Departments of France
In the administrative divisions of France, the department is one of the three levels of government below the national level, between the administrative regions and the commune. Ninety-six departments are in metropolitan France, five are overseas departments, which are classified as regions. Departments are further subdivided into 334 arrondissements, themselves divided into cantons; each department is administered by an elected body called a departmental council. From 1800 to April 2015, these were called general councils; each council has a president. Their main areas of responsibility include the management of a number of social and welfare allowances, of junior high school buildings and technical staff, local roads and school and rural buses, a contribution to municipal infrastructures. Local services of the state administration are traditionally organised at departmental level, where the prefect represents the government; the departments were created in 1790 as a rational replacement of Ancien Régime provinces with a view to strengthen national unity.
All of them were named after physical geographical features, rather than after historical or cultural territories which could have their own loyalties. The division of France into departments was a project identified with the French revolutionary leader the Abbé Sieyès, although it had been discussed and written about by many politicians and thinkers; the earliest known suggestion of it is from 1764 in the writings of d'Argenson. They have inspired similar divisions in some of them former French colonies. Most French departments are assigned a two-digit number, the "Official Geographical Code", allocated by the Institut national de la statistique et des études économiques. Overseas departments have a three-digit number; the number is used, for example, in the postal code, was until used for all vehicle registration plates. While residents use the numbers to refer to their own department or a neighbouring one, more distant departments are referred to by their names, as few people know the numbers of all the departments.
For example, inhabitants of Loiret might refer to their department as "the 45". In 2014, President François Hollande proposed to abolish departmental councils by 2020, which would have maintained the departments as administrative divisions, to transfer their powers to other levels of governance; this reform project has since been abandoned. The first French territorial departments were proposed in 1665 by Marc-René d'Argenson to serve as administrative areas purely for the Ponts et Chaussées infrastructure administration. Before the French Revolution, France gained territory through the annexation of a mosaic of independent entities. By the close of the Ancien Régime, it was organised into provinces. During the period of the Revolution, these were dissolved in order to weaken old loyalties; the modern departments, as all-purpose units of the government, were created on 4 March 1790 by the National Constituent Assembly to replace the provinces with what the Assembly deemed a more rational structure.
Their boundaries served two purposes: Boundaries were chosen to break up France's historical regions in an attempt to erase cultural differences and build a more homogeneous nation. Boundaries were set so that every settlement in the country was within a day's ride of the capital of a department; this was a security measure, intended to keep the entire national territory under close control. This measure was directly inspired by the Great Terror, during which the government had lost control of many rural areas far from any centre of government; the old nomenclature was avoided in naming the new departments. Most were named after other physical features. Paris was in the department of Seine. Savoy became the department of Mont-Blanc; the number of departments 83, had been increased to 130 by 1809 with the territorial gains of the Republic and of the First French Empire. Following Napoleon's defeats in 1814–1815, the Congress of Vienna returned France to its pre-war size and the number of departments was reduced to 86.
In 1860, France acquired the County of Nice and Savoy, which led to the creation of three new departments. Two were added from the new Savoyard territory, while the department of Alpes-Maritimes was created from Nice and a portion of the Var department; the 89 departments were given numbers based on the alphabetical order of their names. The department of Bas-Rhin and parts of Meurthe, Moselle and Haut-Rhin were ceded to the German Empire in 1871, following France's defeat in the Franco-Prussian War. A small part of Haut-Rhin became known as the Territoire de Belfort; when France regained the ceded departments after World War I, the Territoire de Belfort was not re-integrated into Haut-Rhin. In 1922, it became France's 90th department; the Lorraine departments were not changed back to their original boundaries, a new Moselle department was created in the regaine
Belval is a commune in the Manche department in the Normandy region in northwestern France. Communes of the Manche department INSEE statistics
Baubigny is a commune in the Manche department in the Normandy region in northwestern France. Communes of the Manche department INSEE statistics
Anneville-en-Saire is a commune in the Manche department of the Normandy region in northwestern France. Communes of the Manche department INSEE statistics
Barneville-Carteret is a commune in the Manche department in the Normandy region of north-western France. For many years it has been a popular seaside resort destination; the commune resulted from a merger of two communes in 1964: Barneville-sur-Mer and Carteret whose port has ferry connections to the Channel Islands. The inhabitants of the commune are known as Barnevillais or Barnevillaises and Carteretais or Carteretaises. Barneville-Carteret is located on the west coast of the Cotentin Peninsula some 40 km south by south-west of Cherbourg and 10 km north of Portbail. Access to the commune is by highway D650 from Les Moitiers-d'Allonne to the north which passes through the north of the commune and continues south-east following the coast to Le Pont de La Roque; the commune is both a port. The Port of Carteret is the present port of Barneville-Carteret. Sometimes called a "port of the isles", it is located on the right bank of the mouth of the Gerfleur River, at the end of Cape Carteret. A rescue station was built in 1865.
