Office of Naval Research
The Office of Naval Research is an organization within the United States Department of the Navy that coordinates and promotes the science and technology programs of the U. S. Navy and Marine Corps through schools, government laboratories, nonprofit organizations, for-profit organizations. ONR Headquarters is in the Ballston neighborhood of Virginia. Accordingly, the nearest Washington Metro stop to ONR offices is Ballston, served by both the Orange Line and the Silver Line. Additionally, ONR Global has offices overseas in Santiago, Prague and Tokyo. ONR was authorized by an Act of Congress, Public Law 588, subsequently approved by President Harry S. Truman on 1 August 1946, with the stated mission of "planning and encouraging scientific research in recognition of its paramount importance as related to the maintenance of future naval power and the preservation of national security." Today, ONR carries out its mission by funding world-class scientists and engineers who perform basic research, technology development, advanced technology demonstrations.
More than 50 researchers have won a Nobel Prize for their ONR-funded work. Continuous investment in new and innovative technology enables ONR to build and maintain the world's most capable Navy, its focus is long term, yet it is responsive to near-term Naval needs. ONR's balanced S&T Portfolio is allocated to meet the broad spectrum of warfighter requirements: 10% Quick Reaction 30% S&T Acquisition Enablers 10% Leap Ahead Innovations 40% Discovery & Invention 10% Other. ONR reports to the U. S. Secretary of the Navy through the Assistant Secretary of the Navy for Research and Acquisition; the Chief of Naval Research is Rear Admiral David J. Hahn and the Vice Chief of Naval Research is Brigadier General Christian F. Wortman, United States Marine Corps, who serves as Director of United States Marine Corps Futures Directorate and Commanding General of the United States Marine Corps Warfighting Laboratory. ONR executes its mission through science and technology departments, corporate programs, the Naval Research Laboratory, the ONR Global office.
In 2007, a Naval S&T Strategic Plan was developed to describe how ONR will enable the future operational concepts of the Navy and the Marine Corps. This plan was updated in 2009 and 2011. By design, it is a broad strategy that provides strong direction for the future, but it is aimed to retain sufficient flexibility and freedom of action to allow ONR to meet emerging challenges or alter course as directed by senior Naval leadership. ONR has six science and technology departments that fund basic research programs through U. S. universities. S. industry and companies. The six departments support efforts span from combating terrorism to oceanography and from sea warfare to life sciences. Additionally, ONR has an Office of Transition that supports technology transitions to the Navy and Marine Corps. In general, corporate programs are designed to increase the numbers and capabilities of engineers and government personnel available to carry out efforts that support national defense and to provide evolutionary and revolutionary technological capabilities to the United States Navy and Marine Corps.
To accomplish this, ONR supports many Corporate research and education programs: Naval Research Enterprise Intern Program Multidisciplinary Research Program of the URI Defense University Research Instrumentation Program of the URI DoD Experimental Program to Stimulate Competitive Research Young Investigator Program DoD National Defense Science and Engineering Graduate Fellowship Program of the URI Summer Faculty Research Program Faculty Sabbatical Leave Program Naval High School Science Awards Program HBCU Future Engineering Faculty Fellowship Program Science and Engineering Apprentice Program Founded in 1923, NRL employs over 2,500 scientists and engineers. NRL is the corporate research laboratory for the Navy and Marine Corps and conducts a broad program of scientific research and advanced development, it has a prestigious history, including the development of the first U. S. radar system, developing synthetic lubricants, over-the-horizon radar, the first U. S. surveillance satellite, the Clementine mission.
