The gens Mucia was an ancient and noble patrician house at Rome. The gens is first mentioned at the earliest period of the Republic, but in times the family was known by its plebeian branches; the first of the Mucii to appear in history is Gaius Mucius Scaevola, a young man at the inception of the Roman Republic. According to legend, he volunteered to infiltrate the camp of Lars Porsena, the king of Clusium, who besieged Rome c. 508 BC, who may in fact have captured and held the city for some time. Mucius, armed with a dagger, attempted to assassinate Porsena, but unfamiliar with Etruscan dress, he mistook the king's secretary for the king, was captured. Brought before the king, Mucius declared that he was but one of three hundred Roman men who had sworn to carry out this mission, or die in the attempt; as a show of bravery, it was said that he thrust his right hand into a brazier, stood silently as it burned. Porsena was so impressed by his courage and endurance that Mucius was freed, some traditions held that Porsena withdrew his army in fear of the threat of assassination invented by the young Roman.
The chief praenomina used by the Mucii were Publius and Gaius, all of which were common throughout Roman history. The only major family of the Mucii bore the cognomen Scaevola; this surname is said to have been acquired by Gaius Mucius, who lost the use of his right hand following his attempt on the life of Lars Porsena, was subsequently called Scaevola because only his left hand remained. The similar cognomen, which occurs in other gentes, including among the Junii, is assumed to mean "left handed", Scaevola could be a diminutive form; the only other important cognomen of the Mucii was Cordus, borne by some of the Scaevolae. According to some traditions, Gaius Mucius was surnamed Cordus, assumed the surname Scaevola on account of his deed before Porsena. However, it may be that the tradition concerning his right hand was a addition to the story, intended to explain the descent of the Mucii Scaevolae from one of the heroes of the Republic. Although Gaius Mucius was a patrician, the Mucii Scaevolae were plebeians.
This list includes abbreviated praenomina. For an explanation of this practice, see filiation. Gaius Mucius Scaevola, attempted the life of Lars Porsena, c. 508 BC. Publius Mucius Scaevola, father of the praetor of 215 BC. Quintus Mucius P. f. Scaevola, praetor in 215 BC, received Sardinia as his province, his command there was prolonged for three years. He may have been consul in 220. Publius Mucius Q. f. P. n. Scaevola, consul in 175 BC, triumphed over the Ligures. Quintus Mucius Q. f. P. n. Scaevola, consul in 174 BC. Publius Mucius Scaevola, consul in 133 BC, he was regarded as one of the founders of the ius civile. Publius Licinius Crassus Dives Mucianus, Pontifex Maximus, consul in 131 BC. Quintus Mucius Q. f. Q. n. Scaevola, called the augur, consul in 117 BC. Mucia Q. f. Q. n. the elder daughter of Quintus Mucius Scaevola, the augur, married Lucius Licinius Crassus, the orator, consul in 95 BC, the colleague of Mucia's cousin, Quintus Mucius Scaevola. Tertia Mucia Q. f. Q. n. better known as Mucia Tertia, the younger daughter of the augur, married Gnaeus Pompeius, the triumvir.
Quintus Mucius P. f. Scaevola, son of the Pontifex Maximus, was consul in 95 BC, himself became Pontifex Maximus, he was murdered during the proscription of the younger Marius. Gaius Mucius Scaevola, one of the quindecimviri sacris faciundis in 17 BC. Gaius Licinius Mucianus, consul in AD 52, 70, 75. List of Roman gentes De Lingua Latina. Marcus Tullius Cicero, Brutus, De Domo Sua, De Finibus Bonorum et Malorum, De Legibus, De Officiis, De Oratore, Epistulae ad Atticum, Epistulae ad Familiares, Laelius de Amicitia, Pro Balbo, Pro Plancio, Pro Sexto Roscio Amerino, Topica. Titus Livius, History of Rome. Marcus Velleius Paterculus, Compendium of Roman History. Valerius Maximus, Factorum ac Dictorum Memorabilium. Marcus Annaeus Lucanus, Pharsalia. Quintus Asconius Pedianus, Commentarius in Oratio Ciceronis Pro Scauro. Gaius Plinius Secundus, Naturalis Historia. Marcus Fabius Quintilianus, Institutio Oratoria. Flavius Josephus, Bellum Judaïcum.</ref> Publius Cornelius Tacitus, Historiae. Plutarchus, Lives of the Noble Greeks and Romans.