The large pier and south mole were completed in 1880. In the following year a ferry began service to Jersey; the small port was used as a shelter for fishermen during spring tide, In 1945 the port was enlarged with the help of combat engineers from the American 280th Battalion stationed in Carteret. Built on a hill and dating to the Middle Ages, Barneville is built around the church of Saint Germanus of Auxerre, its architecture is Romanesque, it was fortified during the Middle Ages for coastal surveillance. The main shops and services of the area are here and there is a market on Saturday. In the street below the town the remains of medieval walls that protected the city and seaside can be visited with a view of Cartaret harbour, the sea, the Channel Islands. Barneville Beach is a residential area consisting of campsites and vacation homes; the city experiences heavy traffic during the summer. The resort area spreads into the neighbouring town of Saint-Jean-de-la-Rivière, built on an ancient sand dune.
Like the Village du Tôt, this village is a small hamlet located on the road that leads to the mouth of the Gerfleur from the town of Saint-Jean-de-la-Rivière. Built on the edge of the harbour, it was once home to fishermen who moored their boats close to their homes. Carteret harbour allowed them a safe anchorage without the need to build a port; the village straddles the communes of Barneville-Carteret to the northwest and that of Saint-Jean-de-la-Rivière to the south-east. The Cap de Carteret is located at the end of the Armorican Massif and retains traces of the formation with Precambrian deformed granites and metamorphic schist, Cambrian folded arkose from the Variscan orogeny, shale and armoricain sandstone from the Ordovician period. From Barneville to Saint-Jean-de-la-Rivière the coast is lined with sand dunes backed by tidal marshes; the commune is bordered by the sea. The construction of the port in the 19th century was accompanied by the diversion of the Gerfleur river whose mouth was located at the current port.
The town has a temperate ocean climate with an average humidity of 84 percent. Its location on the coast results in frequent storms. There are rare days of frost; the combined effects of wind and tides cause rapid weather changes: in the course of a day and rain can follow one another within a few hours. The influence of the Gulf Stream and the mild winters allow the growing of Mediterranean and exotic plants such as mimosas and agave. Average humidity is 84.42 %. Barneville-Carteret to Jersey Service to Gorey. Service to Saint Helier. Barneville-Carteret to Guernsey. Service to Saint Peter Port; the commune is served all year by two services operated by Manéo: 10: Barneville-Carteret to Les Pieux to Cherbourg. An extra service is provided in summer: 53: Barneville-Carteret to Coutances. In festival periods on Tuesdays, Wednesdays and Sundays, it is possible to go from Portbail to the centre of Carteret on the Train touristique du Cotentin; the nearest main railway is 29 km away at Valognes, served by the SNCF Mantes-la-Jolie–Cherbourg railway Barneville: The "ville de Barni" after the name of a Scandinavian person.
Carteret: From the Scandinavian Kart and the Scandinavian Reidh meaning "anchorage". Barneville appears as the same on the 1790 version. Carteret appears as the same on the 1790 version; the famed de Carteret family of the Norman nobility played powerful roles in English history. They held many possessions on the continent, the Channel Islands, in the American colony, their surname stems from the stony anchorage site in Normandy. Guy de Carteret, a.k.a. "The Fowler", was the first Lord of the Barony of Carteret in Normandy for which there is record. They held the lordship of St. Ouen on the Isle of Jersey. Family members assisted William the Conqueror at Hastings and took part in the Crusades alongside Robert, son of the duke of Normandy. "Three times has the Island of Jersey been rescued by the valor and sagacity of members of this family from the dominion of the French, events of unequaled importance in its history...." In the village of Barneville, behind the church, is the remains of a Motte-and-bailey castle, transformed into a calvary, called.
