Adobe Photoshop is a raster graphics editor developed and published by Adobe Inc. for macOS and Windows. It was created in 1988 by Thomas and John Knoll. Since this software has become the industry standard not only in raster graphics editing, but in digital art as a whole; the software's name has thus become a generic trademark, leading to its usage as a verb although Adobe discourages such use. Photoshop can edit and compose raster images in multiple layers and supports masks, alpha compositing, several color models including RGB, CMYK, CIELAB, spot color, duotone. Photoshop uses its own PSB file formats to support these features. In addition to raster graphics, this software has limited abilities to edit or render text and vector graphics, as well as 3D graphics and video, its feature set can be expanded by plug-ins. Photoshop's naming scheme was based on version numbers. However, in October 2002, each new version of Photoshop was designated with "CS" plus a number. Photoshop CS3 through CS6 were distributed in two different editions: Standard and Extended.
With the introduction of the Creative Cloud branding in June 2013, Photoshop's licensing scheme was changed to that of software as a service rental model. Photoshop was bundled with additional software such as Adobe ImageReady, Adobe Fireworks, Adobe Bridge, Adobe Device Central and Adobe Camera RAW. Alongside Photoshop, Adobe develops and publishes Photoshop Elements, Photoshop Lightroom, Photoshop Express, Photoshop Fix, Photoshop Sketch and Photoshop Mix. Adobe plans to launch a full-version of Photoshop for the iPad in 2019. Collectively, they are branded as "The Adobe Photoshop Family". Photoshop was developed in 1987 by brothers Thomas and John Knoll, who sold the distribution license to Adobe Systems Incorporated in 1988. Thomas Knoll, a Ph. D. student at the University of Michigan, began writing a program on his Macintosh Plus to display grayscale images on a monochrome display. This program caught the attention of his brother John, an Industrial Light & Magic employee, who recommended that Thomas turn it into a full-fledged image editing program.
Thomas took a six-month break from his studies in 1988 to collaborate with his brother on the program. Thomas renamed the program ImagePro, but the name was taken; that year, Thomas renamed his program Photoshop and worked out a short-term deal with scanner manufacturer Barneyscan to distribute copies of the program with a slide scanner. During this time, John traveled to Silicon Valley and gave a demonstration of the program to engineers at Apple and Russell Brown, art director at Adobe. Both showings were successful, Adobe decided to purchase the license to distribute in September 1988. While John worked on plug-ins in California, Thomas remained in Ann Arbor writing code. Photoshop 1.0 was released on February 1990 for Macintosh exclusively. The Barneyscan version included advanced color editing features that were stripped from the first Adobe shipped version; the handling of color improved with each release from Adobe and Photoshop became the industry standard in digital color editing. At the time Photoshop 1.0 was released, digital retouching on dedicated high-end systems cost around $300 an hour for basic photo retouching.
Photoshop files have default file extension as. PSD, which stands for "Photoshop Document." A PSD file stores an image with support for most imaging options available in Photoshop. These include layers with masks, text, alpha channels and spot colors, clipping paths, duotone settings; this is in contrast to many other file formats that restrict content to provide streamlined, predictable functionality. A PSD file has a maximum height and width of 30,000 pixels, a length limit of two gigabytes. Photoshop files sometimes have the file extension. PSB, which stands for "Photoshop Big". A PSB file extends the PSD file format, increasing the maximum height and width to 300,000 pixels and the length limit to around 4 Exabytes; the dimension limit was chosen arbitrarily by Adobe, not based on computer arithmetic constraints but for ease of software testing. PSD and PSB formats are documented; because of Photoshop's popularity, PSD files are used and supported to some extent by most competing software. The.
