Quinctia (gens)

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Denarius of Titus Quinctius Flamininus, 126 BC. On the obverse is the head of Roma, with the apex of the Flamen Dialis behind, alluding to his cognomen; the reverse shows the Dioscuri riding right, with a Macedonian shield below, which is a reference to the Battle of Cynoscephalae won by his great-grandfather in 197 BC.[1]

The gens Quinctia, sometimes written Quintia, was a patrician family at Rome. Throughout the history of the Republic, its members often held the highest offices of the state, and it produced some men of importance even during the imperial period. For the first forty years after the expulsion of the kings the Quinctii are not mentioned, and the first of the gens who obtained the consulship was Titus Quinctius Capitolinus Barbatus in 471 BC; but from that year their name constantly appears in the Fasti consulares.[2][3][4]

As with other patrician families, in later times there were also plebeian Quinctii; some of these may have been the descendants of freedmen of the gens, or of patrician Quinctii who had voluntarily gone over to the plebs. There may also have been unrelated persons who happened to share the same nomen.[2]

Pliny the Elder relates that it was the custom in the Quinctia gens for even the women not to wear any ornaments of gold.[5]

Origin[edit]

The Quinctia gens was one of the Alban houses removed to Rome by Tullus Hostilius, and enrolled by him among the patricians, it was consequently one of the minores gentes. The nomen Quinctius is a patronymic surname based on the praenomen Quintus, which must have belonged to an ancestor of the gens. The spelling Quintius is common in later times, but Quinctius is the ancient and more correct form, which occurs on coins and in the Fasti Capitolini.[2][6]

Praenomina[edit]

The main praenomina used by the Quinctii were Lucius and Titus; the family also used the names Caeso, Gnaeus, and Quintus. All were very common throughout Roman history, except Caeso, which initially was principally borne among the patrician Fabii. Ernst Badian therefore suggests that the use of Caeso may reflect an old family connection between the Fabii and the Quinctii.[7] Other praenomina were used by the plebeian Quinctii, such as Decimus, Titus, or Publius.

Branches and cognomina[edit]

The three great patrician families of the Quinctia gens bore the cognomina Capitolinus, Cincinnatus, and Flamininus. Besides these we find Quinctii with the surnames Atta, Claudus, Crispinus, Hirpinus, Scapula, and Trogus. A few members of the gens bore no cognomen; the only surname that occurs on coins is that of Crispinus Sulpicianus, which is found on coins struck in the time of Augustus.[2][8] The cognomen Flamininus is also implied on a denarius.

The eldest branches of the gens, those that bore the surnames Capitolinus and Cincinnatus, may have sprung from two brothers, Titus Quinctius Capitolinus Barbatus, six times consul, and Lucius Quinctius Cincinnatus, twice dictator, two of the greatest men of their age; the Fasti show that both men were the son and grandson of Lucius, and the two were well acquainted with one another.[9]

The cognomen Capitolinus is derived from the Mons Capitolinus, or Capitoline Hill, one of the famous seven hills of Rome;[10] the agnomen Barbatus of this family means "bearded".[11] The surname Cincinnatus refers to someone with fine, curly hair, as does the agnomen Crispinus, which belonged to the later Capitolini.[11] A few of the Quinctii bear both the surnames Cincinnatus and Capitolinus, and men of both families also bore the cognomen Pennus (sometimes found as Poenus). According to Isidore, this surname had the meaning of "sharp": "pennum antiqui acutum dicebant."[12][11] Alternately the name could be connected with penna, a feather, or wing.[13]

Claudus appeared in the beginning of the third century, but was rapidly replaced by Flamininus, which derived from flamen, and also gave rise to the gens Flaminia; this cognomen was likely adopted by the descendants of Lucius Quinctius, who was Flamen Dialis during the third quarter of the third century BC.[14] The family remained prominent over the next century; their most famous member was Titus Quinctius Flamininus, who defeated Philip V of Macedon in 197 BC.[15][16]

Members[edit]

This list includes abbreviated praenomina. For an explanation of this practice, see filiation.

Quinctii Capitolini et Crispini[edit]

Quinctii Cincinnati[edit]

Quinctii Claudi et Flaminini[edit]

  • Lucius Quinctius Cn. f. T. n. (Claudus), a military tribune in 326 BC under Quintus Publilius Philo. He was probably the son of Gnaeus Quinctius Capitolinus, dictator in 331, and the father of Caeso Quinctius Claudus, consul in 271.[39]
  • Caeso Quinctius L. f. Cn. n. Claudus, consul in 271 BC.[40][41][42]
  • Lucius Quinctius K. f. L. n. (Claudus), Flamen Dialis during the third quarter of the third century BC. He was probably a son of Caeso Quinctius Claudus, consul in 271.[43][44]
  • Titus Quinctius L. f. K. n. Flamininus, son of Lucius Quinctius, the Flamen Dialis, and father of Titus and Lucius Quinctius Flamininus, the consuls of 198 and 192 BC.
  • Caeso Quinctius L. f. K. n. Flamininus, one of the duumviri ordered to contract for the building of the temple of Concordia, in 217 BC.[45]
  • Quinctius L. f. K. n. Claudus Flamininus,[i] praetor in 208 BC, sent to Tarentum, where he stayed as propraetor until 205, he was either the third son of Lucius Quinctius, the Flamen Dialis, or the same man as Caeso Quinctius Flamininus, the duumvir of 217.[46]
  • Titus Quinctius T. f. L. n. Flamininus, consul in 198 BC, and censor in 189; defeated Philip V of Macedon at the Battle of Cynoscephalae.
  • Lucius Quinctius T. f. L. n. Flamininus, a general under his elder brother, Titus, during the war against Philip, and consul in 192 BC. He was created augur in 212 BC.[47]
  • Caeso Quinctius K. f. L. f. Flamininus,[ii] praetor peregrinus in 177 BC. He was the likely son of Caeso Quinctius Flamininus, the duumvir of 217.[48][49][50]
  • Titus Quinctius T. f. Flamininus, ambassador to Cotys, the King of Thrace, in 167 BC; elected augur the same year.[51]
  • Titus Quinctius T. f. T. n. Flamininus, consul in 150 BC.[52][53]
  • Titus Quinctius T. f. T. n. Flamininus, consul in 123 BC.
  • Titus Quinctius T. f. T. n. Flamininus, triumvir monetalis in 126 BC, he was probably the son of the consul of 123.[1]