A few of the Laboratory's current specialties include plasma physics, space physics, materials science, tactical electronic warfare. The U. S. Office of Naval Research Global provides worldwide science & technology-based solutions to current and future Naval challenges. ONR Global combines the expertise of over 40 scientists and engineers with a physical presence on five continents; the ONR Global team is committed to working with the broad global technical community and the operational Fleet/Force commands to foster cooperation in areas of mutual interest and to bring the full range of possibility to the Navy and Marine Corps. ONR Global regional offices are located in: RAF Blenheim Crescent, London, U. K. Santia
An affidavit is a written sworn statement of fact voluntarily made by an affiant or deponent under an oath or affirmation administered by a person authorized to do so by law. Such statement is witnessed as to the authenticity of the affiant's signature by a taker of oaths, such as a notary public or commissioner of oaths. An affidavit is a type of verified statement or showing, or in other words, it contains a verification, meaning it is under oath or penalty of perjury, this serves as evidence to its veracity and is required for court proceedings. Affidavits may be written depending on who drafted the document; the document's component parts are as follows: a commencement which identifies the "affiant of truth" stating that everything in it is true, under penalty of perjury, fine, or imprisonment. If an affidavit is notarized or authenticated, it will include a caption with a venue and title in reference to judicial proceedings. In some cases, an introductory clause, called a preamble, is added attesting that the affiant appeared before the authenticating authority.
On 2 March 2016, the High Court of Australia held that the ACT Uniform Evidence Legislation is neutral in the way sworn evidence and unsworn evidence is treated as being of equal weight. In Indian law, although an affidavit may be taken as proof of the facts stated therein, the Courts have no jurisdiction to admit evidence by way of affidavit. Affidavit is treated as "evidence" within the meaning of Section 3 of the Evidence Act. However, it was held by the Supreme Court that an affidavit can be used as evidence only if the Court so orders for sufficient reasons, the right of the opposite party to have the deponent produced for cross-examination. Therefore, an affidavit cannot ordinarily be used as evidence in absence of a specific order of the Court. In Sri Lanka, under the Oaths Ordinance, with the exception of court marshals, a person may submit an affidavit signed in the presence of a Commissioner for Oaths or a justice of the peace. Affidavits are made in a similar way as to England and Wales, although "make oath" is sometimes omitted.
A declaration may be substituted for an affidavit in most cases for those opposed to swearing oaths. The person making the affidavit does not sign the affidavit; the affidavit concludes in the standard format "sworn before me, a commissioner for oaths, on the at in the county/city of, I know the deponent", it is signed and stamped by the commissioner for oaths. In American jurisprudence, under the rules for hearsay, admission of an unsupported affidavit as evidence is unusual with regard to material facts which may be dispositive of the matter at bar. Affidavits from persons who are dead or otherwise incapacitated, or who cannot be located or made to appear, may be accepted by the court, but only in the presence of corroborating evidence. An affidavit which reflected a better grasp of the facts close in time to the actual events may be used to refresh a witness's recollection. Materials used to refresh recollection are admissible as evidence. If the affiant is a party in the case, the affiant's opponent may be successful in having the affidavit admitted as evidence, as statements by a party-opponent are admissible through an exception to the hearsay rule.
Affidavits are included in the response to interrogatories. Requests for admissions under Federal Rule of Civil Procedure 36, are not required to be sworn; some types of motions will not be accepted by the court unless accompanied by an independent sworn statement or other evidence, in support of the need for the motion. In such a case, a court will accept an affidavit from the filing attorney in support of the motion, as certain assumptions are made, to wit: The affidavit in place of sworn testimony promotes judicial economy; the lawyer is an officer of the court and knows that a false swearing by him, if found out, could be grounds for severe penalty up to and including disbarment. The lawyer if called upon would be able to present independent and more detailed evidence to prove the facts set forth in his affidavit; the acceptance of an affidavit by one society does not confirm its acceptance as a legal document in other jurisdictions. The acceptance that a lawyer is an officer of the court is not a given.
