Kilkee is a small coastal town in County Clare, Ireland. It is in the parish of Kilkee, formerly Kilfearagh, Kilkee is midway between Kilrush and Doonbeg on the N67 road. The town is popular as a seaside resort, the horseshoe bay is protected from the Atlantic Ocean by the Duggerna Reef. During the early part of the 19th century, Kilkee was just a fishing village but in the 1820s when a paddle steamer service from Limerick to Kilrush was launched. It has been a resort since and was featured on the front page of the Illustrated London News as the premier bathing spot in what was the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. As the town was more accessible to people from Limerick rather than Clare, holidaying in Kilkee became more of a Limerick custom, due to steamboats travelling daily up and down the River Shannon. Gradually the town grew as merchants from Limerick wanted holiday homes by the sea. As demand for lodgings in Kilkee grew, several hotels were built, along with these, three churches were built, a Roman Catholic church in 1831, a Protestant church in 1843 and a Methodist church in 1900, reflecting the cosmopolitan feel of the town in that era.
On 30 January 1836 the Intrinsic, a ship from Liverpool bound for New Orleans, was blown into a bay near Bishops Island in Kilkee, the ship was dashed repeatedly against the cliffs and sank along with her crew of 14, of whom none survived. The shipwreck site is now called Intrinsic Bay, a chartered passenger sailing vessel named the Edmond sank at Edmond Point on 19 November 1850. The ship was sailing from Limerick to New York City but was driven into Kilkee Bay by a storm, as the tide was very high, the ship was driven all the way to Edmond Point, where it split in two. Of the 216 on board,98 drowned in the disaster, exactly 50 years to the day after the Intrinsic sank, on 30 January 1886, the Fulmar sank just north of Kilkee in an area known as Farrihy Bay. The ship was a cargo vessel transporting coal from Troon in Scotland to Limerick, of the 17 crew members aboard only one body was ever recovered. Between 28 and 29 December 1894, the Inishtrahull went missing somewhere near the Kilkee coast, at the time of the disappearance the ship was transporting a consignment of coal from Glasgow to Limerick but never reached its intended destination.
The ship was confirmed to have sunk on 3 January 1985. Many prominent people in society travelled to Kilkee including Sir Aubrey de Vere, Charlotte Brontë, Sir Henry Rider Haggard, in 1896, the Crown Princess of Austria visited the town. The entertainer Percy French was a performer in the town. Although it has more developed and modern in recent years
Republic of Ireland
Ireland, known as the Republic of Ireland, is a sovereign state in north-western Europe occupying about five-sixths of the island of Ireland. The capital and largest city is Dublin, which is located on the part of the island. The state shares its land border with Northern Ireland, a part of the United Kingdom. It is otherwise surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the Celtic Sea to the south, Saint Georges Channel to the south-east, and it is a unitary, parliamentary republic. The head of government is the Taoiseach, who is elected by the Dáil and appointed by the President, the state was created as the Irish Free State in 1922 as a result of the Anglo-Irish Treaty. It was officially declared a republic in 1949, following the Republic of Ireland Act 1948, Ireland became a member of the United Nations in December 1955. It joined the European Economic Community, the predecessor of the European Union, after joining the EEC, Ireland enacted a series of liberal economic policies that resulted in rapid economic growth.
The country achieved considerable prosperity between the years of 1995 and 2007, which known as the Celtic Tiger period. This was halted by a financial crisis that began in 2008. However, as the Irish economy was the fastest growing in the EU in 2015, Ireland is again quickly ascending league tables comparing wealth and prosperity internationally. For example, in 2015, Ireland was ranked as the joint sixth most developed country in the world by the United Nations Human Development Index and it performs well in several national performance metrics, including freedom of the press, economic freedom and civil liberties. Ireland is a member of the European Union and is a member of the Council of Europe. The 1922 state, comprising 26 of the 32 counties of Ireland, was styled, the Constitution of Ireland, adopted in 1937, provides that the name of the State is Éire, or, in the English language, Ireland. Section 2 of the Republic of Ireland Act 1948 states, It is hereby declared that the description of the State shall be the Republic of Ireland.