Others[edit]

See also[edit]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ His name is found under a completely corrupted form in the manuscripts of Livy, as "Quintus Claudius Flamen". Badian has shown that since his praenomen was not recorded, later historians amended his name to fit into a plausible tria nomina.
  2. ^ His praenomen is often found as Gaius, but Badian has shown that it is a corruption in the manuscript of Livy.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Crawford, Roman Republican Coinage, p. 291.
  2. ^ a b c d Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, vol. III, pp. 633, 634 ("Quintia Gens").
  3. ^ Livy, i. 30.
  4. ^ Niebuhr, History of Rome, ii. 291, 292.
  5. ^ Pliny the Elder, xxxiii. 1. s. 6.
  6. ^ Chase, "The Origin of Roman Praenomina".
  7. ^ Badian, "Family and Early Career", p. 105.
  8. ^ Eckhel, Doctrina Numorum Veterum, v. 291.
  9. ^ Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, vol. I, p. 605 ("Quinctius Capitolinus", No. 1).
  10. ^ Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, vol. I, p. 603 ("Capitolinus").
  11. ^ a b c Chase, pp. 109, 110.
  12. ^ Isidore of Seville, xix. 19.
  13. ^ Cassell's Latin & English Dictionary.
  14. ^ Münzer, Roman Aristocratic Parties and Families, pp. 110, 117.
  15. ^ Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, vol. II, p. 161 ("Flamininus").
  16. ^ Chase, pp. 111, 112.
  17. ^ Livy, iv. 43.
  18. ^ Livy, iv. 61.
  19. ^ Zonaras, vii. 20.
  20. ^ Livy, vi. 11.
  21. ^ Broughton, vol. I, pp. 119 (note 2), 124, 127 (note 1).
  22. ^ Fasti Capitolini.
  23. ^ Livy, viii. 18.
  24. ^ His nomen is given as Quinctilius by Livy, but this seems an error, and Gnaeus was not a praenomen used by the Quinctilii.
  25. ^ Broughton, vol. I, pp. 286, 289, 290.
  26. ^ Fasti Magistrorum Vici, AE 1937, 62.
  27. ^ Syme, The Augustan Aristocracy, p. 57.
  28. ^ Lewis, The Official Priests of Rome, p. 122.
  29. ^ Livy, iv. 16, 17, 35, 44.
  30. ^ Diodorus Siculus, xii. 38, xii. 81.
  31. ^ Livy, iv. 49, 61.
  32. ^ Diodorus Siculus, xiii. 34, xiv. 17.
  33. ^ Livy, vi. 6, 32, 33.
  34. ^ Diodorus Siculus, xv. 25, 28, 61.
  35. ^ Livy, vi. 32.
  36. ^ Livy, vi. 36.
  37. ^ Livy, vi. 38, 42.
  38. ^ Diodorus Siculus, xv. 78.
  39. ^ Badian, "Family and Early Career", p. 105.
  40. ^ Fasti Capitolini.
  41. ^ Cassiodorus, 354.
  42. ^ Broughton, vol. I, p. 198.
  43. ^ Münzer, Roman Aristocratic Parties and Families, pp. 110, 117, who thought that he was the consul's brother.
  44. ^ Rüpke, Fasti Sacerdotum, p. 864 (notes 5, 6).
  45. ^ Livy, xxii. 33.
  46. ^ Badian, "Family and Early Career", pp. 107, 108, who notes that the mistake predates the composition of Livy's book. Badian also adds that Titus Flamininus, the consul of 198, succeeded his uncle as propraetor of Tarentum in 205 BC, thus making sense of this important appointment very early in Titus' career.
  47. ^ Livy, xxv. 2.
  48. ^ Livy, xli. 12.
  49. ^ Broughton, vol. I, p. 398.
  50. ^ Badian, "Family and Early Career", pp. 105, 106.
  51. ^ Livy, xli. 43, xlv. 42, 44.
  52. ^ Cicero, Cato Maior de Senectute, 5, Epistulae ad Atticum, xii. 5.
  53. ^ Pliny the Elder, vii. 36.
  54. ^ Livy, xxvi. 39.
  55. ^ Varro, De Lingua Latina, vi. 90-92, ed. Müller.
  56. ^ Cicero, Pro Quinctio.
  57. ^ Horace, Carmen Saeculare, ii. 11, Epistulae, i. 16.
  58. ^ Pliny the Elder, vii. 53, s. 54.

Bibliography[edit]

 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainSmith, William (1870). "Quintia Gens". In Smith, William (ed.). Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology. p. 633.