Finistère is a department of France in the extreme west of Brittany. The present department consists of the historical region of Léon and parts of Cornouaille and Trégor, both parts of pre-revolutionary Brittany; the name Finistère derives from the Latin Finis Terræ. In England, a similar area is called Land's End; the Breton name for Finistère, Penn ar Bed, translates as "Head/End of the World" and is similar to the Cornish name for Land's End, Pedn-an-Wlas. Finistère is not to be confused with Finisterre in Galicia, which shares the same etymology; the largest population center in Finistère is Brest. Other large towns in the department include Quimper, Morlaix, Quimperlé and Douarnenez. Finistère includes the island of Ushant. Finistère is the westernmost department of Metropolitan France and can claim to be the "most coastal" department in Metropolitan France. Of its 279 communes, 118 are located on the coast, its total coastline of 1,250 km accounts for a quarter of the entire Brittany coast-line.
The abers, rugged fjord-like inlets on the north coast, are a notable feature of the landscape. The westernmost point of continental France, known as the Pointe de Corsen, extends from the northwestern tip of Finistère. A few kilometres to the south is the less westerly, but rugged and isolated, headland of Pointe du Raz. Agriculture, food processing and various related industries occupy an important place in Finistère's economy; the military presence in Finistère, as well as military-related industries, such as the Brest headquarters of DCNS, employ a significant number of the département's population. The port of Roscoff links Brittany by ferry with Great Britain. Finistère is the area where Breton survives most as a spoken language. Breton-speaking schools are called Diwan and Dihun; the Festival de Cornouaille, which takes place in Quimper, is a celebration of Breton music and traditions. One of the highlights of summer in Finistère is the "Festival des Vieilles Charrues" held in Carhaix-Plouguer.
Major international stars attract tens of thousands of spectators. The painter Raymond Wintz featured many locations around Finistère. Roland Doré was a sculptor. Cantons of the Finistère department Communes of the Finistère department Arrondissements of the Finistère department Ys Calvary at Saint-Herbot near Plonévez-du-Faou and the Chapelle Saint-Herbot. General Council website Prefecture website Finistere at Curlie Finistère Tourisme, agence de développement touristique du Finistère
Brittany is a cultural region in the northwest of France, covering the western part of what was known as Armorica during the period of Roman occupation. It became an independent kingdom and a duchy before being united with the Kingdom of France in 1532 as a province governed as if it were a separate nation under the crown. Brittany has been referred to as Less, Lesser or Little Britain, it is bordered by the English Channel to the north, the Celtic Sea and the Atlantic Ocean to the west, the Bay of Biscay to the south. Its land area is 34,023 km². Brittany is the site of some of the world's oldest standing architecture, home to the Barnenez, the Tumulus Saint-Michel and others, which date to the early 5th millennium BC. Today, the historical province of Brittany is split among five French departments: Finistère in the west, Côtes-d'Armor in the north, Ille-et-Vilaine in the north east, Loire-Atlantique in the south east and Morbihan in the south on the Bay of Biscay. Since reorganisation in 1956, the modern administrative region of Brittany comprises only four of the five Breton departments, or 80% of historical Brittany.
The remaining area of old Brittany, the Loire-Atlantique department around Nantes, now forms part of the Pays de la Loire region. At the 2010 census, the population of historic Brittany was estimated to be 4,475,295. Of these, 71 % lived in the region of Brittany. In 2012, the largest metropolitan areas were Nantes and Brest. Brittany is the traditional homeland of the Breton people and is recognised by the Celtic League as one of the six Celtic nations, retaining a distinct cultural identity that reflects its history. A nationalist movement seeks greater autonomy within the French Republic; the word Brittany, along with its French and Gallo equivalents Bretagne and Bertaèyn, derive from the Latin Britannia, which means "Britons' land". This word had been used by the Romans since the 1st century to refer to Great Britain, more the Roman province of Britain; this word derives from a Greek word, Πρεττανικη or Βρεττανίαι, used by Pytheas, an explorer from Massalia who visited the British Islands around 320 BC.
The Greek word itself comes from the common Brythonic ethnonym reconstructed as *Pritanī, itself from Proto-Celtic *kʷritanoi. The Romans called Brittany Armorica, together with a quite indefinite region that extended along the English Channel coast from the Seine estuary to the Loire estuary, according to several sources, maybe along the Atlantic coast to the Garonne estuary; this term comes from a Gallic word, which means "close to the sea". Another name, was used until the 12th century, it means "wide and flat" or "to expand" and it gave the Welsh name for Brittany: Llydaw. After the fall of the Western Roman Empire, many Britons settled in western Armorica, the region started to be called Britannia, although this name only replaced Armorica in the sixth century or by the end of the fifth. Authors like Geoffrey of Monmouth used the terms Britannia minor and Britannia major to distinguish Brittany from Britain. Breton-speaking people may pronounce the word Breizh in two different ways, according to their region of origin.
