The Hoh River is a river in the U. S. state of Washington, located on the Olympic Peninsula. About 56 miles long, the Hoh River originates at the Hoh Glacier on Mount Olympus and flows west through the Olympic Mountains of Olympic National Park and Olympic National Forest through the foothills in a broad valley, emptying into the Pacific Ocean at the Hoh Indian Reservation; the final portion of the Hoh River's course marks the boundary between the coastal segment of Olympic National Park and Olympic National Forest, the Hoh Indian Reservation. The Hoh's drainage basin is 299 square miles, its discharge, or streamflow, has considerable seasonal variation, with summer streamflow averaging about one-third that of winter flows. The Hoh is a glacial river fed by glaciers such as the Blue Glacier; the glaciers grind rock into a fine glacial flour which turns the Hoh River a milky slate blue color. The river valley is broad and flat, causing the glacial sediments to settle out, creating extensive gravel bars, river meanders, the many side channels characteristic of a braided river.
One of the road entrances to Olympic National Park is on the Hoh River. The Hoh River Campground is the trailhead of the Hoh River Trail, which follows the river through the Hoh Rain Forest from the campground to Mount Olympus. Logjams are common, resulting in new river channels being formed; the river's name and the name of the Hoh tribe both come from the Quinault placename /húxw/. The source of the Hoh River is meltwater from the Hoh Glacier on the northeast side of Mount Olympus; the river flows north west, curving around the north side of the mountain. It collects headwater tributaries from other glaciers on Mount Olympus such as the Ice River, which flows from the Ice River Glacier, Glacier Creek, which flows from Blue Glacier and White Glacier. Mount Tom Creek, a tributary which joins the Hoh farther downstream, flows from the White Glacier as well. Other headwater tributaries include Elkhorn Creek and Cream Lake Creek, both of which flow west from the Bailey Range of the Olympic Mountains.
Ice River joins shortly below Cream Lake Creek. A few miles below that the Hoh River begins to flow more directly west. Glacier Creek joins from Mount Olympus. About a mile below Glacier Creek, at Hoh river mile 48, the valley broadens and the river begins to take on braided characteristics. Falls Creek joins from the south Slate Creek and Hoh Creek from the north. Olympus Ranger Station, a National Park Service cabin, is located on the north side of the river at river mile 45, near the junction of the Hoh River Trail and the Hoh Lake Trail. At river mile 42 the Happy Four backcountry camping area is located along the river trail. Below that the tributary Cougar Creek joins from the north Mount Tom Creek from the south. Jackson Creek joins from the south at river mile 37 near the Hoh Rain Forest Visitor Center and campground; the Visitor Center is located at the beginning of the Hoh River Trail. The Upper Hoh Road runs east from U. S. Highway 101. In the region near the national park boundary the Hoh River occupies a U-shaped valley with a flat bottom about one mile across.
Mountain slopes rise steeply on either side. The Hoh River continues flowing west, collecting numerous tributary streams, the most important being the South Fork Hoh River, which joins the main Hoh at about river mile 31. About a mile below the South Fork confluence the Hoh River leaves Olympic National Park, it continues to flow west through a widening valley surrounded by low foothills. Ranches occupy parts of the valley and land ownership is private. Owl Creek and Maple Creek join from the south; the Hoh makes a small northward bend, skirting the edge of, entering Olympic National Forest. Elk Creek joins from the south Alder Creek from the north Winfield Creek from the south, after which the Hoh River flows through a large horseshoe bend located at about river mile 15. Hell Roaring Creek joins the horseshoe bend from the north. Three campgrounds are sited along the river upstream from the horseshoe bend, including Minnie Peterson, Willoughby Creek, Hoh Oxbow. All three are managed by Washington State Department of Natural Resources.
Hoh Ox Bow Campground is located just west of the horseshoe bend near where U. S. Highway 101 crosses the river. Highway 101 follows the river on the south side; the small Oil City Road follows the Hoh River on the north side to the river's mouth. Cottonwood Campground, another DNR site, is on the north side of the Hoh River, accessed by Oil City Road. Below the horseshoe bend the Hoh River begins to meander through a broad and flat floodplain. In its final miles the Hoh River collects the tributaries Fossil Creek. Highway 101 heads south. About two miles from its mouth the Hoh River becomes the boundary between the Hoh Indian Reservation, on the south, the coastal part of Olympic National Park on the north; the former settlement of Oil City is located on the north side of the Hoh River about a half mile from its mouth. A large headland peninsula called Hoh Head is located on the Pacific coast a few miles north of the river's mouth; the South Fork Hoh River originates at 47°46′53″N 123°43′2″W, flowing from Hubert Glacier and other small glaciers on the south side of Mount Olympus.