Gaius Suetonius Tranquillus, De Vita Caesarum. Lucius Annaeus Florus, Epitome de T. Livio Bellorum Omnium Annorum DCC. Appianus Alexandrinus, Bellum Civile. Aulus Gellius, Noctes Atticae. Lucius Cassius Dio Cocceianus, Roman History. Eusebius Sophronius Hieronymus, Adversus Jovinianum. Digesta seu Pandectae. Joannes Zonaras, Epitome Historiarum. Gerardus Vossius, De Historicis Latinis, Jan Maire, Brittenburg. Sigmund Wilhelm Zimmern, Geschichte des Römischen Privatrechts bis Justinian, J. C. B. Mohr, Heidelberg. Barthold Georg Niebuhr, The History of Rome, Julius Charles Hare and Connop Thirlwall, trans. John Smith, Cambridge. Wilhelm Drumann, Geschichte Roms in seine
Roman law is the legal system of ancient Rome, including the legal developments spanning over a thousand years of jurisprudence, from the Twelve Tables, to the Corpus Juris Civilis ordered by Eastern Roman Emperor Justinian I. Roman law forms the basic framework for civil law, the most used legal system today, the terms are sometimes used synonymously; the historical importance of Roman law is reflected by the continued use of Latin legal terminology in many legal systems influenced by it, including common law. After the dissolution of the Western Roman Empire, the Roman law remained in effect in the Eastern Roman Empire. From the 7th century onward, the legal language in the East was Greek. Roman law denoted the legal system applied in most of Western Europe until the end of the 18th century. In Germany, Roman law practice remained in place longer under the Holy Roman Empire. Roman law thus served as a basis for legal practice throughout Western continental Europe, as well as in most former colonies of these European nations, including Latin America, in Ethiopia.
English and Anglo-American common law were influenced by Roman law, notably in their Latinate legal glossary. Eastern Europe was influenced by the jurisprudence of the Corpus Juris Civilis in countries such as medieval Romania which created a new system, a mixture of Roman and local law. Eastern European law was influenced by the "Farmer's Law" of the medieval Byzantine legal system. Before the Twelve Tables, private law comprised the Roman civil law that applied only to Roman citizens, was bonded to religion; the jurist Sextus Pomponius said, "At the beginning of our city, the people began their first activities without any fixed law, without any fixed rights: all things were ruled despotically, by kings". It is believed that Roman Law is rooted in the Etruscan religion; the first legal text is the Law of the Twelve Tables, dating from the mid-5th century BC. The plebeian tribune, C. Terentilius Arsa, proposed that the law should be written, in order to prevent magistrates from applying the law arbitrarily.
After eight years of political struggle, the plebeian social class convinced the patricians to send a delegation to Athens, to copy the Laws of Solon. In 451 BC, according to the traditional story, ten Roman citizens were chosen to record the laws. While they were performing this task, they were given supreme political power, whereas the power of the magistrates was restricted. In 450 BC, the decemviri produced the laws on ten tablets, but these laws were regarded as unsatisfactory by the plebeians. A second decemvirate is said to have added two further tablets in 449 BC; the new Law of the Twelve Tables was approved by the people's assembly. Modern scholars tend to challenge the accuracy of Roman historians, they do not believe that a second decemvirate took place. The decemvirate of 451 is believed to have included the most controversial points of customary law, to have assumed the leading functions in Rome. Furthermore, the question on the Greek influence found in the early Roman Law is still much discussed.
