SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

QuickTime

QuickTime is an extensible multimedia framework developed by Apple Inc. capable of handling various formats of digital video, sound, panoramic images, interactivity. First made in 1991, the latest Mac version, QuickTime X, is available on Mac OS X Snow Leopard and newer. Apple ceased support for the Windows version of QuickTime in 2016, ceased support for QuickTime 7 on macOS in 2018; as of Mac OS X Lion, the underlying media framework for QuickTime, QTKit, was deprecated in favor of a newer graphics framework, AVFoundation, discontinued as of macOS Catalina. QuickTime is bundled with macOS. QuickTime for Microsoft Windows is downloadable as a standalone installation, was bundled with Apple's iTunes prior to iTunes 10.5, but is no longer supported and therefore security vulnerabilities will no longer be patched. At the time of the Windows version's discontinuation, two such zero-day vulnerabilities were identified and publicly disclosed by Trend Micro. Software development kits for QuickTime are available to the public with an Apple Developer Connection subscription.

It is available free of charge for Windows operating systems. There are some other free player applications that rely on the QuickTime framework, providing features not available in the basic QuickTime Player. For example, iTunes can export audio in WAV, AIFF, MP3, AAC, Apple Lossless. In addition, macOS has a simple AppleScript that can be used to play a movie in full-screen mode, but since version 7.2 full-screen viewing is now supported in the non-Pro version. QuickTime Player 7 is limited to only basic playback operations unless a QuickTime Pro license key is purchased from Apple; until Apple's professional applications included a QuickTime Pro license. Pro keys are specific to the major version of QuickTime for which they are purchased and unlock additional features of the QuickTime Player application on macOS or Windows; the Pro key does not require any additional downloads. QuickTime 7 is still available for download from Apple, but as of mid 2016, Apple stopped selling registration keys for the Pro version.

Features enabled by the Pro license include, but are not limited to: Editing clips through the cut and paste functions, merging separate audio and video tracks, placing the video tracks on a virtual canvas with the options of cropping and rotation. Saving and exporting to any of the codecs supported by QuickTime. QuickTime 7 includes presets for exporting video to a video-capable iPod, Apple TV, the iPhone. Saving existing QuickTime movies from the web directly to a hard disk drive; this is but not always, either hidden or intentionally blocked in the standard mode. Two options exist for saving movies from a web browser: Save as source – This option will save the embedded video in its original format. Save as QuickTime movie – This option will save the embedded video in a.mov file format no matter what the original container is/was. Mac OS X Snow Leopard includes QuickTime X. QuickTime Player X lacks cut and paste and will only export to four formats, but its limited export feature is free. Users do not have an option to upgrade to a Pro version of QuickTime X, but those who have purchased QuickTime 7 Pro and are upgrading to Snow Leopard from a previous version of Mac OS X will have QuickTime 7 stored in the Utilities or user defined folder.

Otherwise, users will have to install QuickTime 7 from the "Optional Installs" directory of the Snow Leopard DVD after installing the OS. Mac OS X Lion and also include QuickTime X. No installer for QuickTime 7 is included with these software packages, but users can download the QuickTime 7 installer from the Apple support site. QuickTime X on versions of macOS support cut and paste functions to the way QuickTime 7 Pro did. On September 24, 2018 Apple ended support for QuickTime 7 and QuickTime Pro, updated many download and support pages on their website stating that QuickTime 7 "will not be compatible with future macOS releases"; the QuickTime framework provides the following: Encoding and transcoding video and audio from one format to another. Command-line utilities afconvert and qtmodernizer are provided with macOS for power users. Decoding video and audio sending the decoded stream to the graphics or audio subsystem for playback. In macOS, QuickTime sends video playback to the Quartz Extreme Compositor.

A "component" plug-in architecture for supporting additional 3rd-party codecs. As of early 2008, the framework hides many older codecs listed below from the user although the option to "Show legacy encoders" exists in QuickTime Preferences to use them; the framework supports the following file types and codecs natively: Due to macOS Mojave being the last version to include support for 32-bit APIs and Apple's plans to drop 32-bit application support in future macOS releases, many codecs will no longer be supported in newer macOS releases, starting with macOS Catalina, released on October 7, 2019. PictureViewer is a component of QuickTime for Microsoft Windows and the Mac OS 8 and Mac OS 9 operating systems, it is used to view picture files from the still image formats. In macOS, it is replaced by Preview; as of version 7.7.9, the Windows version re