Called Mallet's Mound after the Mallet family of Carteret and Barneville mention
Avranches is a commune in the Manche department in the Normandy region in northwestern France. It is a subprefecture of the department; the inhabitants are called Avranchinais. By the end of the Roman period, the settlement of Ingena, capital of the Abrincatui tribe, had taken the name of the tribe itself; this was the origin of the name Avranches. In 511 the town became the seat of a bishopric and subsequently of a major Romanesque cathedral dedicated to Saint Andrew, dismantled during the French revolutionary period; as the region of Brittany emerged from the Roman region of Armorica, Avranchin was held by Alan I, King of Brittany as part of the Kingdom of Brittany at the turn of the 10th century. The regions that became the Duchies of Normandy and Brittany each experienced devastating Viking raids, with Brittany occupied by Vikings from 907 to 937. In 933 Avranches and its territory, the Avranchin, were ceded to the Normans. Hugh d'Avranches, 1st Earl of Chester, a magnate under William the Conqueror, was the son of Richard le Goz, Vicomte d'Avranches.
In 1172 a council was held at Avranches in response to the murder of Anglo-Norman Saint Thomas Becket. Henry II, King of England, after due penance done at Avranches on 21 May 1172, was absolved from the censures incurred by the assassination of the holy prelate and reached the Compromise of Avranches with the Church, swearing fidelity to Pope Alexander III in the person of the papal legate; the same council was forbidden to confer on children benefice, carrying with it the cure of souls, or on the children of priests for the churches of their fathers. Each parish was required to have an assistant, the Advent fast was commended to all who could observe it to ecclesiastics; the town was damaged in the Wars of Religion. Álvaro Vaz de Almada was made 1st Count of Avranches by King Henry VI of England on August 8, 1444. Many English families settled here after the Treaty of Paris. A literal description of the town in the 19th century is recorded in Guy de Maupassant's novel Notre Cœur, when the main character Mariolle meets his lover and sets up for Mont Saint-Michel:The houses crowning the heights gave to the place from a distance the appearance of a fortification.
Seen close at hand, it was an ancient and pretty Norman city, with small dwellings of regular and similar appearance built adjoining one another, giving an aspect of ancient pride and modern comfort, a feudal yet peasant-like air. The liberation of Avranches during World War II was led by General George S. Patton and began on 31 July 1944. On 1 January 2019, the former commune Saint-Martin-des-Champs was merged into Avranches. Avranches is situated at the southern end of the Cotentin Peninsula on the E40 road connecting Saint-Lô with Brittany and on the rail line between Lison and Dol; the town was founded on high ground overlooking the dunes and coastal marshes along the bay forming the corner between the peninsulas of the Cotentin and Brittany. From Avranches, it is possible to see the Mont Saint-Michel, founded by Saint Aubert, Bishop of Avranches in the 8th century. A museum houses the collection of manuscripts of Mont Saint-Michel, deposited in the municipal archives during the French Revolution.
It is one of the largest collections of medieval illuminated manuscripts in France, outside national and university libraries. Dominated by the cathedral, where Henry II did penance, an open grassed area La Plate-Forme overlooking the bay towards Mont Saint-Michel displays only a few remnants of the destroyed building; the major church Notre Dame des Champs was constructed in Gothic Revival style in the 19th century to restore the religious life of the town after the destruction of the cathedral. A smaller church Saint Gervais houses a treasury, best known for the purported skull of Saint Aubert complete with hole where the archangel Michael's finger pierced it; the botanical gardens were founded in the grounds of the former Franciscan convent in the late 18th century. The expansion and introduction of exotic species in the 19th century and the location of the gardens overlooking the bay made the gardens an important sight in the town; the Manoir de Brion, an ancient Benedictine priory of Mont Saint-Michel, is located in Dragey.
Avranches is twinned with St. Helier in Jersey. On 2 March 2010 a Jersey-registered boat "Archangel" succeeded in reaching Avranches at Marcey-les-Grèves, it is believed. US Avranches is based in the commune. Saint-Gaudens, since the autumn of 1944, when the town of Saint-Gaudens, Haute-Garonne fraternally assisted Avranches by giving clothing and food to it Korbach, since 1963 Saint Helier, since 1982 Crediton, United Kingdom, since 1993 Avranches was the birthplace of: General Jean-Marie Valhubert Paul-Armand Challemel-Lacour, statesman Jean-Luc Ponty and jazz composer Samuel Le Bihan, a movie actor. Hamon de Massey, Norman lord in the barony of Chester. INSEE commune file Herbermann, Charles, ed.. "Council of Avranches". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company
Barenton is a commune in the Manche department in the Normandy region in northwestern France. Communes of the Manche department Parc naturel régional Normandie-Maine INSEE statistics Official site