England is a country, part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to Scotland to the north-northwest; the Irish Sea lies west of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south; the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight. The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Palaeolithic period, but takes its name from the Angles, a Germanic tribe deriving its name from the Anglia peninsula, who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries. England became a unified state in the 10th century, since the Age of Discovery, which began during the 15th century, has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world; the English language, the Anglican Church, English law – the basis for the common law legal systems of many other countries around the world – developed in England, the country's parliamentary system of government has been adopted by other nations.
The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the world's first industrialised nation. England's terrain is chiefly low hills and plains in central and southern England. However, there is upland and mountainous terrain in the west; the capital is London, which has the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. England's population of over 55 million comprises 84% of the population of the United Kingdom concentrated around London, the South East, conurbations in the Midlands, the North West, the North East, Yorkshire, which each developed as major industrial regions during the 19th century; the Kingdom of England – which after 1535 included Wales – ceased being a separate sovereign state on 1 May 1707, when the Acts of Union put into effect the terms agreed in the Treaty of Union the previous year, resulting in a political union with the Kingdom of Scotland to create the Kingdom of Great Britain. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The name "England" is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means "land of the Angles"; the Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages. The Angles came from the Anglia peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea; the earliest recorded use of the term, as "Engla londe", is in the late-ninth-century translation into Old English of Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People. The term was used in a different sense to the modern one, meaning "the land inhabited by the English", it included English people in what is now south-east Scotland but was part of the English kingdom of Northumbria; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle recorded that the Domesday Book of 1086 covered the whole of England, meaning the English kingdom, but a few years the Chronicle stated that King Malcolm III went "out of Scotlande into Lothian in Englaland", thus using it in the more ancient sense.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its modern spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, in which the Latin word Anglii is used; the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars. How and why a term derived from the name of a tribe, less significant than others, such as the Saxons, came to be used for the entire country and its people is not known, but it seems this is related to the custom of calling the Germanic people in Britain Angli Saxones or English Saxons to distinguish them from continental Saxons of Old Saxony between the Weser and Eider rivers in Northern Germany. In Scottish Gaelic, another language which developed on the island of Great Britain, the Saxon tribe gave their name to the word for England. An alternative name for England is Albion; the name Albion referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus the 4th-century BC De Mundo: "Beyond the Pillars of Hercules is the ocean that flows round the earth.
In it are two large islands called Britannia. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, i.e. it was written in the Graeco-Roman period or afterwards. The word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins, it either derives from a cognate of the Latin albus meaning white, a reference to the white cliffs of Dover or from the phrase the "island of the Albiones" in the now lost Massaliote Periplus, attested through Avienus' Ora Maritima to which the former served as a source. Albion is now applied to England in a more poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England and made popular by its use in Arthurian legend; the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximate
Thetford is a market town and civil parish in the Breckland district of Norfolk, England. It is on the A11 road between London, just south of Thetford Forest. After World War II Thetford became an ‘overspill town’ taking people from London, as a result of which its population increased substantially; the civil parish, covering an area of 29.55 km2, has a population of 24,340. The Iceni were parts of Cambridgeshire. Archaeological evidence suggests that Thetford was an important tribal centre during the late Iron Age and early Roman period. A ceremonial'grove' was uncovered there during excavations. In 1979, a hoard of Romano-British metalwork, known as the Thetford treasure was located just outside Thetford. Dating from the mid-4th century AD, this hoard is a collection of thirty three inscribed spoons, twenty gold finger rings, four pendants, several necklaces and a 2" gold buckle depicting a dancing satyr; the origin of the name Thetford is unclear. The site was an important crossing of the River Little Ouse, so one possibility is that the settlement drew its name from the Anglo-Saxon Theodford or peoples ford.
