populated region of the Philippines, it is the 9th most populous metropolitan area in Asia and the 5th most populous urban area in the world. The region is the center of culture, economy and government of the Philippines. Designated as a global power city, NCR exerts a significant impact on commerce, media, fashion, technology and entertainment, both locally and internationally, it is the home to all the consulates and embassies in the Philippines, thereby making it an important center for international diplomacy in the country.
Its economic power makes the region the country's premier center for commerce. The region accounts for 37.2% of the gross domestic product of the Philippines. The region was established in 1975 through Presidential Decree No. 824 in response to the needs to sustain the growing population and for the creation for the center of political power and the seat of the Government of the Philippines. The Province of Manila, the predecessor entity of the region, is one of the first eight provinces that revolted against the Spanish colonial rule in the Philippines at the end of the 19th century. Manila's role in the Revolution is honored in the Flag of the Philippines, where the sun's eight rays symbolize the eight revolutionary provinces. A historical province known as Manila encompassed territories once held by various pre-Hispanic polities; this included the well-known Pasig River delta settlements of Maynila and Tondo, but smaller settlements such as those at Tambobong, Taguig and the fortified polity of Cainta.
It became the capital of the colonial Philippines, with Manila serving as the center of colonial power. In 1898, it included the City of 23 other municipalities. Mariquina served as the capital from 1898–1899, just as when the sovereignty of the Philippines was transferred to the United States; the province was dissolved and most of it was incorporated to the newly created province of Rizal in 1901. Since the Spanish colonial period, Manila was considered as one of the original global cities; the Manila galleon was the first known commercially traveled trade route that sailed the Pacific for 250 years, bringing to Spain their cargoes of luxury goods, economic benefits, cultural exchange. During the American period, at the time of the Philippine Commonwealth, American architect and urban designer Daniel Burnham was commissioned to create the grand Plan of Manila to be approved by the Philippine Government; the creation of Manila in 1901 is composed of the places and parishes of Binondo, Intramuros, Manila, Quiapo, San Andrés Bukid, San Fernando de Dilao, San Miguel, San Nicolas, Santa Ana de Sapa, Santa Cruz, Santa Mesa and Tondo.
Meanwhile, the towns and parishes of Caloocan, Las Piñas, Pasig, Parañaque, Navotas, San Juan del Monte, San Pedro de Macati, San Felipe Neri and the Taguig-Pateros area were incorporated into the province of Rizal. Pasig serves as its provincial capital. In 1939, President Quezon established Quezon City with a goal to replace Manila as the capital city of the country. A masterplan for Quezon City was completed; the establishment of Quezon City meant the demise of the grand Burnham Plan of Manila, with funds being diverted for the establishment of the new capital. World War II further resulted in the loss most of the developments in the Burnham Plan, but more the loss of more than 100,000 lives at the Battle of Manila in 1945. On, Quezon City was declared as the national capital in 1948; the title was re-designated back to Manila in 1976 through Presidential Decree No. 940 owing to its historical significance as the uninterrupted seat of government of the Philippines since the Spanish colonial period.
Presidential Decree No. 940 states that Manila has always been to the Filipino people and in the eyes of the world, the premier city of the Philippines being the center of trade, commerce and culture. During the war, President Manuel L. Quezon created the City of Greater Manila as an emergency measure, merging the cities of Manila and Quezon City, along with the municipalities of Caloocan, Las Piñas, Pasig, Parañaque, Navotas, San Juan del Monte, San Pedro de Macati, San Felipe Neri and the Taguig-Pateros area. Jorge Vargas was appointed as its mayor. Mayors in the cities and municipalities included in the City of Greater Manila served as vice mayors in their town; this was in order to ensure Vargas, Quezon's principal lieutenant for administrative matters, would have a position of authority recognized under international military law. The City of Greater Manila was abolished by the Japanese with the formation of the Philippine Executive Commission to govern the occupied regions of the country.
The City of Greater Manila served as a model for the present-day Metro Manila and the administrative functions of the Governor of Metro Manila, established during the Marcos administration. On November 7, 1975, Metro Manila was formally established th