This matter is addressed by the use of the apostille, a means of certifying the legalization of a document for international use under the terms of the 1961 Hague Convention Abolishing the Requirement of Legalization for Foreign Public Documents. Documents which have been notarized by a notary public, certain other documents, certified with a conformant apostille, are accepted for legal use in all the nations that have signed the Hague Convention, thus most affidavits now require to be apostilled. There are various occasions or circumstances when a person needs an affidavit for a specific purpose and for that reason there are multiple as listed below: Affidavit of Support Affidavit of Residence Affidavit of Small Estate Financial Affidavit Affidavit of Death Affidavit of Name Change Divorce Affidavit Affidavit of Identity Theft Affidavit of Heirship Affidavit of Service Declaration Deposition Fishman Affidavit, a well-
Acoustic signature is used to describe a combination of acoustic emissions of sound emitters, such as those of ships and submarines. In addition, aircraft and living animals can be described as having their own characteristic acoustic signatures or sound attributes, which can be used to study their condition and physical location; the analysis of acoustic signatures is an important adjunct to passive sonar used to track naval warships and weapons. Similar methods have been used to identify aircraft before the development of sophisticated radar tracking; the acoustic signature is made up of a number of individual elements. These include: Machinery noise: noise generated by a ship's engines, propeller shafts, fuel pumps, air conditioning systems, etc. Cavitation noise: noise generated by the creation of gas bubbles by the turning of a ship's propellers. Hydrodynamic noise: noise generated by the movement of water displaced by the hull of a moving vessel; these emissions depend on the installed machinery and ship's displacement.
Therefore, different ship classes will have different combinations of acoustic signals that together form a unique signature. Hydrophones and sonar operating in passive mode can detect acoustic signals radiated by otherwise invisible submarines, use these signals to target attacks. Modern naval mines and torpedoes such as the CAPTOR mine can be programmed to distinguish the acoustic signatures of different vessels, leaving friendly vessels unmolested and attacking high-value targets when faced with multiple possible targets, e.g. distinguishing an aircraft carrier from its escorts. Warship designers aim to reduce the acoustic signature of ships and submarines just as much as they aim to reduce the radar cross sections and infra-red signals. For submarines, as a prime factor in how they can be detected the reduction of the acoustic signature is a primary goal; the acoustic signature can be reduced by fitting of machinery with the best possible mechanical tolerances and designed to produce a minimum of noise.
Decoupling the machinery from the hull by mounting machinery on rubber mounting blocks. Designing propellers to reduce cavitation, this led to the development of large slow turning propellers, today there is a preference now for pump-jet propulsors over propellers; the fitting of anechoic tiles to the hull, however ill fitting and loose anechoic tiles can themselves be a source of noise. Hydrodynamic efficiency to minimise the perturbation of water. Care in minimising protrusions from the hull. For a time the Royal Navy toyed with the idea of the trimaran hulled Future Surface Combatant; these would have had a low acoustic signature. With three blade like hulls these ships would have cut through the water with a minimum of hydrodynamic noise. Radiated mechanical noise would be minimised by using propulsors powered by a diesel-electric power plant; this project got as far as the construction of the research ship RV Triton to test the principle of a large scale trimaran design. Sonar Underwater acoustics Stealth ship Type 45 destroyer Anti-submarine warfare Submarine warfare Type 212 submarine Teardrop hull Spectrogram
United States Navy
The United States Navy is the naval warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the seven uniformed services of the United States. It is the largest and most capable navy in the world and it has been estimated that in terms of tonnage of its active battle fleet alone, it is larger than the next 13 navies combined, which includes 11 U. S. allies or partner nations. With the highest combined battle fleet tonnage and the world's largest aircraft carrier fleet, with eleven in service, two new carriers under construction. With 319,421 personnel on active duty and 99,616 in the Ready Reserve, the Navy is the third largest of the service branches, it has 282 deployable combat vessels and more than 3,700 operational aircraft as of March 2018, making it the second-largest air force in the world, after the United States Air Force. The U. S. Navy traces its origins to the Continental Navy, established during the American Revolutionary War and was disbanded as a separate entity shortly thereafter.