Breton can be divided into the dialect of Vannes. KLT speakers pronounce it and would write it Breiz, while the Vannetais speakers pronounce it and would write it Breih; the official spelling is a compromise with a z and an h together. In 1941, efforts to unify the dialects led to the creation of the so-called Breton zh, a standard which has never been accepted. On its side, Gallo language has never had a accepted writing system and several ones coexist. For instance, the name of the region in that language can be written Bertaèyn in ELG script, or Bertègn in MOGA, a couple of other scripts exist. Brittany has been inhabited by humans since the Lower Paleolithic; the first settlers were Neanderthals. This population was scarce and similar to the other Neanderthals found in the whole of Western Europe, their only original feature was a distinct culture, called "Colombanian". One of the oldest hearths in the world has been found in Finistère, it is 450,000 years old. Homo sapiens settled in Brittany around 35,000 years ago.
They replaced or absorbed the Neanderthals and developed local industries, similar to the Châtelperronian or to the Magdalenian. After the last glacial period, the warmer climate allowed the area to become wooded. At that time, Brittany was populated by large communities who started to change their lifestyles from a life of hunting and gathering, to become settled farmers. Agriculture was introduced during the 5th millennium BC by migrants from the east. However, the Neolithic Revolution in Brittany did not happen due to a radical change of population, but by slow immigration and exchange of skills. Neolithic Brittany is characterised by important megalithic production, it is sometimes designated as the "core area" of megalithic culture; the oldest monuments, were followed by princely tombs and stone rows. The Morbihan département, on the southern coast, comprises a large share of these structures, including the Carnac stones and the Broken Menhir of Er Grah in the Locmariaquer megaliths, the largest single stone erected by Neoli
Pluguffan is a commune in the Finistère department of Brittany in north-western France. Inhabitants of Pluguffan are called in French Pluguffanais. Quimper - Cornouaille Airport Communes of the Finistère department Krampouz INSEE Mayors of Finistère Association Official website French Ministry of Culture list for Pluguffan
Lyon–Saint Exupéry Airport known as Lyon Satolas Airport, is the international airport of Lyon, the third-biggest city in France and an important transport facility for the entire Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region. It lies in 11 nautical miles southeast of Lyon's city centre; the airport was inaugurated by President Valéry Giscard d'Estaing on 12 April 1975 and opened to passengers a week later. It was designed to replace the old Lyon–Bron Airport, now only used for general aviation. In 1994 the LGV Rhône-Alpes high-speed rail line brought TGV service to the airport, providing direct trains to Paris and Marseille; the fan-shaped canopy of the Gare de Lyon Saint-Exupéry, designed by architect Santiago Calatrava, is the airport's most notable architectural feature. Since 1997, the airport has been a focus city for the airline Air France; the airport was named Lyon Satolas Airport, but in 2000 the airport and train station were renamed in honour of Lyonnais aviation pioneer and writer Antoine de Saint-Exupéry, on the centenary of his birth.
He was a native of Lyon, a laureate of the Grand Prix du roman de l'Académie française, died in World War II. In 2013, the airport served an increase of 1.3 % over the previous year. Air freight increased by 22.7% to 44,820 tonnes, although overall aircraft movements dropped by 2.8% to 113,420. The airport consists of passenger terminals 1 and 2 which are interconnected on the landside by a central building that itself has a foot-bridge to the nearby Gare de Lyon Saint-Exupéry long-distance station and the Rhônexpress terminus; the airport features two runways as well as cargo facilities. A total of 16,000 car spaces in four car parks are available. Two of the parks are underground while the long-stay parks are located at a distance from the terminals behind the railway station. Terminal 1 consists of two parts: The older one is a two-storey curved brick shape building contains the check-in areas 11, 12, 14, 18 and 19 as well as departure areas G and F on the upper level with the arrivals on the ground level.
In 2014, Aéroports De Lyon started the construction of a new terminal expansion, which doubled the capacity and the area, with 70,000 m². Four groups took part in the tender process to design and develop the expanded Terminal 1; the bid was won by the GFC Construction company in partnership with Quille Construction and Bouygues Energies & Services. The architectural practice was Rogers Stirk Harbour + Partners led by Graham Stirk and Partners, engineers Technip TPS and Cap Ingélec, Inddigo; the expanded Terminal 1 has been opened in June 2018. It has a circular shape with check-in area 10 and additional arrivals facilities on the ground level and departure gates B and C on both upper levels, it is connected by an underground tunnel to a small satellite building containing the D gates now used by easyJet and Transavia France while the other areas serve Star Alliance carriers and Emirates amongst others. Terminal 2 is a duplicate of the older part of Terminal 1, containing check-in 20 and 21 with boarding areas Q and P on the upper and arrivals facilities on the lower level.