PSD file format can be exported to and from Adobe's other apps like Adobe Illustrator, Adobe Premiere Pro, After Effects. Photoshop functionality can be extended by add-on programs called Photoshop plugins. Adobe creates some plugins, such as Adobe Camera Raw, but third-party companies develop most plugins, according to Adobe's specifications; some are free and some are commercial software. Most plugins work with only Photoshop or Photoshop-compatible hosts, but a few can be run as standalone applications. There are various types of plugins, such as filter, import, color correction, automation; the most popular plugins are the filter plugins, available under the Filter menu in Photoshop. Filter plugins can either create content. Below are some popular types
Microsoft Office is a family of client software, server software, services developed by Microsoft. It was first announced by Bill Gates on August 1988, at COMDEX in Las Vegas. A marketing term for an office suite, the first version of Office contained Microsoft Word, Microsoft Excel, Microsoft PowerPoint. Over the years, Office applications have grown closer with shared features such as a common spell checker, OLE data integration and Visual Basic for Applications scripting language. Microsoft positions Office as a development platform for line-of-business software under the Office Business Applications brand. On July 10, 2012, Softpedia reported. Office is produced in several versions targeted towards different end-users and computing environments; the original, most used version, is the desktop version, available for PCs running the Windows and macOS operating systems. Office Online is a version of the software that runs within a web browser, while Microsoft maintains Office apps for Android and iOS.
Since Office 2013, Microsoft has promoted Office 365 as the primary means of obtaining Microsoft Office: it allows use of the software and other services on a subscription business model, users receive free feature updates to the software for the lifetime of the subscription, including new features and cloud computing integration that are not included in the "on-premises" releases of Office sold under conventional license terms. In 2017, revenue from Office 365 overtook conventional license sales; the current on-premises, desktop version of Office is Office 2019, released on September 24, 2018. Unless stated otherwise, desktop applications are available for Windows and macOS. Microsoft Word: a word processor included in Microsoft Office and some editions of the now-discontinued Microsoft Works; the first version of Word, released in the autumn of 1983, was for the MS-DOS operating system and introduced the Computer mouse to more users. Word 1.0 could be purchased with a bundled mouse. Following the precedents of LisaWrite and MacWrite, Word for Macintosh attempted to add closer WYSIWYG features into its package.
Word for Mac was released in 1985. Word for Mac was the first graphical version of Microsoft Word, it implemented the proprietary.doc format as its primary format. Word 2007, deprecated this format in favor of Office Open XML, standardized by Ecma International as an open format. Support for Portable Document Format and OpenDocument was first introduced in Word for Windows with Service Pack 2 for Word 2007. Microsoft Excel: a spreadsheet editor that competed with the dominant Lotus 1-2-3, outsold it. Microsoft released the first version of Excel for the Mac OS in 1985, the first Windows version in November 1987. Microsoft PowerPoint: a presentation program used to create slideshows composed of text and other objects, which can be displayed on-screen and shown by the presenter or printed out on transparencies or slides. Microsoft Access: a database management system for Windows that combines the relational Microsoft Jet Database Engine with a graphical user interface and software development tools.
Microsoft Access stores data in its own format based on the Access Jet Database Engine. It can import or link directly to data stored in other applications and databases. Microsoft Outlook: a personal information manager that replaces Windows Messaging, Microsoft Mail, Schedule+ starting in Office 97, it includes an e-mail client, task manager and address book. On the Mac OS, Microsoft offered several versions of Outlook in the late 1990s, but only for use with Microsoft Exchange Server. In Office 2001, it introduced an alternative application with a different feature set called Microsoft Entourage, it reintroduced Outlook in Office 2011. Microsoft OneNote: a notetaking program that gathers handwritten or typed notes, screen clippings and audio commentaries. Notes can be shared with other OneNote users over a network. OneNote was introduced as a standalone app, not included in any of Microsoft Office 2003 editions. However, OneNote became a core component of Microsoft Office. OneNote is available as a web app on Office Online, a freemium Windows desktop app, a mobile app for Windows Phone, iOS, Symbian, a Metro-style app for Windows 8 or later.