Abyei District

Abyei District was a former district of Sudan, considered part of the state of West Kurdufan. Upon the dissolution of West Kurdufan in 2005, it was included in the state of South Kurdufan, its administrative centre was the town of Abyei. The 2004 Protocol on the resolution of the Abyei conflict in the Comprehensive Peace Agreement that ended the Second Sudanese Civil War included provisions to replace the Abyei district with a new jurisdiction to be accorded "special administrative status"; the new area was to have different borders, intended to represent “the area of the nine Ngok Dinka chiefdoms transferred to Kordofan in 1905”, with demarcation to be determined by a multinational commission. After considerable dispute, a consensus on boundaries enclosing a territory smaller than the existing Abyei district was reached in 2009. A new administration was established for the new Abyei Area, covering the southwestern part of the former district, it is unclear what local government provisions were put in place for the district's remaining territory

746th Tank Battalion (United States)

The 746th Tank Battalion was an independent tank battalion that participated in the European Theater of Operations with the United States Army in World War II. It was one of five tank battalions; the battalion participated in combat operations throughout northern Europe until V-E Day. It served as an attachment to the 9th Infantry Division, but fought alongside numerous other units as well, it was inactivated in October 1945. The 746th Tank Battalion followed the standard organization of a U. S. medium tank battalion during World War II. It consisted of a Headquarters and Headquarters Company, Service Company, three medium tank companies and a light tank company; the Headquarters Company included both officers and enlisted men. At the time the 746th went into action at Normandy, the assault gun platoon was still equipped with standard M4 Sherman tanks, they did not receive the 105 mm assault gun equipped tanks until the first week of July 1944. The assault gun platoon, along with the line company assault guns consolidated into a second platoon, was periodically attached to the division artillery as an ad hoc artillery battery to provide supporting fires to the division artillery.

On one instance in October 1944, this reinforced platoon was attached to the gun company of the Infantry Regimental Combat Team which the battalion was supporting. The Service Company included a headquarters section. Companies A, B, C, D – the tank line companies, both medium and light, all followed the same table of organization; each company consisted of a headquarters section which, along with a small headquarters staff included two tanks for the company commander and executive officer. The medium tank companies were equipped with M4 Sherman tanks, while the light tank company was equipped with M5 Stuart tanks. While attached to the 9th Infantry Division for combat operations Company A was attached to the 47th Infantry Regiment, Company B was attached to the 60th Infantry regiment, Company C was attached to the 39th Infantry Regiment; the authorized assault gun was a medium tank until the real 105 mm gun-equipped tanks arrived in Normandy the first week of July 1944. In August 1944, the company assault guns were consolidated into a second assault gun platoon under the control of the battalion assault gun platoon leader and attached to the division artillery for general fire support.

In October 1944, the assault guns were consolidated with the headquarters assault gun platoon and formed into three two-gun sections that supported each of the battalions of the Infantry regimental Combat Team which the battalion was supporting. All four companies had their own maintenance section which included a M32 Tank Recovery Vehicle, built on a Sherman chassis; because the Stuart carried a 4-man crew versus a 5-man crew on the Sherman, it had a somewhat smaller personnel strength than medium tank companies. The 746th Tank Battalion was activated at Camp Rucker, Alabama on 20 August 1942 as the 746th Tank Battalion, drawing its initial cadre of officers from the 760th Tank Battalion and an additional six officers and 135 enlisted men from the 70th Tank Battalion; the battalion filled out its personnel strength and trained at Camp Rucker until October 1943, when it relocated to Camp Pickett, Virginia for advanced training. Soon after the move to Camp Pickett, on 22 October 1943, the unit was redesignated as the 746th Tank Battalion and adopted the organization in which it would fight throughout the European Campaign.

In January 1944 it moved from Camp Pickett to the embarkation point at Camp Shanks, New York for deployment to Europe. The 746th embarked in New York on 29 January 1944 aboard the RMS Aquitania and arrived at Gourock, Scotland on 9 February 1944. Upon arrival in Great Britain, it shipped by train to England, it moved in March 1944 to Castlemartin Range, South Wales, where it conducted live fire and maneuver training at the company level and below. Following live fire and tactical training, the battalion moved to the south of England where they participated in training for the amphibious assaults in Normandy, it was during this time that the 746th was assigned to support the 4th Infantry Division for the invasion. They participated in Exercise Beaver without incident and although they took part in Exercise Tiger, the unit suffered no casualties as a result of the German raid in the early morning darkness of 28 April. By May, the 746th Tank Battalion marshaled in their staging area at Lupton Park and from 31 May to 2 June loaded aboard LCT’s at Dartmouth and joined the invasion armada on 3 June.

Although not one of the three tank battalions that would land with the first assault wave on D-Day, the medium tank companies and the command elements of the battalion landed ashore on Utah Beach attached to the 4th Infantry Division before noon of 6 June. The tanks’ landing craft landed about 2,000 yards from their planned locations, but once ashore the battalion went into combat and was parceled out to the various infantry units they were to support; the battalion headquarters remained attached to the 4th