It is unclear if the nearby River Thet is named after the crossing or the settlement. The Domesday Book lists William of Bello Fargo as the Bishop of Thetford in 1085. Castle Hill, to the south-east of the town centre, is a Norman motte though no trace remains of the castle which once surmounted it; the mound is open to the public, provides views of the town from its summit and extensive earthworks. It is in a public park, near the Three Nuns Bridges and close to the town centre overlooking the rivers. Thetford contains the ruins of a 12th-century Cluniac priory. Thetford Priory was closed during the Reformation. Both the Priory and the Bell Inn in Thetford, were featured for their alleged hauntings on the television series Ghosthunters; the Black Horse public house dates from the mid 18th century, is grade II listed. The Norfolk Lent Assizes were held at Thetford from 1264 because there was only one Assize for both Norfolk and Suffolk. Thetford, being close to the border between the two, was convenient for both.
However, after much pressure, an Act of Parliament was passed in 1832 to transfer them to Norwich. There had been pressure to do so for many years. In 1825 an MP, Mr John Buxton, told the House of Commons that prisoners had to be carried the 30 miles from Norwich Gaol in an open waggon and, on arrival at Thetford, were placed in a prison, which, "if he were to describe it, would shock and offend the House". Thomas Howard, 2nd Duke of Norfolk and other early Tudor dynasty officials were once buried in Thetford before removal to Framlingham; the Duke of Norfolk died on 21 May 1524. His funeral and burial on 22 June at Thetford Priory were said to have been'spectacular and enormously expensive, costing over £1300 and including a procession of 400 hooded men bearing torches and an elaborate bier surmounted with 100 wax effigies and 700 candles', befitting the richest and most powerful peer in England. After the dissolution of Thetford Priory, the Howard tombs were moved to the Church of St Michael the Archangel, Framlingham.
Thetford was the birthplace of Thomas Paine and his statue stands on King Street, holding a quill and his book Rights of Man, upside down. Paine attended Thetford Grammar School. Born in Thetford on 9 February 1737, Paine emigrated to the British American colonies in 1774 where he was to participate in the American Revolution, his principal contributions were the pamphlet Common Sense, advocating colonial America's independence from the Kingdom of Great Britain, The American Crisis, a pro-revolutionary pamphlet series. Dr Allan Glaisyer Minns, born in Inagua, the Bahamas, Mayor of Thetford in 1904, was the first black man to become a mayor in Britain, his son Allan Noel Minns a doctor, was awarded the DSO and MC in the First World War. From the 1950s Thetford became a London overspill town. In 1953 the Thetford Borough Council approached the London County Council to become part of the town's expansion scheme. An agreement was signed in 1957 and work began on new housing estates to accommodate 5,000 Londoners.
In 1960 another 5,000 Londoners moved to Thetford increasing the population to about 17,000 people. An additional 1,500 houses were built by 1965. Development shifted to the Abbey Farm estate to the north of the river, construction of which started in 1967, with 1,000 houses, public open spaces and footpaths. By the late 1980s the population of Thetford had reached around 21,000 people; this meant that Thetford grew faster than any other town in Norfolk, indeed in the whole country. The British Trust for Ornithology moved its headquarters into the former Nunnery, south of the town centre, in 1991; the Ancient House Museum, situated on White Hart Street, is an oak-framed Tudor merchant's house. The museum holds replicas of the Thetford Treasure and has displays about flint knapping, rabbit warreners and wildlife in the brecks; the Ancient House was gifted to the town by Prince Frederick Duleep Singh. The surrounding Breckland has been replaced by the Thetford Forest, though Thetford Chase remains.