It flows west through Olympic National Park collecting many tributary streams. At about river mile 11 it enters a broad glacially becomes braided; the South Fork leaves Olympic National Park at river mile 4, enterin
Longhouses of the indigenous peoples of North America
Longhouses were a style of residential dwelling built by Native American tribes and First Nation band governments in various parts of North America. Sometimes separate longhouses were built for community meetings; the Iroquois who resided in the Northeastern United States as well as Eastern Canada built and inhabited longhouses. These were sometimes more than 75 m in length but around 5 to 7 m wide. Scholars believe walls were made of sharpened and fire-hardened poles driven close together into the ground. Strips of bark were woven horizontally through the lines of poles to form more or less weatherproof walls. Poles were braced by horizontal poles along the walls; the roof is made by resulting in an arc-shaped roof. This was covered with grasses; the frame is covered by bark, sewn in place and layered as shingles, reinforced by light swag. Doors were constructed at both ends and were covered with an animal hide to preserve interior warmth. Long longhouses had doors in the sidewalls as well. Longhouses featured fireplaces in the center for warmth.
Holes were made above the hearth to let out smoke, but such smoke holes let in rain and snow. Ventilation openings singly dubbed as a smoke pipe, were positioned at intervals totalling five to six along the roofing of the longhouse. Missionaries who visited these longhouses wrote about their dark interiors. On average a typical longhouse was about 80 by 18 by 18 ft and was meant to house up to twenty or more families, most of whom were matrilineally related; the people had a matrilineal kinship system, with property and inheritance passed through the maternal line. Children were born into the mother's clan. Protective palisades were built around the dwellings. Tribes or ethnic groups in northeast North America and east of Lake Ontario and Lake Erie, which had traditions of building longhouses include the Five Nations of the Iroquois Confederacy: Seneca, Onondaga and Mohawk; the Iroquoian-speaking Wyandot and Erie built longhouses, as did the Algonquian-speaking Lenni Lenape, who lived from western New England in Connecticut, along the lower Hudson River, along the Delaware River and both sides of the Delaware Bay.
The Pamunkey of the Algonquian-speaking Powhatan Confederacy in Virginia built longhouses. Although the Shawnee were not known to build longhouses, colonist Christopher Gist describes how, during his visit to Lower Shawneetown in January 1751, he and Andrew Montour addressed a meeting of village leaders in a "Kind of State-House of about 90 Feet long, with a light Cover of Bark in which they hold their Councils." The indigenous peoples of the Pacific Northwest of North America built a form of longhouse. Theirs were built with logs or split-log frame, covered with split log planks, sometimes an additional bark cover. Cedar is the preferred lumber; the length of these longhouses is 60–100 ft. The wealthy built extraordinarily large longhouses; the Suquamish Old Man House, at what became the Port Madison Indian Reservation, was 500×40–60 ft, c. 1850. One doorway faces the shore; each longhouse contains a number of booths along both sides of the central hallway, separated by wooden containers. Each booth has fire.
An extended family occupied one longhouse, cooperated in obtaining food, building canoes, other daily tasks. The roof is a slanted pitched to various degrees depending upon the rainfall; the gambrel roof was unique to Puget Sound Coast Salish. The front is very elaborately decorated with an integrated mural of numerous drawings of faces and heraldic crest icons of raven, whale, etc. A totem pole was erected outside the longhouse; the style varies and sometimes it became part of the entrance way. Tribes or ethnic groups along the North American Pacific coast with some sort of longhouse building traditions include the Haida, Tlingit, Clatsop, Coast Salish and Multnomah. From beneath mud flows dating back to about 1700, archaeologists have recovered planks, they are studying household arrangements from the distant past. In the part of one house where a woodworker lived, tools were found and tools in all stages of manufacture. There were wood chips. Where a whaler lived, there lay harpoons and a wall screen carved with a whale.