The U. S. Navy played a major role in the American Civil War by blockading the Confederacy and seizing control of its rivers, it played the central role in the World War II defeat of Imperial Japan. The US Navy emerged from World War II as the most powerful navy in the world; the 21st century U. S. Navy maintains a sizable global presence, deploying in strength in such areas as the Western Pacific, the Mediterranean, the Indian Ocean, it is a blue-water navy with the ability to project force onto the littoral regions of the world, engage in forward deployments during peacetime and respond to regional crises, making it a frequent actor in U. S. foreign and military policy. The Navy is administratively managed by the Department of the Navy, headed by the civilian Secretary of the Navy; the Department of the Navy is itself a division of the Department of Defense, headed by the Secretary of Defense. The Chief of Naval Operations is the most senior naval officer serving in the Department of the Navy.
The mission of the Navy is to maintain and equip combat-ready Naval forces capable of winning wars, deterring aggression and maintaining freedom of the seas. The U. S. Navy is a seaborne branch of the military of the United States; the Navy's three primary areas of responsibility: The preparation of naval forces necessary for the effective prosecution of war. The maintenance of naval aviation, including land-based naval aviation, air transport essential for naval operations, all air weapons and air techniques involved in the operations and activities of the Navy; the development of aircraft, tactics, technique and equipment of naval combat and service elements. U. S. Navy training manuals state that the mission of the U. S. Armed Forces is "to be prepared to conduct prompt and sustained combat operations in support of the national interest." As part of that establishment, the U. S. Navy's functions comprise sea control, power projection and nuclear deterrence, in addition to "sealift" duties, it follows as certain as that night succeeds the day, that without a decisive naval force we can do nothing definitive, with it, everything honorable and glorious.
Naval power... is the natural defense of the United States The Navy was rooted in the colonial seafaring tradition, which produced a large community of sailors and shipbuilders. In the early stages of the American Revolutionary War, Massachusetts had its own Massachusetts Naval Militia; the rationale for establishing a national navy was debated in the Second Continental Congress. Supporters argued that a navy would protect shipping, defend the coast, make it easier to seek out support from foreign countries. Detractors countered that challenging the British Royal Navy the world's preeminent naval power, was a foolish undertaking. Commander in Chief George Washington resolved the debate when he commissioned the ocean-going schooner USS Hannah to interdict British merchant ships and reported the captures to the Congress. On 13 October 1775, the Continental Congress authorized the purchase of two vessels to be armed for a cruise against British merchant ships. S. Navy; the Continental Navy achieved mixed results.
In August 1785, after the Revolutionary War had drawn to a close, Congress had sold Alliance, the last ship remaining in the Continental Navy due to a lack of funds to maintain the ship or support a navy. In 1972, the Chief of Naval Operations, Admiral Elmo Zumwalt, authorized the Navy to celebrate its birthday on 13 October to honor the establishment of the Continental Navy in 1775; the United States was without a navy for nearly a decade, a state of affairs that exposed U. S. maritime merchant ships to a series of attacks by the Barbary pirates. The sole armed maritime presence between 1790 and the launching of the U. S. Navy's first warships in 1797 was the U. S. Revenue-Marine, the primary predecessor of the U. S. Coast Guard. Although the USRCS conducted operations against the pirates, their depredations far outstripped its abilities and Congress passed the Naval Act of 1794 that established a permanent standing navy on 27 March 1794; the Naval Act ordered the construction and manning of six frigates and, by October 1797, the first three were brought into service: USS United States, USS Constellation, USS Constitution.
Due to his strong posture on having a strong standing Navy during this period, John Adams is "often called the father of the American Navy". In 1798–99 the Navy was involved in an undeclared Quasi-War with France. From 18
Federal Bureau of Investigation
The Federal Bureau of Investigation is the domestic intelligence and security service of the United States, its principal federal law enforcement agency. Operating under the jurisdiction of the United States Department of Justice, the FBI is a member of the U. S. Intelligence Community and reports to both the Attorney General and the Director of National Intelligence. A leading U. S. counter-terrorism, counterintelligence, criminal investigative organization, the FBI has jurisdiction over violations of more than 200 categories of federal crimes. Although many of the FBI's functions are unique, its activities in support of national security are comparable to those of the British MI5 and the Russian FSB. Unlike the Central Intelligence Agency, which has no law enforcement authority and is focused on intelligence collection abroad, the FBI is a domestic agency, maintaining 56 field offices in major cities throughout the United States, more than 400 resident agencies in smaller cities and areas across the nation.