East Harling near Thetford hosts an annual Autumn Equinox Festival for astronomy. The town is the site for the UK's Star Party, as it is centrally located in a rural area with dark night skies. An annual concert, STORM open air festival used to take place at the Castle Green; the local football club, Thetford Town F. C. plays in the Eastern Counties Football League. The Breckland & District Sunday Football League, encompasses teams from within a 20-mile radius of Thetford. Thetford Cricket Club play their home games next to the football club on Mundford Road, they have 3 men's teams
Norwich is a historic city in Norfolk, England. Situated on the River Wensum in East Anglia, it lies 100 miles north-east of London, it is the county town of Norfolk and is considered the capital of East Anglia, with a population of 141,300. From the Middle Ages until the Industrial Revolution, Norwich was the largest city in England after London, one of the most important; the city is the most complete medieval city in the UK, including cobbled streets such as Elm Hill, Timber Hill and Tombland, ancient buildings such as St Andrew's Hall, half-timbered houses such as Dragon Hall, The Guildhall and Strangers' Hall, the Art Nouveau of the 1899 Royal Arcade, many medieval lanes and the winding River Wensum that flows through the city centre towards Norwich Castle. The city has two universities, the University of East Anglia and the Norwich University of the Arts, two cathedrals, Norwich Cathedral and St John the Baptist Cathedral. Norwich is the only city containing part of a National Park, the Norfolk Broads, it holds the largest permanent undercover market in Europe.
The urban area of Norwich had a population of 213,166 according to the 2011 Census. The parliamentary seats cross over into adjacent local-government districts. A total of 132,512 people live in the City of Norwich and the population of the Norwich Travel to Work Area is 282,000. Norwich is the fourth most densely populated local-government district in the East of England, with 3,480 people per square kilometre. In May 2012, Norwich was designated England's first UNESCO City of Literature. One of the UK's most popular tourist destinations, it was voted by The Guardian in 2016 as the "happiest city to work in the UK" and in 2013 as one of the best small cities in the world by The Times Good University Guide. In 2018, Norwich was voted one of the "Best Places To Live" in the UK by The Sunday Times; the capital of the Iceni tribe was a settlement located near to the village of Caistor St. Edmund on the River Tas 8 kilometres to the south of modern-day Norwich. Following an uprising led by Boudica around AD 60 the Caistor area became the Roman capital of East Anglia named Venta Icenorum "the marketplace of the Iceni".
The Roman settlement fell into disuse around 450 and the Anglo-Saxons settled on the site of the modern city between the 5th and 7th centuries, founding the towns of Northwic and the secondary settlement at Thorpe. According to a local rhyme, the demise of Venta Icenorum led to the development of Norwich: "Caistor was a city when Norwich was none, Norwich was built of Caistor stone." There are two suggested models of development for Norwich. It is possible that three separate early Anglo-Saxon settlements, one on the north of the river and two either side on the south, joined together as they grew or that one Anglo-Saxon settlement, on the north of the river, emerged in the mid-7th century after the abandonment of the previous three; the ancient city was a thriving centre for trade and commerce in East Anglia in 1004 when it was raided and burnt by Swein Forkbeard the Viking king of Denmark. Mercian coins and shards of pottery from the Rhineland dating from the 8th century suggest that long-distance trade was happening long before this.
Between 924 and 939, Norwich became established as a town, with its own mint. The word Norvic appears on coins across Europe minted during this period, in the reign of King Athelstan; the Vikings were a strong cultural influence in Norwich for 40 to 50 years at the end of the 9th century, setting up an Anglo-Scandinavian district near the north end of present day King Street. At the time of the Norman Conquest the city was one of the largest in England; the Domesday Book states that it had 25 churches and a population of between 5,000 and 10,000. It records the site of an Anglo-Saxon church in Tombland, the site of the Saxon market place and the Norman cathedral. Norwich continued to be a major centre for trade, the River Wensum being a convenient export route to the River Yare and Great Yarmouth, which served as the port for Norwich. Quern stones and other artefacts from Scandinavia and the Rhineland have been found during excavations in Norwich city centre; these date from the 11th century onwards.
Norwich Castle was founded soon after the Norman Conquest. The Domesday Book records; the Normans established a new focus of settlement around the Castle and the area to the west of it: this became known as the "New" or "French" borough, centred on the Normans' own market place which survives to the present day as Norwich Market. In 1096, Herbert de Losinga, Bishop of Thetford, began construction of Norwich Cathedral; the chief building material for the Cathedral was limestone. To transport the building stone to the site, a canal was cut from the river, all the way up to the east wall. Herbert de Losinga moved his See there to what became the cathedral church for the Diocese of Norwich; the Bishop of Norwich still signs himself Norvic. Norwich received a royal charter from Henry II in 1158, another one from Richard the Lionheart in 1194. Following a riot in the city in 1274, Norwich has the distinction of being the only complete English city to be excommunicated by the Pope; the first recorded presence of Jews in Norwich is 1134.