Benches and looms were inlaid with shell, there were other indications of wealth. A single house had five separate living areas centered on cooking hearths. More bows and arrows were found at one living area than any of the others, an indication that hunters lived there. Another had more fishing gear than other subsistence equipment, at another, more harpoon equipment; some had everyday work gear, few elaborately ornamented things. The whaler's corner was just the opposite; the houses were built so that planks on the walls and roofs could be taken off and used at other places, as the people moved seasonally. Paired uprights supported rafters. Wall planks were lashed between sets of poles; the position of these poles depended on the lengths of the boards they held, they were evidently set and reset through the years the houses were occupied. Walls met at the corners by butting together, they stayed structurally inde
La Push, Washington
La Push is a small unincorporated community situated at the mouth of the Quillayute River in Clallam County, United States. La Push is the largest community within the Quileute Indian Reservation, home to the federally recognized Quileute tribe. La Push is known for natural environment; the name La Push is from French La Bouche, meaning "The Mouth" of the Quillayute River, adapted into Chinook Jargon. Two beaches are nearby: Rialto Beach to the north of the river mouth and La Push Beach to the south. La Push has the westernmost ZIP Code in the contiguous United States, 98350. La Push has a wet oceanic climate; the climate is moderated and influenced by the Pacific Ocean, which renders mild winters for a northerly latitude. Located to the west of the Olympic Mountains, La Push and the surrounding coastline absorb considerable rainfall dropped along the mountain front; the warmest month is August and the coolest month is December. La Push, 14 miles from Forks, is home to the Quileute Tribe. Tribal members traditionally built cedar canoes for a variety of uses.
The Quileute ranked second only to the Makah as whalers, first among all the tribes as seal hunters. They bred special woolly-haired dogs, spun and wove their hair into prized warm blankets. According to the stories, the Quileutes' only kin, the Chimakum, were separated from them by a great flood that swept them to the Quimper Peninsula on the other side of the North Olympic Peninsula. There they were destroyed in the 1860s by Chief Seattle and the Suquamish Tribe; the first treaty with European Americans occurred in 1855, when the Quileutes signed a treaty with representatives of Territorial Governor Isaac Stevens. A treaty a year would have moved them to a reservation in Taholah, but the Quileute territory was so remote that it was not enforced. In February 1889, an executive order by President Grover Cleveland established a one-mile square reservation at La Push. At the time the town had 252 inhabitants. While villagers were picking hops in Puyallup, the town was destroyed by arson in 1889.
Work began in 2017 to relocate the village to higher ground, in fears of tsunamis and flooding issues resulting from climate change. This required modifying the boundaries of the Olympic National Park; the first building to be moved was the elementary school. Today, La Push has oceanfront resorts, a seafood company, fish hatchery, a revamped marina. Since the early 21st century, the tribe has grown more interested in tourism. La Push is a village of the Quileute Tribe that displays a more relaxed way of life. All of the businesses are owned by the tribe; the Quileute Tribe has revived many of its traditional skills and crafts, which are taught at school along with the unique language. It is an isolate language, unrelated to any root language in the world, one of only five in the world without nasal sounds; the popular Quileute Days take place July 17–19 in La Push. The tribal celebration of cultural heritage and modern lifestyle includes a fireworks display, a traditional salmon bake and songs, a softball tournament, other field sports, a slow-pitch tournament, a horseshoe tournament and craft display, food concessions.
La Push and the Quileute Tribe are featured in author Stephenie Meyer's Twilight series. The popularity of the books, published from 2005 to 2008, the related film adaptations, has increased associated tourism to the town; the Pacific Northwest National Scenic Trail passes through La Push on the way to its western terminus at Cape Alava. Olympic Peninsula, Washington State: Things To Do Around La Push
Cascadia subduction zone
The Cascadia subduction zone is a convergent plate boundary that stretches from northern Vancouver Island in Canada to Northern California in the United States. It is a long, sloping subduction zone where the Explorer, Juan de Fuca, Gorda plates move to the east and slide below the much larger continental North American Plate; the zone varies in width and lies offshore beginning near Cape Mendocino Northern California, passing through Oregon and Washington, terminating at about Vancouver Island in British Columbia. The Explorer, Juan de Fuca, Gorda plates are some of the remnants of the vast ancient Farallon Plate, now subducted under the North American Plate; the North American Plate itself is moving in a southwest direction, sliding over the smaller plates as well as the huge oceanic Pacific Plate in other locations such as the San Andreas Fault in central and southern California. Tectonic processes active in the Cascadia subduction zone region include accretion, deep earthquakes, active volcanism of the Cascades.
