Gold Coast (Connecticut)
The Gold Coast known as Lower Fairfield County or Southwestern Connecticut not limited to the Connecticut Panhandle, is a part of Western Connecticut that includes the entire southern portion of Fairfield County as defined by the U. S. Census Bureau, Super-Public Use Microdata Area Region 09600; the area is about 50 miles northeast of New York City, is home to many wealthy NYC-based business people. Parts of the region are served by the Western Connecticut Council of Governments; this area is portrayed in culture as a bastion of wealth. Since the mid-20th century, a number of novels and films have been set here, including Gentleman's Agreement, The Man in the Gray Flannel Suit, Mr. Blandings Builds His Dream House, The Swimmer, The Stepford Wives, The Ice Storm. Despite not being on the coast, New Canaan, Ridgefield, Easton, Monroe, New Fairfield and Weston are still included in the region, due to them being similar to coastline towns. Aspetuck Back Country Bridgeport Belle Haven Bell Island Black Rock Brookfield Brookfield Center Byram Compo Cos Cob The Cove Darien Easton Fairfield Fairfield Beach Greenfield Hill Green's Farms Greenwich Long neck point Lordship Lyons Plains Mianus New Canaan New Fairfield Noroton Norwalk North Stamford Old Greenwich Riverside Round Hill Rowayton Sasco Hill Shippan Point Southport Stamford Stratford Tokeneke Trumbull Saugatuck Silvermine Stamford Weston Westport Wilson Point WiltonThe "Gold Coast" is most notable for the expensive waterfront properties located along its shore, as well as the close proximity of its cities and towns to New York City.
Other areas in Fairfield County that are regarded for their wealth and expensive lakefront property are Brookfield, New Fairfield and Sherman. These towns are located along Candlewood Lake, are located within close proximity to the City. Brookfield and Newtown are located along the shores of Lake Lillinonah, which consists of expensive waterfront property. Although the term "Gold Coast" could apply to any of the thirteen parkway municipalities, the distinction of being called "the wealthiest town in Connecticut" can be attributed to the panhandle: either Darien, Greenwich or New Canaan, depending on the statistic used. With waterfront having the highest property value and coveted direct access to the New Haven railroad commuter line and Interstate-95, Darien and Greenwich boast a lower mill rate and are more sought after than New Canaan. However, property value is not the only way to determine, wealthier; as a side note, Darien has been listed as the richest town in the US as of 2018. It is difficult to compare the three.
In addition, Greenwich has three times the population of New Canaan. With more land area, average home values in New Canaan may be higher than Darien, but not the price per square foot. With a higher population, a larger demographic weighs greater on the median income in Greenwich; this plus the 47 square miles in land area makes Greenwich incomparable. New Canaan has an advantage of having more than 50% greater land area than Darien, but with a similar-sized population. According to the 2000 US Census, New Canaan was first in per capita income, Darien second and Greenwich third. According to the Connecticut 2014-15 Adjusted Equalized Net Grand List per Capita. Per capita income does not take into account personal assets, such as homes, art, boats or automobiles, so many of these families have much greater net worth. Greenwich has the lowest mill rate, which may indicate higher property value, with Darien ranking second. In 2000, New Canaan had a higher percentage of resident homeowners than Greenwich, which may indicate more wealth.
According to some sources, New Canaan should be considered the wealthiest town along the Gold Coast because of its higher rate of home ownership, suggesting a higher level of personal assets. In July 2011, The Daily Fairfield reported. An additional consideration is to measure wealth per person - not aggregate town wealth. Both the Adjusted Equalized Net Grand List per Capita Wealth Value and the CPR AENGLC Wealth Value, show that Greenwich has the highest wealth value in Connecticut, at more than $430,000 per person; the AENGLC is based on the value of residential and commercial real estate, measures the town's tax base available to pay for public education. It is not a measure of the personal wealth of individual residents, yet another definition for the Gold coast is one provided by the University of Connecticut's "Five Connecticuts" study, which indicates that the area includes the "wealthy," or blue towns. These are Greenwich, New Canaan, Weston, Ridgefield, Brookfield, New Fairfield and Easton.