Many scholars consider it unlikely that the patricians sent an official delegation to Greece, as the Roman historians believed. Instead, those scholars suggest, the Romans acquired Greek legislations from the Greek cities of Magna Graecia, the main portal between the Roman and Greek worlds; the original text of the Twelve Tables has not been preserved. The tablets were destroyed when Rome was conquered and burned by the Gauls in 387 BC; the fragments which did survive show. It did not provide a complete and coherent system of all applicable rules or give legal solutions for all possible cases. Rather, the tables contained specific provisions designed to change the then-existing customary law. Although the provisions pertain to all areas of law, the largest part is dedicated to private law and civil procedure. Many laws include Lex Canuleia, Leges Licinae Sextiae, Lex Ogulnia, Lex Hortensia. Another important statute from the Republican era is the Lex Aquilia of 286 BC, which may be regarded as the root of modern tort law.
However, Rome's most important contribution to European legal culture was not the enactment of well-drafted statutes, but the emergence of a class of professional jurists and of a legal science. This was achieved in a gradual process of applying the scientific methods of Greek philosophy to the subject of law, a subject which the Greeks themselves never treated as a science. Traditionally, the origins of Roman legal science are connected to Gnaeus Flavius. Flavius is said to have published around the year 300 BC the formularies containing the words which had to be spoken in court to begin a legal action. Before the time of Flavius, these formularies are said to have been secret and known only to the priests, their publication made it possible for non-priests to explore the mea
International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book Number is a numeric commercial book identifier, intended to be unique. Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency. An ISBN is assigned to each variation of a book. For example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN; the ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, 10 digits long if assigned before 2007. The method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country; the initial ISBN identification format was devised in 1967, based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering created in 1966. The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO 2108. Published books sometimes appear without an ISBN; the International ISBN agency sometimes assigns such books ISBNs on its own initiative.
Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number, identifies periodical publications such as magazines and newspapers. The International Standard Music Number covers musical scores; the Standard Book Numbering code is a 9-digit commercial book identifier system created by Gordon Foster, Emeritus Professor of Statistics at Trinity College, for the booksellers and stationers WHSmith and others in 1965. The ISBN identification format was conceived in 1967 in the United Kingdom by David Whitaker and in 1968 in the United States by Emery Koltay; the 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO 2108. The United Kingdom continued to use the 9-digit SBN code until 1974. ISO has appointed the International ISBN Agency as the registration authority for ISBN worldwide and the ISBN Standard is developed under the control of ISO Technical Committee 46/Subcommittee 9 TC 46/SC 9; the ISO on-line facility only refers back to 1978.
An SBN may be converted to an ISBN by prefixing the digit "0". For example, the second edition of Mr. J. G. Reeder Returns, published by Hodder in 1965, has "SBN 340 01381 8" – 340 indicating the publisher, 01381 their serial number, 8 being the check digit; this can be converted to ISBN 0-340-01381-8. Since 1 January 2007, ISBNs have contained 13 digits, a format, compatible with "Bookland" European Article Number EAN-13s. An ISBN is assigned to each variation of a book. For example, an ebook, a paperback, a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN; the ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, 10 digits long if assigned before 2007. An International Standard Book Number consists of 4 parts or 5 parts: for a 13-digit ISBN, a prefix element – a GS1 prefix: so far 978 or 979 have been made available by GS1, the registration group element, the registrant element, the publication element, a checksum character or check digit. A 13-digit ISBN can be separated into its parts, when this is done it is customary to separate the parts with hyphens or spaces.
Separating the parts of a 10-digit ISBN is done with either hyphens or spaces. Figuring out how to separate a given ISBN is complicated, because most of the parts do not use a fixed number of digits. ISBN is most used among others special identifiers to describe references in Wikipedia and can help to find the same sources with different description in various language versions. ISBN issuance is country-specific, in that ISBNs are issued by the ISBN registration agency, responsible for that country or territory regardless of the publication language; the ranges of ISBNs assigned to any particular country are based on the publishing profile of the country concerned, so the ranges will vary depending on the number of books and the number and size of publishers that are active. Some ISBN registration agencies are based in national libraries or within ministries of culture and thus may receive direct funding from government to support their services. In other cases, the ISBN registration service is provided by organisations such as bibliographic data providers that are not government funded.
A full directory of ISBN agencies is available on the International ISBN Agency website. Partial listing: Australia: the commercial library services agency Thorpe-Bowker.