Microsoft Publisher: a desktop publishing app for Windows used for designing brochures, calendars, greeting cards, business cards, web site, postcards. Skype for Business: an integrated communications client for conferences and meetings in real time, it is the only Microsoft Office desktop app, neither useful without a proper network infrastructure nor has the "Microsoft" prefix in its name. Microsoft Project: a project management app for Windows to keep track of events and to create network charts and Gantt charts, not bundled in any Office suite. Microsoft Teams: a platform that combines workplace chat, meetings and attachments. Microsoft announced that Teams would replace Skype for Business. Microsoft Visio: a diagram and flowcharting app for Windows not bundled in any Office suite. Office Lens: An image scanner optimized for mobile devices, it captures the document via the camera and str
MIDI is a technical standard that describes a communications protocol, digital interface, electrical connectors that connect a wide variety of electronic musical instruments and related audio devices for playing and recording music. A single MIDI link through a MIDI cable can carry up to sixteen channels of information, each of which can be routed to a separate device or instrument; this could be sixteen different digital instruments, for example. MIDI carries event messages, data that specify the instructions for music, including a note's notation, velocity, panning to the right or left of stereo, clock signals; when a musician plays a MIDI instrument, all of the key presses, button presses, knob turns and slider changes are converted into MIDI data. One common MIDI application is to play a MIDI keyboard or other controller and use it to trigger a digital sound module to generate sounds, which the audience hears produced by a keyboard amplifier. MIDI data can be recorded to a sequencer to be edited or played back.
A file format that stores and exchanges the data is defined. Advantages of MIDI include small file size, ease of modification and manipulation and a wide choice of electronic instruments and synthesizer or digitally-sampled sounds. A MIDI recording of a performance on a keyboard could sound like a piano or other keyboard instrument. A MIDI recording is not an audio signal, as with a sound recording made with a microphone. Prior to the development of MIDI, electronic musical instruments from different manufacturers could not communicate with each other; this meant that a musician could not, for example, plug a Roland keyboard into a Yamaha synthesizer module. With MIDI, any MIDI-compatible keyboard can be connected to any other MIDI-compatible sequencer, sound module, drum machine, synthesizer, or computer if they are made by different manufacturers. MIDI technology was standardized in 1983 by a panel of music industry representatives, is maintained by the MIDI Manufacturers Association. All official MIDI standards are jointly developed and published by the MMA in Los Angeles, the MIDI Committee of the Association of Musical Electronics Industry in Tokyo.
In 2016, the MMA established the MIDI Association to support a global community of people who work, play, or create with MIDI. In the early 1980s, there was no standardized means of synchronizing electronic musical instruments manufactured by different companies. Manufacturers had their own proprietary standards to synchronize instruments, such as CV/gate and Digital Control Bus. Roland founder Ikutaro Kakehashi felt the lack of standardization was limiting the growth of the electronic music industry. In June 1981, he proposed developing a standard to Oberheim Electronics founder Tom Oberheim, who had developed his own proprietary interface, the Oberheim System. Kakehashi felt the system was too cumbersome, spoke to Sequential Circuits president Dave Smith about creating a simpler, cheaper alternative. While Smith discussed the concept with American companies, Kakehashi discussed it with Japanese companies Yamaha and Kawai. Representatives from all companies met to discuss the idea in October.
Using Roland's DCB as a basis and Sequential Circuits engineer Chet Wood devised a universal synthesizer interface to allow communication between equipment from different manufacturers. Smith proposed this standard at the Audio Engineering Society show in November 1981; the standard was discussed and modified by representatives of Roland, Korg and Sequential Circuits. Kakehashi favored the name Universal Musical Interface, pronounced you-me, but Smith felt this was "a little corny". However, he liked the use of "instrument" instead of "synthesizer", proposed the name Musical Instrument Digital Interface. Moog Music founder Robert Moog announced MIDI in the October 1982 issue of Keyboard. At the 1983 Winter NAMM Show, Smith demonstrated a MIDI connection between Prophet 600 and Roland JP-6 synthesizers; the MIDI specification was published in August 1983. The MIDI standard was unveiled by Kakehashi and Smith, who received Technical Grammy Awards in 2013 for their work; the first MIDI synthesizers were the Roland Jupiter-6 and the Prophet 600, both released in 1982.