The 1948 Act does not name the state as Republic of Ireland, because to have done so would have put it in conflict with the Constitution. The government of the United Kingdom used the name Eire, from 1949, Republic of Ireland, for the state, as well as Ireland, Éire or the Republic of Ireland, the state is referred to as the Republic, Southern Ireland or the South. In an Irish republican context it is referred to as the Free State or the 26 Counties. From the Act of Union on 1 January 1801, until 6 December 1922, during the Great Famine, from 1845 to 1849, the islands population of over 8 million fell by 30%
Civil parishes in Ireland
Civil parishes are units of territory in the island of Ireland that have their origins in old Gaelic territorial divisions. They were adopted by the Anglo-Norman Lordship of Ireland and by the Elizabethan Kingdom of Ireland and they no longer correspond to the boundaries of Roman Catholic or Church of Ireland parishes, which are generally larger. Their use as administrative units was gradually replaced by Poor Law Divisions in the 19th century, today they are still sometimes used for legal purposes. The Irish civil parish was based on the Gaelic territorial unit called a túath orTrícha cét, following the Norman invasion of Ireland, the Anglo-Norman barons retained the tuath, renamed a parish or manor, as a unit of taxation. The civil parish was created by Elizabethan legislation. Accounts were kept of income and expenditures for each parish including pensions, statutes were based on ecclesiastical parishes, although it is not known how well-defined such parishes were. At the time of the English Civil War, in 1654–56 a Civil Survey was taken of all the lands of Ireland.
It proved inaccurate, and in 1656–58 the Down Survey was conducted, using physical measurements to make as accurate a map as was possible at the time of townlands and this became the basis for all future land claims. Parishes are a subdivision, with multiple townlands per parish. A civil parish is made up of 25–30 townlands. It may include areas such as villages. A parish may cross the boundaries of both baronies and counties, in cases it may be in several geographically separate parts. Civil parishes had some use in local taxation and they were included on the nineteenth-century maps of the Ordnance Survey of Ireland. The Local Government Act 1898 established administrative counties divided into county districts making parishes largely obsolete, for poor law purposes district electoral divisions replaced the civil parishes in the mid-nineteenth century. Townlands are the smallest land unit in Ireland, and were the most precise address that most rural people have until the 2015 introduction of postcodes.
An 1871 report to parliament noted that there were three classes of parish in Ireland, the parish, the Church of Ireland parish. The first two generally but not always had the boundaries, while the third generally did not. A Tudor statute, renewed in 1695 by the Irish parliament, the Union of Parishes Act 1827 defined rules for redefining parish boundaries, erecting Chapels of Ease and making Perpetual Cures
Knappogue Castle is a tower house, built in 1467 and expanded in the mid-19th century, located in the parish of Quin, County Clare, Ireland. It has been restored and is open to guided tours, the original castle was built in 1467 by Seán Mac Conmara, son of Sioda MacNamara, and is a good example of a late medieval tower house. The castles name translates as castle of the place abounding in little hills, in 1571, the castle became the seat of the MacNamara sept, the Earls of West Clancullen. Donnchadh Mac Conmara was a leader of the Irish Rebellion of 1641, after the Cromwellian conquest of Ireland it was confiscated in accord with the Adventurers Act and its new owner was a roundhead, Arthur Smith. Arthur Smith occupied the castle from 1659 to 1661, after the monarchy was restored in 1660, Knappogue was returned to its MacNamara owners. Eventually, Francis MacNamara, High Sheriff of Clare in 1789, sold the castle to the Scott family of Cahircon in 1800, in 1837, the castle was owned by William Scott.