This terminal area is used by Air France. The former Terminal 3 was a basic facility used by low-cost carriers, it has been demolished in the process of the Terminal 1 expansion. The Rhônexpress tramway began operations in August 2010 and links Gare de Lyon-Part-Dieu east of Lyon's city centre with Gare de Lyon Saint-Exupéry next to the airport in 30 minutes using and sharing existing tracks of the Lyon tramway as well as a newly constructed route; this tramway replaced the former coach shuttle services that operated beforehand leaving the airport with no other public connections to the city centre. Coach links connect the airport with the centre of other towns in the area including Grenoble, Saint-Étienne and Chambéry. Bus operators offer a coach shuttle service to the surrounding French ski resorts, including Tignes, Val d'Isere, Val Thorens and more; the airport has an electric car sharing rental station. You can rent small electric cars. Antoine de Saint Exupéry Airport Media related to Aéroport de Lyon-St-Éxupéry at Wikimedia Commons Official website Aéroport de Lyon-Saint Exupéry
Avignon – Provence Airport
Avignon Provence Airport is an airport located in the city of Avignon and 4 kilometres west of Caumont-sur-Durance, in the Vaucluse department of the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region in France. The airport resides at an elevation of 38 metres above mean sea level, it has one paved runway designated 17/35. It has two parallel grass runways: 17R/35L measuring 700 by 50 metres and 17L/35R measuring 250 by 20 metres; the shorter grass runway is for use by ultralight aircraft. All scheduled flights out of Avignon airport are seasonal flights to the UK. There are rapid bus connections to several distant parts of Provence, into Avignon. Media related to Avignon airport at Wikimedia Commons Aéroport d'Avignon-Provence Caravelle Guyane Aéroport d'Avignon Aeronautical chart for LFMV at SkyVector Current weather for LFMV at NOAA/NWS Accident history for AVN at Aviation Safety Network
Toulouse–Blagnac Airport is an international airport located 3.6 nautical miles west northwest of Toulouse, in Blagnac, both communes of the Haute-Garonne department in the Occitanie region of France. In 2017, the airport served 9,264,611 passengers; as of April 2017, the airport features flights to 74 destinations in Europe and Northern Africa with a few additional seasonal long-haul connections. The airport resides at an elevation of 499 feet above mean sea level, it has two asphalt paved runways: 14R/32L is 3,500 by 45 metres and 14L/32R is 3,000 by 45 metres. Both Airbus and ATR test them from the airport. A Concorde operated by Air France with the registration F-BVFC is preserved at the Aeroscopia Museum near the airport. Toulouse–Blagnac Airport S. A. is a limited liability company. Toulouse–Blagnac Airport S. A. has authority to operate the airport until 2046 under a franchise agreement awarded by the French government. The current CEO is Philippe Crébassa; the following airlines operate regular scheduled and charter flights to and from Toulouse: Since April 2015, the tram line T2 connects Toulouse with the airport every 15 minutes.
The tram connects with metro ligne A at Arènes and metro ligne B at Palais de Justice. It takes about 35 minutes with a change to go to the town center by tram. Shuttle buses to Toulouse city centre stop outside Hall B every 20 minutes. Faster than the tram, they take 20 minutes to reach the city centre, stopping at Compans Caffarelli and Jeanne d'Arc, Jean Jaurès and at Toulouse-Matabiau railway station. Three daily coach services connect Toulouse–Blagnac Airport to Andorra, which does not have its own commercial airport. On 29 January 1988, Inter Cargo Service Flight 1004, operated by Vickers Vanguard F-GEJF crashed when take-off was attempted with only three operable engines. On 30 June 1994, an Airbus A330-300 performing a test flight crashed shortly after takeoff, due to a series of mistakes while conducting a flight test simulating an engine failure. All seven people on board died in the accident. On 15 November 2007, a brand-new Airbus A340-600 due to be delivered to Etihad Airways ran up and over the top of a concrete sloped blast-deflection wall during an engine test at the Airbus factory at the airport.
This was due to the crew not following proper test procedures, raising all four engines to maximum thrust while the wheels were un-chocked. The attempt to steer away from the wall resulted in decreased braking power. Five people were injured and the aircraft was written off. Media related to Toulouse Blagnac International Airport at Wikimedia Commons Official website Aéroport de Toulouse – Blagnac Radar Toulouse Current weather for LFBO at NOAA/NWS Accident history for TLS at Aviation Safety Network LiveATC.net
Calvi – Sainte-Catherine Airport
Calvi – Sainte-Catherine Airport is an airport located 6 km southeast of Calvi, a commune of the Haute-Corse department in France, on the island of Corsica. See source Wikidata query. Calvi Airport Aéroport de Calvi Aéroport de Calvi - Sainte-Catherine at Union des Aéroports Français Airport information for LFKC at World Aero Data. Data current as of October 2006. Current weather for LFKC at NOAA/NWS Accident history for CLY at Aviation Safety Network