In 1144, the Jews of Norwich were accused of ritual murder after a boy was found dead with stab wounds. William acquired the status of martyr
Boudica or Boudicca was a queen of the British Celtic Iceni tribe who led an uprising against the occupying forces of the Roman Empire in AD 60 or 61. She was said to have poisoned herself, she is considered a British folk hero. Boudica's husband, ruled as a nominally independent ally of Rome, left his kingdom jointly to his daughters and to the Roman emperor in his will. However, when he died, his will was ignored, the kingdom was annexed and his property taken. According to Tacitus, Boudica was flogged and her daughters raped. Cassius Dio explains Boudica's response by saying that previous imperial donations to influential Britons were confiscated and the Roman financier and philosopher Seneca called in the loans he had forced on the reluctant Britons. In AD 60 or 61, when the Roman governor Gaius Suetonius Paulinus was campaigning on the island of Anglesey off the northwest coast of Wales, Boudica led the Iceni, the Trinovantes, others in revolt, they destroyed Camulodunum, earlier the capital of the Trinovantes but at that time a colonia, a settlement for discharged Roman soldiers and site of a temple to the former Emperor Claudius.
Upon hearing of the revolt, Suetonius hurried to Londinium, the 20-year-old commercial settlement, the rebels' next target. He lacked sufficient numbers to defend the settlement, he evacuated and abandoned Londinium. Boudica led a large army of Iceni and others to defeat a detachment of Legio IX Hispana, they burned and destroyed Londinium and Verulamium. An estimated 70,000–80,000 Romans and British were killed in the three cities by those led by Boudica, many by torture. Suetonius, regrouped his forces in the West Midlands; the crisis caused Nero to consider withdrawing all Roman forces from Britain, but Suetonius' victory over Boudica confirmed Roman control of the province. Boudica either killed herself to avoid capture, or died of illness. Interest in these events was revived in the English Renaissance and led to Boudica's fame in the Victorian era. Boudica has remained an important cultural symbol in the United Kingdom. Boudica has been known by several versions of her name. Raphael Holinshed calls her Voadicia, while Edmund Spenser calls her Bunduca, a version of the name, used in the popular Jacobean play Bonduca, in 1612.
William Cowper's poem, Boadicea, an ode popularised an alternative version of the name. From the 19th century until the late 20th century, Boadicea was the most common version of the name, derived from a mistranscription when a manuscript of Tacitus was copied in the Middle Ages, her name was spelled Boudicca in the best manuscripts of Tacitus, but Βουδουικα, Βουνδουικα, Βοδουικα in the epitome of Cassius Dio. Kenneth Jackson concludes, based on development of Welsh and Irish, that the name derives from the Proto-Celtic feminine adjective *boudīkā, "victorious", that in turn is derived from the Celtic word *boudā, "victory", that the correct spelling of the name in Common Brittonic is Boudica, pronounced Celtic pronunciation:; the Gaulish version is attested in inscriptions as Boudiga in Bordeaux, Boudica in Lusitania, Bodicca in Algeria. The closest English equivalent to the vowel in the first syllable is the ow in "bow-and-arrow". John Rhys suggested that the most comparable Latin name, in meaning only, would be "Victorina".