1983 saw the release of the first MIDI drum machine, the Roland TR-909, the first MIDI sequencer, the Roland MSQ-700. The first computers to support MIDI were the NEC PC-88 and PC-98 in 1982, the MSX released in 1983. MIDI's appeal was limited to professional musicians and record producers who wanted to use electronic instruments in the production of popular music; the standard allowed different instruments to communicate with each other and with computers, this spurred a rapid expansion of the sales and production of electronic instruments and music software. This interoperability allowed one device to be controlled from another, which reduced the amount of hardware musicians needed. MIDI's introduction coincided with the dawn of the personal computer era and the introduction of samplers and digital synthesizers; the creative possibilities brought about by MIDI technology are credited for helping revive the music industry in the 1980s. MIDI introduced capabilities. MIDI sequencing makes it possible for
An operating system is system software that manages computer hardware and software resources and provides common services for computer programs. Time-sharing operating systems schedule tasks for efficient use of the system and may include accounting software for cost allocation of processor time, mass storage and other resources. For hardware functions such as input and output and memory allocation, the operating system acts as an intermediary between programs and the computer hardware, although the application code is executed directly by the hardware and makes system calls to an OS function or is interrupted by it. Operating systems are found on many devices that contain a computer – from cellular phones and video game consoles to web servers and supercomputers; the dominant desktop operating system is Microsoft Windows with a market share of around 82.74%. MacOS by Apple Inc. is in second place, the varieties of Linux are collectively in third place. In the mobile sector, use in 2017 is up to 70% of Google's Android and according to third quarter 2016 data, Android on smartphones is dominant with 87.5 percent and a growth rate 10.3 percent per year, followed by Apple's iOS with 12.1 percent and a per year decrease in market share of 5.2 percent, while other operating systems amount to just 0.3 percent.
Linux distributions are dominant in supercomputing sectors. Other specialized classes of operating systems, such as embedded and real-time systems, exist for many applications. A single-tasking system can only run one program at a time, while a multi-tasking operating system allows more than one program to be running in concurrency; this is achieved by time-sharing, where the available processor time is divided between multiple processes. These processes are each interrupted in time slices by a task-scheduling subsystem of the operating system. Multi-tasking may be characterized in co-operative types. In preemptive multitasking, the operating system slices the CPU time and dedicates a slot to each of the programs. Unix-like operating systems, such as Solaris and Linux—as well as non-Unix-like, such as AmigaOS—support preemptive multitasking. Cooperative multitasking is achieved by relying on each process to provide time to the other processes in a defined manner. 16-bit versions of Microsoft Windows used cooperative multi-tasking.
32-bit versions of both Windows NT and Win9x, used preemptive multi-tasking. Single-user operating systems have no facilities to distinguish users, but may allow multiple programs to run in tandem. A multi-user operating system extends the basic concept of multi-tasking with facilities that identify processes and resources, such as disk space, belonging to multiple users, the system permits multiple users to interact with the system at the same time. Time-sharing operating systems schedule tasks for efficient use of the system and may include accounting software for cost allocation of processor time, mass storage and other resources to multiple users. A distributed operating system manages a group of distinct computers and makes them appear to be a single computer; the development of networked computers that could be linked and communicate with each other gave rise to distributed computing. Distributed computations are carried out on more than one machine; when computers in a group work in cooperation, they form a distributed system.
In an OS, distributed and cloud computing context, templating refers to creating a single virtual machine image as a guest operating system saving it as a tool for multiple running virtual machines. The technique is used both in virtualization and cloud computing management, is common in large server warehouses. Embedded operating systems are designed to be used in embedded computer systems, they are designed to operate on small machines like PDAs with less autonomy. They are able to operate with a limited number of resources, they are compact and efficient by design. Windows CE and Minix 3 are some examples of embedded operating systems. A real-time operating system is an operating system that guarantees to process events or data by a specific moment in time. A real-time operating system may be single- or multi-tasking, but when multitasking, it uses specialized scheduling algorithms so that a deterministic nature of behavior is achieved. An event-driven system switches between tasks based on their priorities or external events while time-sharing operating systems switch tasks based on clock interrupts.
A library operating system is one in which the services that a typical operating system provides, such as networking, are provided in the form of libraries and composed with the application and configuration code to construct a unikernel: a specialized, single address space, machine image that can be deployed to cloud or embedded environments. Early computers were built to perform a series of single tasks, like a calculator. Basic operating system features were developed in the 1950s, such as resident monitor functions that could automatically run different programs in succession to speed up processing. Operating systems did not exist in their more complex forms until the early 1960s. Hardware features were added, that enabled use of runtime libraries and parallel processing; when personal computers became popular in the 1980s, operating systems were made for them similar in concept to those used on larger computers. In the 1940s, the earliest electronic digital systems had no operating systems.