At an FBI field office, a senior-level FBI officer concurrently serves as the representative of the Director of National Intelligence. Despite its domestic focus, the FBI maintains a significant international footprint, operating 60 Legal Attache offices and 15 sub-offices in U. S. consulates across the globe. These foreign offices exist for the purpose of coordination with foreign security services and do not conduct unilateral operations in the host countries; the FBI can and does at times carry out secret activities overseas, just as the CIA has a limited domestic function. The FBI was established in 1908 as the Bureau of the BOI or BI for short, its name was changed to the Federal Bureau of Investigation in 1935. The FBI headquarters is the J. Edgar Hoover Building, located in Washington, D. C. In the fiscal year 2016, the Bureau's total budget was $8.7 billion. The FBI's main goal is to protect and defend the United States, to uphold and enforce the criminal laws of the United States, to provide leadership and criminal justice services to federal, state and international agencies and partners.
The FBI's top priorities are: Protect the United States from terrorist attacks Protect the United States against foreign intelligence operations and espionage Protect the United States against cyber-based attacks and high-technology crimes Combat public corruption at all levels Protect civil rights, Combat transnational/national criminal organizations and enterprises Combat major white-collar crime Combat significant violent crime Support federal, state and international partners Upgrade technology to enable, further, the successful performances of its missions as stated above In 1896, the National Bureau of Criminal Identification was founded, which provided agencies across the country with information to identify known criminals. The 1901 assassination of President William McKinley created a perception that America was under threat from anarchists; the Departments of Justice and Labor had been keeping records on anarchists for years, but President Theodore Roosevelt wanted more power to monitor them.
The Justice Department had been tasked with the regulation of interstate commerce since 1887, though it lacked the staff to do so. It had made little effort to relieve its staff shortage until the Oregon land fraud scandal at the turn of the 20th Century. President Roosevelt instructed Attorney General Charles Bonaparte to organize an autonomous investigative service that would report only to the Attorney General. Bonaparte reached out to other agencies, including the U. S. Secret Service, for personnel, investigators in particular. On May 27, 1908, the Congress forbade this use of Treasury employees by the Justice Department, citing fears that the new agency would serve as a secret police department. Again at Roosevelt's urging, Bonaparte moved to organize a formal Bureau of Investigation, which would have its own staff of special agents; the Bureau of Investigation was created on July 26, 1908, after the Congress had adjourned for the summer. Attorney General Bonaparte, using Department of Justice expense funds, hired thirty-four people, including some veterans of the Secret Service, to work for a new investigative agency.
Its first "Chief" was Stanley Finch. Bonaparte notified the Congress of these actions in December 1908; the bureau's first official task was visiting and making surveys of the houses of prostitution in preparation for enforcing the "White Slave Traffic Act," or Mann Act, passed on June 25, 1910. In 1932, the bureau was renamed the United States Bureau of Investigation; the following year it was linked to the Bureau of Prohibition and rechristened the Division of Investigation before becoming an independent service within the Department of Justice in 1935. In the same year, its name was changed from the Division of Investigation to the present-day Federal Bureau of Investigation, or FBI. J. Edgar Hoover served as FBI Director from 1924 to 1972, a combined 48 years with the BOI, DOI, FBI, he was chiefly responsible for creating the Scientific Crime Detection Laboratory, or the FBI Laboratory, which opened in 1932, as part of his work to professionalize investigations by the government. Hoover was involved in most major cases and projects that the FBI handled during his tenure.