Tacitus took a particular interest in Britain as his father-in-law Gnaeus Julius Agricola served there three times. Agricola was a military tribune under Suetonius Paulinus, which certainly gave Tacitus an eyewitness source for Boudica's revolt. Cassius Dio's account is only known from an epitome, his sources are uncertain, he is agreed to have based his account on that of Tacitus, but he simplifies the sequence of events and adds details, such as the calling in of loans, that Tacitus does not mention. It is agreed. Cassius Dio describes her as tall, with tawny hair hanging down to below her waist, a harsh voice and a piercing glare, he writes that she habitually wore a large golden necklace, a colourful tunic, a thick cloak fastened by a brooch. Boudica's husband, was the king of the Iceni, a people who inhabited what is now Norfolk. During Claudius's conquest of southern Britain in AD 43, the Iceni allied with Rome, they were proud of their independence, had revolted in AD 47 when the Roman governor Publius Ostorius Scapula planned to disarm all the peoples in the area of Britain under Roman control following a number of local uprisings.
Ostorius went on to put down other uprisings around Britain. The Iceni remained independent, under Prasutagus, it is unknown. Tacitus mentions longstanding reasons for the Trinovantes to hate Rome: "It was against the veterans that their hatred was most intense. For these new settlers in the colony of Camulodunum drove people out of their houses, ejected them from their farms, called them captives and slaves...."The immediate cause of the rebellion was gross mistreatment by the Romans. Tacitus wrote, "The Iceni
Norfolk Fire and Rescue Service
Norfolk Fire and Rescue Service is the statutory fire and rescue service for the county of Norfolk in the east of England. The county consists of 2,074 square miles; the Headquarters of Norfolk Fire and Rescue Service is in the village of Hethersett, 6 miles south-west of Norwich. The full address is Whitegates, Hethersett, NR9 3DN. Whitegates was commandeered for use by the National Fire Service during the Second World War and was purchased by Norfolk County Council in 1950; the building was built as a family home in the late eighteenth century and has had various owners over the years. New building at the rear of the original house in recent times has replaced the coach house and stables of earlier times. In 2014-15 the NFRS attended 7,285 incidents where 749 people were 63 fatalities. Consisting of 2143 fires, 2809 special services and 2333 false alarms which required no further action; the service have noticed a reduction in the number of fire's they attend, however an increasing response to Road Traffic Collisions on Norfolk's roads.
30 Rescue Pumps: the standard firefighting vehicle mobilised to all emergency calls. These appliances are equipped with a high-pressure two-stage main pump capable of making foam via an onboard foam inductor system, two high-pressure hose reels, a set of rescue ladders, a light portable fire pump, four breathing apparatus sets, two spare breathing air cylinders and hydraulic rescue equipment, as well as other miscellaneous tools. 4 Heavy Rescue Pumps: similar to the rescue pump, however more emphasis on rescue operations and incidents. 24 Water Tenders: similar to the rescue pump, however less emphasis on rescue equipment but more water capacity. 3 Aerial Ladder Platforms: extendible ladder platforms with rescue cages and additional lighting, these vehicles provide high-level access and firefighting capability, with a vertical reach of 100 ft 80 ft sideways, up to 55 ft below ground level. Rescue Pump: P1 / P2 Water Ladder: P3 / P4 Heavy Rescue Pump: P7 Rural Response Pump: P8 Foam / Water Carrier: W9 Aerial Ladder Platform: A6 Command & Control Unit: C0 Environmental Protection Unit: H0 Fire & Emergency Support Service: FESS Operational & Welfare Support Unit: S1 Technical Rescue Unit: S0 Inshore Rescue Boat Prime Mover: T9Pods: High Volume Pump High Volume Hose Layer CBRN Response: Incident Response Unit: H9 Urban Search & Rescue Unit: Norfolk hosts one of the UK's Urban Search and Rescue teams, these were set up as a response to the 9/11 tragedy in New York.