This volcanism has included such notable eruptions as Mount Mazama about 7,500 years ago, the Mount Meager massif about 2,350 years ago, Mount St. Helens in 1980. Major cities affected by a disturbance in this subduction zone include Vancouver and Victoria, British Columbia. There are no contemporaneous written records of the 1700 Cascadia earthquake. Orally transmitted legends from the Olympic Peninsula area tell of an epic battle between a thunderbird and a whale. In 2005, seismologist Ruth Ludwin set out to collect and analyze anecdotes from various First Nations groups. Reports from the Huu-ay-aht, Hoh, Quileute and Duwamish peoples referred to earthquakes and saltwater floods; this collection of data allowed the researchers to come up with an estimated date range for the event. During low tide one day in March 1986, paleogeologist Brian Atwater dug along Neah Bay with a nejiri gama, a small hand hoe. Under a top layer of sand, he uncovered a distinct plant—arrowgrass—that had grown in a layer of marsh soil.
This finding was evidence that the ground had sunk under sea level, causing saltwater to kill the vegetation. The event had happened so that the top layer of sand sealed away the air, thus preserving centuries-old plants. In 1987, Atwater mounted another expedition paddling up the Copalis River with Dr. David Yamaguchi, studying the eruptions of Mount St. Helens; the pair happened upon a section of "ghost forest," so-called due to the dead, gray stumps left standing after a sudden inundation of salt water had killed them hundreds of years ago. Thought to have died due to a gradual rise in sea level, closer inspection yielded a different story: the land plummeted up to two meters during an earthquake. Having tested spruce using tree-ring dating, they found that the stumps were too rotted to count all the outer rings. However, upon having examined those of the western red cedar and comparing them to the living specimens meters away from the banks, they were able to approximate their year of death.
There were rings up until the year 1699, indicating that the incident had occurred shortly thereafter. Root samples confirmed their conclusion, narrowing the time frame to the winter of 1699 to 1700; as with the arrowgrass site, the banks of the Copalis River are lined with a layer of marsh followed by a layer of sand. Jody Bourgeois and her team went on to demonstrate that the sand cover had originated with a tsunami surge rather than a storm surge. In 1995, an international team led by Alan Nelson of the USGS further corroborated these findings with 85 new samples from the rest of the Pacific Northwest. All along British Columbia, Washington State, Oregon, the coast had fallen due to a violent earthquake and been covered by sand from the subsequent tsunami. A further ghost forest was identified by Gordon Jacoby, a dendrochronologist from Columbia University, 60 feet underwater in Lake Washington. Unlike the other trees, these suffered from a landslide rather than a dip in the fault during a separate event around 900 CE.
In the 1960s, underground fractures were uncovered by oil companies in Puget Sound. These were believed to be inactive through the 1990s. In the 1980s, geophysicists Tom Heaton and Hiroo Kanamori of Caltech compared the quiet Cascadia to more active subduction zones elsewhere in the Ring of Fire, they found similarities to faults in Chile and Japan's Nankai Trough, locations known for megathrust earthquakes, a conclusion, met with skepticism from other geophysicists at the time. A 1996 study published by seismologist Kenji Satake supplemented the research by Atwater et al. with tsunami evidence across the Pacific. Japanese annals, which have recorded natural disasters since 600 CE, had reports of a sixteen-foot tsunami that struck the coast of Honshu Island during the Genroku. Since no earthquake had been observed to produce it, scholars dubbed it an "orphan tsunami." Translating the Japanese calendar, Satake found the incident had taken place around midnight of 27–28 January 1700, ten hours after the earthquake occurred.
The original magnitude 9.0 earthquake in the Pacific Northwest had thus occurred around 9pm local time on 26 January 1700. The Cascadia Subduction Zone is a 1,000 km long dipping fault that stretches from Northern Vancouver Island to Cape Mendocino in northern California, it separates the Juan de North America plates. New Juan de Fuca plate is created offshore along the Juan de Fuca Ridge; the Juan de Fuca plate moves toward, ev
San Andreas Fault
The San Andreas Fault is a continental transform fault that extends 1,200 kilometers through California. It forms the tectonic boundary between the Pacific Plate and the North American Plate, its motion is right-lateral strike-slip; the fault divides into three segments, each with different characteristics and a different degree of earthquake risk. The slip rate along the fault ranges from 20 to 35 mm /yr; the fault was identified in 1895 by Professor Andrew Lawson of UC Berkeley, who discovered the northern zone. It is described as having been named after San Andreas Lake, a small body of water, formed in a valley between the two plates. However, according to some of his reports from 1895 and 1908, Lawson named it after the surrounding San Andreas Valley. Following the 1906 San Francisco earthquake, Lawson concluded that the fault extended all the way into southern California. In 1953, geologist Thomas Dibblee concluded that hundreds of miles of lateral movement could occur along the fault. A project called the San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth near Parkfield, Monterey County, was drilled through the fault during 2004 – 2007 to collect material and make physical and chemical observations to better understand fault behavior.
