The quinolones are a family of synthetic broad-spectrum antibiotic drugs. Quinolones, and derivatives, have also been isolated from natural sources, Quinolones exert their antibacterial effect by preventing bacterial DNA from unwinding and duplicating. The majority of quinolones in clinical use are fluoroquinolones, which have a fluorine atom attached to the ring system. Most of them are named with the -oxacin suffix, for patients with these conditions, fluoroquinolones should be reserved for those who do not have alternative treatment options. Fluoroquinolones are featured prominently in The American Thoracic Society guidelines for the treatment of hospital-acquired pneumonia, the Society recommends fluoroquinolones not be used as a first-line agent for community-acquired pneumonia, instead recommending macrolide or doxycycline as first-line agents. Fluoroquinolones are often used for infections, and are widely used in the treatment of hospital-acquired infections associated with urin
Essential structure of all quinolone antibiotics: the blue drawn remainder of R is usually piperazine
; if the connection contains fluorine (red), it is a fluoroquinolone.
A chemical compound is an entity consisting of two or more atoms, at least two from different elements, which associate via chemical bonds. Many chemical compounds have a numerical identifier assigned by the Chemical Abstracts Service. For example, water is composed of two atoms bonded to one oxygen atom, the chemical formula is H2O. A compound can be converted to a different chemical composition by interaction with a chemical compound via a chemical reaction. In this process, bonds between atoms are broken in both of the compounds, and then bonds are reformed so that new associations are made between atoms. Schematically, this reaction could be described as AB + CD → AC + BD, where A, B, C, and D are each unique atoms, and AB, CD, AC, and BD are each unique compounds. A chemical element bonded to a chemical element is not a chemical compound since only one element. Examples are the diatomic hydrogen and the polyatomic molecule sulfur. Chemical compounds have a unique and defined chemi