Electronic systems of this time were programmed on rows of mechanical switches or by jumper wires on plug boards. These were special-purpose systems that, for example, generated ballistics tables for the military or controlled the pri
JPEG is a used method of lossy compression for digital images for those images produced by digital photography. The degree of compression can be adjusted, allowing a selectable tradeoff between storage size and image quality. JPEG achieves 10:1 compression with little perceptible loss in image quality. JPEG compression is used in a number of image file formats. JPEG/Exif is the most common image format used by digital cameras and other photographic image capture devices; these format variations are not distinguished, are called JPEG. The term "JPEG" is an initialism/acronym for the Joint Photographic Experts Group, which created the standard; the MIME media type for JPEG is image/jpeg, except in older Internet Explorer versions, which provides a MIME type of image/pjpeg when uploading JPEG images. JPEG files have a filename extension of.jpg or.jpeg. JPEG/JFIF supports a maximum image size of 65,535×65,535 pixels, hence up to 4 gigapixels for an aspect ratio of 1:1. "JPEG" stands for Joint Photographic Experts Group, the name of the committee that created the JPEG standard and other still picture coding standards.
The "Joint" stood for ISO TC97 WG8 and CCITT SGVIII. In 1987, ISO TC 97 became ISO/IEC JTC1 and, in 1992, CCITT became ITU-T. On the JTC1 side, JPEG is one of two sub-groups of ISO/IEC Joint Technical Committee 1, Subcommittee 29, Working Group 1 – titled as Coding of still pictures. On the ITU-T side, ITU-T SG16 is the respective body; the original JPEG Group was organized in 1986, issuing the first JPEG standard in 1992, approved in September 1992 as ITU-T Recommendation T.81 and, in 1994, as ISO/IEC 10918-1. The JPEG standard specifies the codec, which defines how an image is compressed into a stream of bytes and decompressed back into an image, but not the file format used to contain that stream; the Exif and JFIF standards define the used file formats for interchange of JPEG-compressed images. JPEG standards are formally named as Information technology – Digital compression and coding of continuous-tone still images. ISO/IEC 10918 consists of the following parts: Ecma International TR/98 specifies the JPEG File Interchange Format.
The JPEG compression algorithm operates at its best on photographs and paintings of realistic scenes with smooth variations of tone and color. For web usage, where reducing the amount of data used for an image is important for responsive presentation, JPEG's compression benefits make JPEG popular. JPEG/Exif is the most common format saved by digital cameras. However, JPEG is not well suited for line drawings and other textual or iconic graphics, where the sharp contrasts between adjacent pixels can cause noticeable artifacts; such images are better saved in a lossless graphics format such as TIFF, GIF, PNG, or a raw image format. The JPEG standard includes a lossless coding mode; as the typical use of JPEG is a lossy compression method, which reduces the image fidelity, it is inappropriate for exact reproduction of imaging data. JPEG is not well suited to files that will undergo multiple edits, as some image quality is lost each time the image is recompressed if the image is cropped or shifted, or if encoding parameters are changed – see digital generation loss for details.
To prevent image information loss during sequential and repetitive editing, the first edit can be saved in a lossless format, subsequently edited in that format finally published as JPEG for distribution. JPEG uses a lossy form of compression based on the discrete cosine transform; this mathematical operation converts each frame/field of the video source from the spatial domain into the frequency domain. A perceptual model based loosely on the human psychovisual system discards high-frequency information, i.e. sharp transitions in intensity, color hue. In the transform domain, the process of reducing information is called quantization. In simpler terms, quantization is a method for optimally reducing a large number scale into a smaller one, the transform-domain is a convenient representation of the image because the high-frequency coefficients, which contribute less to the overall picture than other coefficients, are characteristically small-values with high compressibility; the quantized coefficients are sequenced and losslessly packed into the output bitstream.