The northern segment of the fault runs from Hollister, through the Santa Cruz Mountains, epicenter of the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake up the San Francisco Peninsula, where it was first identified by Professor Lawson in 1895 offshore at Daly City near Mussel Rock. This is the approximate location of the epicenter of the 1906 San Francisco earthquake; the fault returns onshore at Bolinas Lagoon just north of Stinson Beach in Marin County. It returns underwater through the linear trough of Tomales Bay which separates the Point Reyes Peninsula from the mainland, runs just east of Bodega Head through Bodega Bay and back underwater, returning onshore at Fort Ross. From Fort Ross, the northern segment continues overland, forming in part a linear valley through which the Gualala River flows, it goes back offshore at Point Arena. After that, it runs underwater along the coast until it nears Cape Mendocino, where it begins to bend to the west, terminating at the Mendocino Triple Junction; the central segment of the San Andreas Fault runs in a northwestern direction from Parkfield to Hollister.
While the southern section of the fault and the parts through Parkfield experience earthquakes, the rest of the central section of the fault exhibits a phenomenon called aseismic creep, where the fault slips continuously without causing earthquakes. The southern segment begins near California. Box Canyon, near the Salton Sea, contains upturned strata associated with that section of the fault; the fault runs along the southern base of the San Bernardino Mountains, crosses through the Cajon Pass and continues northwest along the northern base of the San Gabriel Mountains. These mountains are a result of movement along the San Andreas Fault and are called the Transverse Range. In Palmdale, a portion of the fault is examined at a roadcut for the Antelope Valley Freeway; the fault continues northwest alongside the Elizabeth Lake Road to the town of Elizabeth Lake. As it passes the towns of Gorman, Tejon Pass and Frazier Park, the fault begins to bend northward, forming the "Big Bend"; this restraining bend is thought to be where the fault locks up in Southern California, with an earthquake-recurrence interval of 140–160 years.
Northwest of Frazier Park, the fault runs through the Carrizo Plain, a long, treeless plain where much of the fault is plainly visible. The Elkhorn Scarp defines the fault trace along much of its length within the plain; the southern segment, which stretches from Parkfield in Monterey County all the way to the Salton Sea, is capable of an 8.1-magnitude earthquake. At its closest, this fault passes about 35 miles to the northeast of Los Angeles; such a large earthquake on this southern segment would kill thousands of people in Los Angeles, San Bernardino and surrounding areas, cause hundreds of billions of dollars in damage. The Pacific Plate, to the west of the fault, is moving in a northwest direction while the North American Plate to the east is moving toward the southwest, but southeast under the influence of plate tectonics; the rate of slippage averages about 33 to 37 millimeters a year across California. The southwestward motion of the North American Plate towards the Pacific is creating compressional forces along the eastern side of the fault.
The effect is expressed as the Coast Ranges. The northwest movement of the Pacific Plate is creating significant compressional forces which are pronounced where the North American Plate has forced the San Andreas to jog westward; this has led to the formation of the Transverse Ranges in Southern California, to a lesser but still significant extent, the Santa Cruz Mountains. Studies of the relative motions of the Pacific and North American plates have shown that only about 75 percent of the motion can be accounted for in the movements of the San Andreas and its various branch faults; the rest of the motion has been found in an area east of the Sierra Nevada mountains called the Walker Lane or Eastern California Shear Zone. The reason for this is not clear. Several hypotheses have been offered and research is ongoing. One hypothesis – which gained interest following the Landers earthquake in 1992 – suggests the plate boundary may be shifting eastward aw
The Cascade Range or Cascades is a major mountain range of western North America, extending from southern British Columbia through Washington and Oregon to Northern California. It includes both non-volcanic mountains, such as the North Cascades, the notable volcanoes known as the High Cascades; the small part of the range in British Columbia is referred to as the Canadian Cascades or, locally, as the Cascade Mountains. The latter term is sometimes used by Washington residents to refer to the Washington section of the Cascades in addition to North Cascades, the more usual U. S. term, as in North Cascades National Park. The highest peak in the range is Mount Rainier in Washington at 14,411 feet; the Cascades are part of the Pacific Ocean's Ring of Fire, the ring of volcanoes and associated mountains around the Pacific Ocean. All of the eruptions in the contiguous United States over the last 200 years have been from Cascade volcanoes; the two most recent were Lassen Peak from 1914 to 1921 and a major eruption of Mount St. Helens in 1980.