In 1855, the castle was acquired by Theobold Fitzwalter Butler and it became the family seat of the Dunboyne family. They continued the work of the Scotts, adding a drawing-room, the long room and a west wing, including the clock tower. The remodelling was done by architects James Pain and his brother George Richard Pain, during the War of Independence, Clare County Council held their meetings at Knappogue Castle where they were guarded by the East Clare Flying Column. Michael Brennan, Commander of the East Clare Brigade used the castle as his headquarters during that time. In 1927, Knappogue demesne was purchased by the Irish Land Commission, the castle and lands were purchased in 1966 by Mark Edwin Andrews, former Assistant Secretary of the United States Navy, from Houston, Texas. He and his wife Lavonne, in collaboration with what was Shannon Free Airport Development Company and this was intended to accommodate use of the castle as restaurant and private residence. Their work returned much of the castle to its former 15th century state while encompassing and retaining additions that chronicle the continuous occupation of the castle, the Andrews leased part of the castle to the Irish Government as a cultural and tourist facility for a nominal rent.
Shannon Development purchased the castle in 1996, the castle is used as a venue for weddings and medieval banquets and offers guided tours. Dating from 1817, the 1. 248-acre garden is now restored to its former state, the walls of the garden have been refurnished with climbing roses and many varieties of clematis. There is a whiskey named Knappogue Castle produced by the Castle Brands company, Shannon Heritage. com - official site National Inventory of Architectural Heritage - Castle National Inventory of Architectural Heritage - Gateway
Munster is one of the provinces of Ireland situated in the south of Ireland. In early Ireland, it was one of the fifths ruled by a king of over-kings Irish, following the Norman invasion of Ireland, the ancient kingdoms were shired into counties for administrative and judicial purposes. In centuries, local government legislation has seen further sub-division of the historic counties, Munster has no official function for local government purposes. For the purposes of the ISO, the province is listed as one of the provincial sub-divisions of the State, Munster covers a total area of 24,675 km2 and has a population of 1,246,088 with the most populated city being Cork. Other significant urban centres in the province include Limerick and Waterford, in the early centuries AD, Munster was the domain of the Iverni peoples and the Clanna Dedad familial line, led by Cú Roí and to whom the king Conaire Mór belonged. In the 5th century, Saint Patrick spent several years in the area and founded Christian churches, during the Early Middle Ages, most of the area was part of the Kingdom of Munster, ruled by the Eóganachta dynasty.
Prior to this, the area was ruled by the Dáirine and Corcu Loígde overlords from the early 7th century onwards, rulers from the Eóganachta who would dominate a greater part of Ireland were Cathal mac Finguine and Feidlimid mac Cremthanin. Notable regional kingdoms and lordships of Early Medieval Munster were Iarmuman, Osraige, Uí Liatháin, Uí Fidgenti, Éile, Múscraige, Ciarraige Luachra, Corcu Duibne, Corcu Baiscinn, around this period Ossory broke away from Munster. The 10th century saw the rise of the Dalcassian clan, who had earlier annexed Thomond and their leaders were the ancestors of the OBrien dynasty and spawned Brian Boru, perhaps the most noted High King of Ireland, and several of whose descendants were High Kings. By 1118 Munster had fractured into the Kingdom of Thomond under the OBriens, the Kingdom of Desmond under the MacCarthy dynasty, the three crowns of the flag of Munster represent these three late kingdoms. The OBrien of Thomond and MacCarthy of Desmond surrendered and regranted sovereignty to the Tudors in 1543 and 1565, the impactful Desmond Rebellions, led by the FitzGeralds, soon followed.
By the mid-19th century much of the area was hit hard in the Great Famine, the province was affected by events in the Irish War of Independence in the early 20th century, and there was a brief Munster Republic during the Irish Civil War. The Irish leaders Michael Collins and earlier Daniel OConnell came from families of the old Gaelic Munster gentry, noted for its traditions in Irish folk music, and with many ancient castles and monasteries in the province, Munster is a tourist destination. During the fifth century, St. Patrick spent seven years founding churches and ordaining priests in Munster, but a fifth century bishop named Ailbe is the patron saint of Munster. In Irish mythology, a number of goddesses are associated with the province including Anann, Áine, Grian, Clíodhna, Aimend, Mór Muman, Bébinn, Aibell. Each is historically associated with certain septs of the nobility, the druid-god of Munster is Mug Ruith. The province has long had trading and cultural links with continental Europe, the tribe of Corcu Loígde had a trading fleet active along the French Atlantic coast, as far south as Gascony, importing wine to Munster.