Nearly all software implementations of JPEG permit user control over the compression ratio, allowing the user to trade off picture-quality for smaller file size. In embedded applications, the parameters are fixed for the application; the compression method is lossy, meaning that some original image information is lost and cannot be restored affecting image quality. There is an optional lossless mode defined in the JPEG standard. However, this mode is not supported in products. There is an interlaced progressive JPEG format, in which data is compressed in multiple passes of progressively higher detail; this is ideal for large images that will be displayed while downloading over a slow connection, allowing a reasonable preview after receiving only a portion of the data. However, support for progressive JPEGs is not universal; when progressive JPEGs are received by programs that do not support them (such
Raw image format
A camera raw image file contains minimally processed data from the image sensor of either a digital camera, or motion picture film scanner, or other image scanner. Raw files are named so because they are not yet processed and therefore are not ready to be printed or edited with a bitmap graphics editor; the image is processed by a raw converter in a wide-gamut internal color space where precise adjustments can be made before conversion to a "positive" file format such as TIFF or JPEG for storage, printing, or further manipulation. This encodes the image in a device-dependent color space. There are dozens, if not hundreds, of raw formats in use by different models of digital equipment. Raw image files are sometimes described as "digital negatives"; the process of converting a raw image file into a viewable format is sometimes called "developing" a raw image, by analogy with the film development process used to convert photographic film into viewable prints. The selection of the final choice of image rendering is part of the process of white balancing and color grading.
Like a photographic negative, a raw digital image may have a wider dynamic range or color gamut than the eventual final image format, it preserves most of the information of the captured image. The purpose of raw image formats is to save, with minimum loss of information, data obtained from the sensor, the conditions surrounding the capturing of the image. Raw image formats are intended to capture the radiometric characteristics of the scene, that is, physical information about the light intensity and color of the scene, at the best of the camera sensor's performance. Most raw image file formats store information sensed according to the geometry of the sensor's individual photo-receptive elements rather than points in the expected final image: sensors with hexagonal element displacement, for example, record information for each of their hexagonally-displaced cells, which a decoding software will transform into the rectangular geometry during "digital developing". Raw files contain the information required to produce a viewable image from the camera's sensor data.
The structure of raw files follows a common pattern: A short file header which contains an indicator of the byte-ordering of the file, a file identifier and an offset into the main file data Camera sensor metadata, required to interpret the sensor image data, including the size of the sensor, the attributes of the CFA and its color profile Image metadata, required for inclusion in any CMS environment or database. These include the exposure settings, camera/scanner/lens model, date of shoot/scan, authoring information and other; some raw files contain a standardized metadata section with data in Exif format. An image thumbnail Most raw files contain a full size JPEG conversion of the image, used to preview the file on the camera's LCD panel. In the case of motion picture film scans, either the timecode, keycode or frame number in the file sequence which represents the frame sequence in a scanned reel; this item allows the file to be ordered in a frame sequence. The sensor image dataMany raw file formats, including IIQ, 3FR, DCR, K25, KDC, CRW CR2 CR3, ERF, MEF, MOS, NEF, ORF, PEF, RW2 and ARW, SRF, SR2, are based on the TIFF file format.
These files may deviate from the TIFF standard in a number of ways, including the use of a non-standard file header, the inclusion of additional image tags and the encryption of some of the tagged data. Panasonic's raw converter corrects geometric distortion and chromatic aberration on such cameras as the LX3, with necessary correction information included in the raw. Phase One's raw converter Capture One offers corrections for geometrical distortion, chromatic aberration, purple fringing and keystone correction emulating the shift capability of tilt-shift in software and specially designed hardware, on most raw files from over 100 different cameras; the same holds for Canon's DPP application, at least for all more expensive cameras like all EOS DSLRs and the G<n> series of compact cameras. DNG, the Adobe digital negative format, is an extension of the TIFF 6.0 format and is compatible with TIFF/EP, uses various open formats and/or standards, including Exif metadata, XMP metadata, IPTC metadata, CIE XYZ coordinates, ICC profiles, JPEG.