But as detailed below, his proved to be a controversial tenure as Bureau Director in its years. After Hoover's death, the Congress passed legislation that limited the tenure of future FBI Directors to ten years. Early homicide investigations of the new age
United States Department of State
The United States Department of State referred to as the State Department, is the federal executive department that advises the President and conducts international relations. Equivalent to the foreign ministry of other countries, it was established in 1789 as the nation's first executive department; the current Secretary of State is Mike Pompeo, who ascended to the office in April 2018 after Rex Tillerson resigned. The State Department's duties include implementing the foreign policy of the United States, operating the nation's diplomatic missions abroad, negotiating treaties and agreements with foreign entities, representing the United States at the United Nations, it is led by the Secretary of State, a member of the Cabinet, nominated by the President and confirmed by the Senate. In addition to administering the department, the Secretary of State serves as the nation's chief diplomat and representative abroad; the Secretary of State is the first Cabinet official in the order of precedence and in the presidential line of succession, after the Vice President of the United States, Speaker of the House of Representatives, President pro tempore of the Senate.
The State Department is headquartered in the Harry S Truman Building, a few blocks away from the White House, in the Foggy Bottom neighborhood of Washington, D. C.. The U. S. Constitution, drafted in Philadelphia in September 1787 and ratified by the 13 states the following year, gave the President the responsibility for the conduct of the nation's foreign relations; the House of Representatives and Senate approved legislation to establish a Department of Foreign Affairs on July 21, 1789, President Washington signed it into law on July 27, making the Department of Foreign Affairs the first federal agency to be created under the new Constitution. This legislation remains the basic law of the Department of State. In September 1789, additional legislation changed the name of the agency to the Department of State and assigned to it a variety of domestic duties; these responsibilities grew to include management of the United States Mint, keeper of the Great Seal of the United States, the taking of the census.
President George Washington signed the new legislation on September 15. Most of these domestic duties of the Department of State were turned over to various new federal departments and agencies that were established during the 19th century. However, the Secretary of State still retains a few domestic responsibilities, such as being the keeper of the Great Seal and being the officer to whom a President or Vice President of the United States wishing to resign must deliver an instrument in writing declaring the decision to resign. On September 29, 1789, President Washington appointed Thomas Jefferson of Virginia Minister to France, to be the first United States Secretary of State. John Jay had been serving in as Secretary of Foreign Affairs as a holdover from the Confederation since before Washington had taken office and would continue in that capacity until Jefferson returned from Europe many months later. From 1790 to 1800, the State Department had its headquarters in Philadelphia, the capital of the United States at the time.
It occupied a building at Fifth Streets. In 1800, it moved from Philadelphia to Washington, D. C. where it first occupied the Treasury Building and the Seven Buildings at 19th Street and Pennsylvania Avenue. It moved into the Six Buildings in September 1800, where it remained until May 1801, it moved into the War Office Building due west of the White House in May 1801. It occupied the Treasury Building from September 1819 to November 1866, except for the period from September 1814 to April 1816, it occupied the Washington City Orphan Home from November 1866 to July 1875. It moved to the State and Navy Building in 1875. Since May 1947, it has occupied the Harry S. Truman Building in the Foggy Bottom neighborhood of Washington. Condoleezza Rice became the second female secretary of state in 2005. Hillary Clinton became the third female secretary of state when she was appointed in 2009. In 2014, the State Department began expanding into the Navy Hill Complex across 23rd Street NW from the Truman Building.
A joint venture consisting of the architectural firms of Goody and the Louis Berger Group won a $2.5 million contract in January 2014 to begin planning the renovation of the buildings on the 11.8 acres Navy Hill campus, which housed the World War II headquarters of the Office of Strategic Services and was the first headquarters of the Central Intelligence Agency. The Executive Branch and the U. S. Congress have constitutional responsibilities for U. S. foreign policy. Within the Executive Branch, the Department of State is the lead U. S. foreign affairs agency, its head, the Secretary of State, is the President's principal foreign policy advisor. The Department advances U. S. objectives and interests in the world through its primary role in developing and implementing the President's foreign policy. It provides an array of important services to U. S. citizens and to foreigners seeking to visit or immigrate to the United States. All foreign affairs activities—U. S. Representation abroad, foreign assistance programs, countering internatio