The Eóganachta had ecclesiastical ties with Germany, which show in the architecture of their capital at the Rock of Cashel
Cloonanaha is a small village and townland in County Clare, Ireland. The village of Cloonanaha is just off the R460 road to the west of Inagh and it has a small school called Cloonanaha National School. Cloonanaha is within the parish of Inagh and the barony of Inchiquin. It is in the Catholic parish of Inagh and Kilnamona and it contains the Oratory of The Blessed Mary Ever Virgin. List of towns and villages in Ireland
Quin Abbey, in Quin, County Clare, was built between 1402 and 1433 by Sioda Cam MacNamara, for Fathers Purcell and Mooney, friars of the Franciscan order. Although mostly roofless, the structure of the abbey is well preserved. There is a cloister, and many other surviving architectural features make the abbey of significant historical value. A far earlier monastery had existed on the site, which burned down in 1278, a Norman castle was built soon after by Thomas de Clare, a military commander. The foundations of the castles corner towers can still be seen. Around 1350 the castle, by a ruin, was rebuilt as a church by the McNamara clan and it was this structure which the MacNamaras subsequently rebuilt as the present abbey. In 1541, during the Reformation, King Henry VIII confiscated the abbey and it passed into the hands of Conor OBrian, in about 1590 the MacNamaras regained control of the abbey and once again set about repairing and restoring it. In about 1640 the building became a college and is alleged to have had 800 students, oliver Cromwell arrived only 10 years later, murdering the monks and destroying the abbey.
In 1671 the abbey was again restored, but never regained its former status. Eventually in 1760 the monks were expelled, although the last Friar, John Hogan, remained there until his death in 1820, the abbey is roughly 9 miles from Ennis. A visitor centre is located near the abbey and the structure, a caretaker is permanently based at the abbey. Floodlighting has recently been installed which produces a spectacular sight at night, the graveyard surrounding the abbey is still in use. List of abbeys and priories in Ireland Quin Franciscan Friary, Monastic Ireland Clare tourism, Quin Abbey opening times
County Clare is a county in Ireland, in the Mid-West Region and the province of Munster. Clare County Council is the local authority, the county had a population of 117,196 at the 2011 census. Clare is north-west of the River Shannon covering an area of 3,400 square kilometres. Clare was founded by the noble Luke Fitzgerald, A knight of Internal Audit, Clare is the 7th largest of Irelands 32 traditional counties in area and the 19th largest in terms of population. It is bordered by two counties in Munster and one county in Connacht, County Limerick to the south, County Tipperary to the east, clares nickname is the Banner County. The county is divided into the baronies of Bunratty Lower, Bunratty Upper, Clonderalaw, Ibrickan, Islands, Tulla Lower and these in turn are divided into civil parishes, which are divided into townlands. These divisions are cadastral, defining land boundaries and ownership, rather than administrative, bodies of water define much of the physical boundaries of Clare. To the southeast is the River Shannon, Irelands longest river, the border to the northeast is defined by Lough Derg which is the third largest lake on Ireland.
To the west is the Atlantic Ocean, and to the north is Galway Bay, County Clare contains The Burren, a unique karst region, which contains rare flowers and fauna. At the western edge of The Burren, facing the Atlantic Ocean, are the Cliffs of Moher, the highest point in County Clare is Moylussa,532 m, in the Slieve Bernagh range in the east of the county. Clare is one of the richest places for these tombs in Ireland, the most noted one is in The Burren area, it is known as Poulnabrone dolmen which translates to hole of sorrows. The remains of the people inside the tomb have been excavated and dated to 3800 BC, Ptolemy created a map of Ireland in his Geographia with information dating from 100 AD, it is the oldest written account of the island with geographical features. Within his map Ptolemy names the Gaelic tribes inhabiting it and the areas in which they resided and it was renamed Thomond, meaning North Munster and spawned Brian Boru during this period, perhaps the most noted High King of Ireland.