The Norfolk team comprises 15 wholetime USAR technicians and 16 retained technicians along with a search dog. The team is based in Dereham in central Norfolk alongside the town's retained crew. Search & Rescue Dog Unit: R9 Technical Rescue Unit: S0 Inshore Rescue Boat Operational Support Unit: S1 Prime Mover: T6 / T7 / T8Pods: Module 1 - Technical Search Equipment Module 2 - Heavy Transport, Confined Space & Hot Cutting Equipment Module 3 - Breaching & Breaking Equipment Module 4 - Multi Purpose Vehicle Module 5 - Shoring Operations 1966 Neatishead - three firefighters lost their lives tackling a fire in a bunker at RAF Neatishead; the cause was arson. 1991 Thetford - Plastic recycling centre. A large fire which burned for four days 1994 Norwich - Norwich library destroyed by fire; the main fire station of Norwich was opposite the library but due to the dramatic spread of the fire the building could not be saved 1995 Wroxham - a ten-hour blaze in a department store 1995 Norwich - a fire in the historic Assembly Rooms 1998 Attleborough - Poultry processing plant fire 1999 Ditchingham - Maltings fire 2011 Great Yarmouth - four men killed in industrial accident.
The signal box was not alerted to the accident for 24 minutes 2013 Swaffham - Fish and Chip shop destroyed in blaze with 10 appliances in attendance. 2014 Fakenham - 90 firefighters attended a fire in a department store 2014 Cley-next-the-Sea - a US Air Force Sikorsky HH-60 Pave Hawk crashed, killing four crew 2014 Gillingham - four men killed in helicopter crash in thick fog. 2016 Great Yarmouth - 20 plus appliances and 88 fire crews attend large fire on Regent road inside Regent Arcade and Super Bowl UK Regent. Building destroyed. Facilities UK Firefighter dispute 2002/2003 Historical Fire Brigades of the United Kingdom History of fire safety legislation in the United Kingdom List of British firefighters killed in the line of duty The Fire Service College Fire Service Chief Fire Officers' Association UK Fire News
Domesday Book is a manuscript record of the "Great Survey" of much of England and parts of Wales completed in 1086 by order of King William the Conqueror. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle states: Then, at the midwinter, was the king in Gloucester with his council.... After this had the king a large meeting, deep consultation with his council, about this land. Sent he his men over all England into each shire, it was written in Medieval Latin, was abbreviated, included some vernacular native terms without Latin equivalents. The survey's main purpose was to determine what taxes had been owed during the reign of King Edward the Confessor, which allowed William to reassert the rights of the Crown and assess where power lay after a wholesale redistribution of land following the Norman conquest; the assessors' reckoning of a man's holdings and their values, as recorded in Domesday Book, was dispositive and without appeal. The name "Domesday Book" came into use in the 12th century; as Richard FitzNeal wrote in the Dialogus de Scaccario: for as the sentence of that strict and terrible last account cannot be evaded by any skilful subterfuge, so when this book is appealed to... its sentence cannot be quashed or set aside with impunity.
That is why we have called the book "the Book of Judgement"... because its decisions, like those of the Last Judgement, are unalterable. The manuscript is held at The National Archives at London. In 2011, the Open Domesday site made the manuscript available online; the book is an invaluable primary source for historical economists. No survey approaching the scope and extent of Domesday Book was attempted again in Britain until the 1873 Return of Owners of Land which presented the first complete, post-Domesday picture of the distribution of landed property in the British Isles. Domesday Book encompasses two independent works; these were "Little Domesday", "Great Domesday" No surveys were made of the City of London, Winchester, or some other towns due to their tax-exempt status. Most of Cumberland and Westmorland are missing. County Durham is missing; the omission of the other counties and towns is not explained, although in particular Cumberland and Westmorland had yet to be conquered. "Little Domesday" – so named because its format is physically smaller than its companion's – is the more detailed survey, down to numbers of livestock.
It may have represented the first attempt, resulting in a decision to avoid such level of detail in "Great Domesday". Both volumes are organised into a series of chapters listing the fees, held by a named tenant-in-chief of the king, namely religious institutions, Norman warrior magnates and a few Saxon thegns who had made peace with the Norman regime; some of the largest such magnates held several hundred fees, in a few cases in more than one county. For example, the chapter of the Domesday Book Devonshire section concerning Baldwin the Sheriff lists 176 holdings held in-chief by him. Only a few of the holdings of the large magnates were held in demesne, most having been subinfeudated to knights military followers of the tenant-in-chief which latter thus became their overlord; the fees listed within the chapter concerning a particular tenant-in-chief were ordered, but not in a systematic or rigorous fashion, by the Hundred Court under the jurisdiction of which they were situated, not by geographic location.