A last method is to check the planning regions. This yields similar results to the above method but adds Stamford and Norwalk, while subtracting Ridgefield. A 2015 Connecticut Post article ranked Darien as the snobbiest town in Connecticut
A catechism is a summary or exposition of doctrine and serves as a learning introduction to the Sacraments traditionally used in catechesis, or Christian religious teaching of children and adult converts. Catechisms are doctrinal manuals – in the form of questions followed by answers to be memorised – a format, used in non-religious or secular contexts as well; the term catechumen refers to the designated recipient of the catechetical instruction. In the Catholic Church, catechumens are those. Traditionally, they would be placed separately during Holy Mass from those, baptized, would be dismissed from the liturgical assembly before the Profession of Faith and General Intercessions. Catecheticals are characteristic of Western Christianity but are present in Eastern Orthodox Christianity. In 1973, The Common Catechism, the first joint catechism of Catholics and Protestants, was published by theologians of the major Western Christian traditions, as a result of extensive ecumenical dialogue. Before the Protestant Reformation, Christian catechesis took the form of instruction in and memorization of the Apostles' Creed, Lord's Prayer, basic knowledge of the sacraments.
The word "catechism" for a manual for this instruction appeared in the Late Middle Ages. The use of a question and answer format was popularized by Martin Luther in his 1529 Small Catechism, he wanted the catechumen to understand what he was learning, so the Decalogue, Lord's Prayer, Apostles' Creed were broken up into small sections, with the question "What does this mean" following each portion. The format calls upon a master and a student, or a parent and a child; the Westminster Shorter Catechism is an example: Q. What is the chief end of man? A. To glorify God and enjoy Him forever! Q. What rule hath God given to direct us how we may glorify and enjoy Him? A; the word of God, contained in the Scriptures of the Old and New Testaments is the only rule to direct us how we may glorify and enjoy him. The catechism's question-and-answer format, with a view toward the instruction of children, was a form adopted by the various Protestant confessions from the beginning of the Reformation. Among the first projects of the Reformation was the production of catechisms self-consciously modelled after the older traditions of Cyril of Jerusalem and Augustine.
These catechisms showed special admiration for Chrysostom's view of the family as a "little church", placed strong responsibility on every father to teach his children, in order to prevent them from coming to baptism or the Lord's table ignorant of the doctrine under which they are expected to live as Christians. Luther's Large Catechism typifies the emphasis which the churches of the Augsburg Confession placed on the importance of knowledge and understanding of the articles of the Christian faith. Intended as instruction to teachers to parents, the catechism consists of a series of exhortations on the importance of each topic of the catechism, it is meant for those who have the capacity to understand, is meant to be memorized and repeatedly reviewed so that the Small Catechism could be taught with understanding. For example, the author stipulates in the preface: Therefore it is the duty of every father of a family to question and examine his children and servants at least once a week and to ascertain what they know of it, or are learning and, if they do not know it, to keep them faithfully at it.
The catechism, Luther wrote, should consist of instruction in the rule of conduct, which always accuses us because we fail to keep it, the rule of faith, the rule of prayer, the sacraments. Luther adds: However, it is not enough for them to comprehend and recite these parts according to the words only, but the young people should be made to attend the preaching during the time, devoted to the catechism, that they may hear it explained and may learn to understand what every part contains, so as to be able to recite it as they have heard it, when asked, may give a correct answer, so that the preaching may not be without profit and fruit. Luther's Small Catechism, in contrast, is written to accommodate the understanding of a child or an uneducated person, it begins: The First CommandmentYou shall have no other gods. Q. What does this mean? A. We should fear and trust in God above all things. Calvin's 1545 preface to the Genevan catechism begins with an acknowledgement that the several traditions and cultures which were joined in the Reformed movement would produce their own form of instruction in each place.