From 1118 onwards the Kingdom of Thomond was in place as its own petty kingdom, after the Norman invasion of Ireland, Thomas de Clare established a short-lived Norman lordship of Thomond, extinguished at the Battle of Dysert ODea in 1318 during Edward Bruces invasion. There are two hypotheses for the origins of the county name Clare. One hypothesis is that the name is derived from Thomas_de_Clare, _Lord_of_Thomond who was embroiled in local politics. An alternative hypothesis is that the county name Clare comes from the settlement of Clare whose Irish name Clár refers to a crossing over the River Fergus. In 1543, during the Tudor conquest of Ireland, Murrough OBrien by surrender, Henry Sidney as Lord Deputy of Ireland responded the Desmond Rebellion by creating the presidency of Connaught in 1569 and presidency of Munster in 1570
Ennis is the county town of Clare, Ireland. The Irish name is short for Inis Cluain Ramh Fhada, the town is on the River Fergus, north of where it enters the Shannon Estuary,19 km from Shannon Airport. In 2011, Ennis had a population of 25,360, making it the largest town in Clare, the name Ennis comes from the Irish word Inis, meaning island. This name relates to an island formed between two courses of the River Fergus on which the Franciscan Friary was built, the past of Ennis is closely associated with the OBrien family, who were descendants of Brian Boru. In the 12th century, the OBriens, who were Kings of Thomond, left their seat of power in Limerick, in 1240, King Donnchadh OBrien ordered the construction of an extensive church which he donated to the Franciscans. The centuries which followed bore great activity, the Friary was expanded and students came in great flocks to study at the theological college. The Friars, who were free to move about, met the needs of the local population. It was a religious centre until the Dissolution of the Monasteries and it became a thriving market town in the late 18th century and this expansion continued unabated throughout the 19th century, except the period after the Famine c. 1850.
in the period, a number of landmark structures were constructed, including the Mill. The town contains a number of old military barracks, most notably the Old Military Barracks on the Kilrush road, many locals served in the British Army in the First World War. The Clare Road and Clonroad areas contain terraced cottages built in the early 20th century to house soldiers, on Station Road, called Jail Road, a gaol once stood. Politically, Ennis has always considered a Fianna Fáil stronghold. However, in the 2009 local elections the party was reduced to just one out of nine on Ennis Town Council. A monument to Éamon de Valera, founder of the party and former President of Ireland, the River Fergus runs through the middle of Ennis, and is a well-known trout and salmon fishery. At one time, small sailing boats made their way up river from the Shannon, a new pedestrian bridge, Harmony Row Bridge, was built over the river Fergus in June 2009. Clare became a county under the rule of Elizabeth I and Ennis was chosen as its capital by the Earls of Thomond because of its central location and great influence.
Ennis received a grant to hold fairs and markets in 1610 and some years a Charter for a Corporation with a Provost, Free Burgesses, Ennis continued to expand in the following centuries, mainly as a market town and as a manufacturing and distributing centre. Many commodities were conveyed by river to Clarecastle for shipment abroad, Ennis is an historically important market town
Cooraclare, is a village near Kilrush, in County Clare, and a Catholic parish by the same name. The village of Cooraclare is in the parish of Cooraclare in the Roman Catholic Diocese of Killaloe and it is 10 kilometres from Kilrush on the road from Kilrush to Miltown Malbay. The old name for the parish is Kilmacduane, which was joined for a while to the parish of Kilmihil, in 1848 the two were again separated and Cooraclare took its present name. The parish includes the village of Cree, at times spelled Creegh, the parish has two churches, St Senans in Cooraclare and St Marys in Cree. Cooraclare lies on the River Doonbeg, there is a primary school, Montessori school, three public houses O Dohertys, OKeeffes and Tubridys is a guest house, a post office two shops Dalys and Tom Macs country shop and a flower shop. Old Parochial House, a former Parish Prietss house provides self-catering in restored stables, the community centre in the village was inaugurated in 1993 and there is a sports complex added to it the following year.