Minor eruptions of Mount St. Helens have occurred since, most from 2004 to 2008; the Cascade Range is a part of the American Cordillera, a nearly continuous chain of mountain ranges that form the western "backbone" of North America, Central America, South America. The Cascades extend northward from Lassen Peak in northern California to the confluence of the Nicola and Thompson rivers in British Columbia; the Fraser River separates the Cascades from the Coast Mountains in Canada, as does the Willamette Valley from the upper portion of the Oregon Coast Range. The highest volcanoes of the Cascades, known as the High Cascades, dominate their surroundings standing twice the height of the nearby mountains, they have a visual height of one mile or more. The highest peaks, such as the 14,411-foot Mount Rainier, dominate their surroundings for 50 to 100 miles; the northern part of the range, north of Mount Rainier, is known as the North Cascades in the United States but is formally named the Cascade Mountains north of the Canada–United States border, reaching to the northern extremity of the Cascades at Lytton Mountain.
Overall, the North Cascades and Canadian Cascades are rugged. The southern part of the Canadian Cascades the Skagit Range, is geologically and topographically similar to the North Cascades, while the northern and northeastern parts are less glaciated and more plateau-like, resembling nearby areas of the Thompson Plateau; because of the range's proximity to the Pacific Ocean and the region's prevailing westerly winds, precipitation is substantial on the western slopes due to orographic lift, with annual snow accumulations of up to 1,000 inches in some areas. Mount Baker in Washington recorded a national record single-season snowfall in the winter of 1998–99 with 1,140 inches. Prior to that year, Mount Rainier held the American record for snow accumulation at Paradise in 1978, it is not uncommon for some places in the Cascades to have over 500 inches of annual snow accumulation, such as at Lake Helen, near Lassen Peak. Most of the High Cascades are therefore white with ice year-round; the western slopes are densely covered with Douglas-fir, western hemlock and red alder, while the drier eastern slopes feature ponderosa pine, with some western larch, mountain hemlock and subalpine fir and subalpine larch at higher elevations.
Annual rainfall is as low as 9 inches on the eastern foothills due to a rain shadow effect. Beyond the eastern foothills is an arid plateau, created 17 to 14 million years ago by the many flows of the Columbia River Basalt Group. Together, these sequences of fluid volcanic rock form the 200,000-square-mile Columbia Plateau in eastern Washington and parts of western Idaho; the Columbia River Gorge is the only major break of the range in the United States. When the Cascades began to rise 7 million years ago in the Pliocene, the Columbia River drained the low Columbia Plateau; as the range grew, erosion from the Columbia River was able to keep pace, creating the gorge and major pass seen today. The gorge exposes uplifted and warped layers of basalt from the plateau. Indigenous peoples have inhabited the area for thousands of years and developed their own myths and legends about the Cascades. In these legends, St. Helens with its pre-1980 graceful appearance, was regarded as a beautiful maiden for whom Hood and Adams feuded.
Native tribes developed their own names for the High Cascades and many of the smaller peaks, including "Tahoma", the Lushootseed name for Mount Rainier, "Koma Kulshan" or "Kulshan" for Mount Baker, "Louwala-Clough", meaning "smoking mountain" for Mount St. Helens. In early 1792, British navigator George Vancouver explored Puget Sound and gave English names to the high mountains he saw. Mount Baker was named for Vancouver's third lieutenant, Joseph Baker, although the first European to see it was Manuel Quimper, who named it la gran montaña del Carmelo in 1790. Mount Rainier was named after Admiral Peter Rainier. In 1792, Vancouver had his lieutenant William Robert Broughton explore the lower Columbia River, he named Mount Hood after an admiral of the Royal Navy. Mount St. Helens was sighted by Vancouver from near the mouth of the Columbia River, it was named for Al