In digital photography, the raw file plays the role that photographic film plays in film photography. Raw files thus contain the full resolution data as read out from each of the camera's image sensor pixels; the camera's sensor is invariably overlaid with a color filter array a Bayer filter, consisting of a mosaic of a 2x2 matrix of red, green and green filters. One variation on the Bayer filter is the RGBE filter of the Sony Cyber-shot DSC-F828, which exchanged the green in the RG rows with "emerald". Other sensors, such as the Foveon X3 sensor, capture information directly in RGB form; these RGB raw data still need to be processed to make an image file, because the raw RGB values correspond to the responses of the sensors, not to a standard color space like sRGB. These data do not need to be demosaiced, however. Flatbed and film scanner sensors are straight narrow RGB or RGBI (where "I" stand
Microsoft PowerPoint is a presentation program, created by Robert Gaskins and Dennis Austin at a software company named Forethought, Inc. It was released on April 20, 1987 for Macintosh computers only. Microsoft acquired PowerPoint for $14 million three months; this was Microsoft's first significant acquisition, Microsoft set up a new business unit for PowerPoint in Silicon Valley where Forethought had been located. Microsoft PowerPoint is one of many programs run by the company Microsoft and can be identified by its trademark orange, P initial on the logo, it offers users many ways to display information from simple presentations to complex multimedia presentations. PowerPoint became a component of the Microsoft Office suite, first offered in 1989 for Macintosh and in 1990 for Windows, which bundled several Microsoft apps. Beginning with PowerPoint 4.0, PowerPoint was integrated into Microsoft Office development, adopted shared common components and a converged user interface. PowerPoint's market share was small at first, prior to introducing a version for Microsoft Windows, but grew with the growth of Windows and of Office.
Since the late 1990s, PowerPoint's worldwide market share of presentation software has been estimated at 95 percent. PowerPoint was designed to provide visuals for group presentations within business organizations, but has come to be widely used in many other communication situations, both in business and beyond; the impact of this much wider use of PowerPoint has been experienced as a powerful change throughout society, with strong reactions including advice that it should be used less, should be used differently, or should be used better. The first PowerPoint version was used to produce overhead transparencies, the second could produce color 35mm slides; the third version introduced video output of virtual slideshows to digital projectors, which would over time replace physical transparencies and slides. A dozen major versions since have added many additional features and modes of operation and have made PowerPoint available beyond Apple Macintosh and Microsoft Windows, adding versions for iOS, web access.
PowerPoint was created by Robert Gaskins and Dennis Austin at a software startup in Silicon Valley named Forethought, Inc. Forethought had been founded in 1983 to create an integrated environment and applications for future personal computers that would provide a graphical user interface, but it had run into difficulties requiring a "restart" and new plan. On July 5, 1984, Forethought hired Robert Gaskins as its vice president of product development to create a new application that would be suited to the new graphical personal computers, such as Microsoft Windows and Apple Macintosh. Gaskins produced his initial description of PowerPoint about a month in the form of a 2-page document titled "Presentation Graphics for Overhead Projection." By October 1984 Gaskins had selected Dennis Austin to be the developer for PowerPoint. Gaskins and Austin worked together on the definition and design of the new product for nearly a year, produced the first specification document dated August 21, 1985; this first design document showed a product as it would look in Microsoft Windows 1.0, which at that time had not been released.
Development from that spec was begun by Austin for Macintosh first. About six months on May 1, 1986, Gaskins and Austin chose a second developer to join the project, Thomas Rudkin. Gaskins prepared two final product specification marketing documents in June 1986. At about the same time, Austin and Gaskins produced a second and final major design specification document, this time showing a Macintosh look. Throughout this development period the product was called "Presenter." Just before release, there was a last-minute check with Forethought's lawyers to register the name as a trademark, "Presenter" was unexpectedly rejected because it had been used by someone else. Gaskins says that he thought of "PowerPoint", based on the product's goal of "empowering" individual presenters, sent that name to the lawyers for clearance, while all the documentation was hastily revised. Funding to complete development of PowerPoint was assured in mid-January, 1987, when a new Apple Computer venture capital fund, called Apple's Strategic Investment Group, selected PowerPoint to be its first investment.
A month on February 22, 1987, Forethought announced PowerPoint at the Personal Computer Forum in Phoenix. By early 1987, Microsoft was starting to plan a new application to create presentations, an activity led by Jeff Raikes, head of marketing for the Applications Division. Microsoft assigned an internal group to write a specification and plan for a new presentation product, they contemplated an acquisition to speed up development, in early 1987 Microsoft sent a letter of intent to acquire Dave Winer's product called MORE, an outlining program that could print its outlines as bullet charts. During this preparatory activity Raikes discovered that a program to make overhead presentations was being developed by Forethought, Inc. and that it was nearly completed. Raikes and others visited Forethought on February 1987, for a confidential demonstration. Raikes recounted his reaction to s