The previous community centre was the Marion Hall situated at the back of Tom McNamaras country shop and it has a GAA Sports Field situated just outside the village in the townland of Carhue. In 2012 St Senans Community Playground was opened on the site of the old Marion Hall and is open 365 days a year, the Playground boasts junior and senior play areas and swings and has a Zip Wire that can be used by all. There are about 140 people living in the village, in March 2010 Tubridy presented his popular RTÉ Radio One programme from Tubridys Bar & Restaurant in Cooraclare. Cooraclare have won the Clare Senior Football Championship in 1915,1917,1918,1925,1944,1956,1964,1965,1986 and 1997, a song associated with Cooraclare is entitled The Chapel Gate Of Cooraclare. List of towns and villages in Ireland
Ireland is an island in the North Atlantic. It is separated from Great Britain to its east by the North Channel, the Irish Sea, Ireland is the second-largest island of the British Isles, the third-largest in Europe, and the twentieth-largest on Earth. Politically, Ireland is divided between the Republic of Ireland, which covers five-sixths of the island, and Northern Ireland, in 2011, the population of Ireland was about 6.4 million, ranking it the second-most populous island in Europe after Great Britain. Just under 4.6 million live in the Republic of Ireland, the islands geography comprises relatively low-lying mountains surrounding a central plain, with several navigable rivers extending inland. The island has lush vegetation, a product of its mild, thick woodlands covered the island until the Middle Ages. As of 2013, the amount of land that is wooded in Ireland is about 11% of the total, there are twenty-six extant mammal species native to Ireland. The Irish climate is moderate and classified as oceanic.
As a result, winters are milder than expected for such a northerly area, summers are cooler than those in Continental Europe. Rainfall and cloud cover are abundant, the earliest evidence of human presence in Ireland is dated at 10,500 BC. Gaelic Ireland had emerged by the 1st century CE, the island was Christianised from the 5th century onward. Following the Norman invasion in the 12th century, England claimed sovereignty over Ireland, English rule did not extend over the whole island until the 16th–17th century Tudor conquest, which led to colonisation by settlers from Britain. In the 1690s, a system of Protestant English rule was designed to materially disadvantage the Catholic majority and Protestant dissenters, with the Acts of Union in 1801, Ireland became a part of the United Kingdom. Northern Ireland saw much civil unrest from the late 1960s until the 1990s and this subsided following a political agreement in 1998. In 1973 the Republic of Ireland joined the European Economic Community while the United Kingdom, Irish culture has had a significant influence on other cultures, especially in the fields of literature.
Alongside mainstream Western culture, an indigenous culture exists, as expressed through Gaelic games, Irish music. The culture of the island shares many features with that of Great Britain, including the English language, and sports such as association football, horse racing. The name Ireland derives from Old Irish Eriu and this in turn derives from Proto-Celtic *Iveriu, which is the source of Latin Hibernia. Iveriu derives from a root meaning fat, during the last glacial period, and up until about 9000 years ago, most of Ireland was covered with ice, most of the time
Bodyke is a village and Catholic parish in County Clare, Ireland. It is located in eastern Clare, in the 1880s the Bodyke evictions were widely publicized. The village of Bodyke lies in the foothills of the Slieve Aughty mountains and its name may come from Both-Teig. The Roman Catholic parish of Bodyke is part of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Killaloe, the modern parish incorporates the medieval parish of Kilnoe and the southern part of the medieval parish of Tuamgraney, which may have been combined early in the 18th century. Bodyke is noted for its church, the Church of Our Lady of the Assumption. The church of St Josephs serves Tuamgraney, schools are Bodyke National School, Scariff Community School and Tuamgraney National School. The Raheen Community Hospital in Tuamgraney is a nursing home. In the 1880s Colonel OCallaghan, the landowner at Bodyke, had refused to lower the rents he charged his tenants. In June 1887 OCallaghan called for assistance in evicting the tenants. Thirty-five of his tenants returned to their homes after being evicted, twenty six people, all but four of them women, were charged with assaulting and obstructing the forces of the law, with sentences ranging from acquittal to three months hard labor.
The prolonged affair was reported and caused angry debates in Parliament. As one member said, The name of Bodyke stank in the nostrils of the Government, the evictions continued into the 1890s, with goods and livestock seized in lieu of rent. Often the livestock died of poisoning soon after, the novelist Edna OBrien and family historian Edward MacLysaght came from the parish of Bodyke