As a review of taxes owed, it was unpopular. Each county's list opened with the king's demesne lands, it should be borne in mind that under the feudal system the king was the only true "owner" of land in England, under his allodial title. He was thus the ultimate overlord and the greatest magnate could do no more than "hold" land from him as a tenant under one of the various contracts of feudal land tenure. Holdings of Bishops followed of the abbeys and religious houses of lay tenants-in-chief and lastly the king's serjeants, Saxon thegns who had survived the Conquest, all in hierarchical order. In some counties, one or more principal towns formed the subject of a separate section: in some the clamores were treated separately; this principle applies more to the larger volume: in the smaller one, the system is more confused, the execution less perfect. Domesday names a total of 13,418 places. Apart from the wholly rural portions, which constitute its bulk, Domesday contains entries of interest concerning most of t
Acle is a small market town on the River Bure on the Norfolk Broads in Norfolk, located halfway between Norwich and Great Yarmouth. It has the only bridge across the River Bure between Great Yarmouth. There is a high school in the town; the civil parish has an area of 9.46 km2 and in 2001 had a population of 2,732 in 1,214 households, increasing to a population of 2,824 in 1,285 households at the Census 2011. For the purposes of local government, the parish falls within the area of the district of Broadland; the name "Acle" means "oaks lea". In Tudor times, hundreds of oaks were felled here for timber to construct Elizabeth I's warships. In Roman times, Acle was a port at the head of a large estuary named Gariensis. Acle is mentioned in the Domesday Book, in 1253 it was granted a market charter; the livestock and local farmers' market persisted into the 1970s. In 1382, Acle received the right for a "turbary". Acle beyond are possible; the Acle Straight is a turnpike road connecting Acle to Great Yarmouth.
It opened in 1831. Acle railway station, built in 1883, lies on the Wherry Line from Norwich to Great Yarmouth. In 1892 a foundry was constructed that specialised in building windpumps for land drainage, including the last windpump built for the Broads, at Ash Tree Farm; the three-mile £7.1m dual-carriageway A47 bypass opened in March 1989. Since the turn of the century, a walkway running from the station to the Boat Dyke has been constructed by local volunteers. On the Damgate walk, there have been repeated sightings of a kingfisher, locally known as Henry, said to fly under the abandoned railway bridge around mid afternoon; the church of St Edmund is one of 124 existing round-tower churches in Norfolk. The round stage of the tower is the oldest part of the church, thought to be Saxon in origin and of a date between 850 and 950 AD; the octagonal stage was added in the 13th century when the roof was raised. The battlements are from 1472; the tower houses six bells, five of which were cast in Norwich and date from 1623.
The tower is reinforced with a metal frame to enable the bells to be rung safely. Entry to the church is by a porch on the north side, built in 1495; the dressed flints are in contrast with most of the walls. The main body of the church, the nave, is thought on the evidence of the measurements and wall thickness to be Norman in origin; this is not obvious as no Norman doorways or arches remain. In 1927, when ivy was being stripped from the outside walls, one of the buttresses collapsed revealing a find of Norman-worked stones, which were reassembled for safekeeping in the roof stair space, it is probable that all the Norman doors and archways were demolished when the floor level was raised to prevent flooding, in the 13th century. It is reasonable to assume; the main nave windows are 14th century, one near the pulpit is Tudor. The walls were painted at one time – a small fragment of a dragon or a serpent-like creature still exists on the wall of the old rood staircase; the stone font in the nave is dated 1410.
A 15th century wooden screen separates the nave from the chancel. It was not made for Acle church, may have been brought from St Benet's Abbey or the Augustinian priory at Weybridge; the 14th century chancel replaced an apse. Nowhere Acle Village Website Information from Genuki Norfolk on Acle. Website with photos of Acle St Edmund, a round-tower church Acle windmills from the Norfolkmills website Acle in the Domesday Book