While Calvin argues that no effort should be expended on preventing this, he adds: We are all directed to one Christ, in whose truth being united together, we may grow up into one body and one spirit, with the same mouth proclaim whatever belongs to the sum of faith. Catechists not intent on this end, besides fatally injuring the Church, by sowing the materials of dissension in religion introduce an impious profanation of baptism. For where can any longer be the utility of baptism unless this remain as its foundation — that we all agree in one faith? Wherefore, those who publish Catechisms ought to be the more on their guard, by producing anything rashly, they may not for the present only, but in regard to posterity do grievous harm to piety, inflict a deadly wound on the Church; the scandal of diverse instruction is that it produces diverse baptisms and diverse communions, diverse faith. However, forms may v
Kent is a town in Litchfield County, alongside the border with New York. The population was 2,858 at the 2000 census; the town is home to three boarding schools: Kent School, The Marvelwood School and South Kent School. The Schaghticoke Indian Reservation is located within town borders; the Town of Kent was sectioned in 1737 and settled about 1739. The town was named in England. Kent is in Litchfield County, its location is 41°43′29″N 73°28′39″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 49.6 square miles, of which, 48.5 square miles of it is land and 1.1 square miles of it is water. Bulls Bridge, one of two covered bridges open to vehicles in Connecticut, is located in the town; the town is bisected by the Housatonic River. The western half contains Macedonia Brook State Park, the Schaghticoke Indian Reservation, as well as a section of the Appalachian Trail. Bulls Bridge Flanders Kent center Kent Furnace Macedonia North Kent South Kent Schaghticoke Indian Reservation Macedonia Brook State Park was first opened in 1918 with a donation of 1,552 acres from White Memorial Foundation of Litchfield.
Since it has now grown to a size of 2,300 acres and is used for outdoor recreation throughout the year. Besides the pure beauty of Appalachia, the park boasts extensive trails, campgrounds, a venue for large group picnics, a small hilltop lake and of course, Macedonia Brook. Visitors can take advantage of the numerous grills set up around the park. From peaks on the Blue Trail, hikers can take in fantastic views of the Catskill Mountains and the Taconic Mountains. Kent Falls State Park is called “The Jewel of the Inland Parks” with its scenic views of 17 waterfalls; the falls are fed by wetlands which are located in Warren, empties directly into the Housatonic River, across the street from the park. A trail winds a quarter of a mile up along the falls and although it is not difficult to walk it is steep, rising 250 feet in just a quarter mile. In 2006 a 1.1 million dollar trail renovation was finished which provided new viewing platforms and a redesigned trail. Swimming was at one time allowed along the entire length of the falls but due to a number of serious accidents, large scale damage to the natural environment which thrives in the park all of the area along the water above the bottom level is now closed by state law.
The park is stocked with trout from the state's hatcheries. Due to the Trout Park designation the daily creel limit in the park is two fish. Bull's Bridge is one of three remaining covered bridges in Connecticut dating from the 19th century. George Washington crossed the Housatonic River near the site of the present bridge in 1781. A museum featuring the studio and antique collections of Eric Sloane. A museum dedicated to antique machinery. One notable exhibit is its 3 ft narrow gauge railroad; as of the census of 2000, there were 2,858 people, 1,143 households, 744 families residing in the town. The population density was 59.0 people per square mile.were 1,463 housing units at an average density of 30.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 95.77% White, 0.56% Black or African American, 0.77% Native American, 0.98% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 0.70% from other races, 1.19% from two or more races. 2.52 % of the population were Latino of any race. The most numerous ethnic groups in Kent are: English - 19% Irish - 16% German - 14% Italian - 7% Scottish - 5%There were 1,143 households out of which 28.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.6% were married couples living together, 6.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 34.9% were non-families.
28.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.43 and the average family size was 2.99. In the town, the population was spread out with 22.8% under the age of 18, 5.2% from 18 to 24, 26.3% from 25 to 44, 27.8% from 45 to 64, 17.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 43 years. For every 100 females, there were 93.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 90.6 males. The median income for a household in the town was $53,906, the median income for a family was $66,065. Males had a median income of $46,343 versus $31,493 for females; the per capita income for the town was $38,674. About 0.1% of families and 3.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including none of those under age 18 and 10.8% of those age 65 or over. Kent is a member of Regional School District 01, which includes the towns of Canaan, North Canaan and Sharon. Public school students attend Kent Center School from grades K-8 and Housatonic Valley Regional High School from grades 9-12.
Kent has three private schools. They are Kent School, a co-ed Episcopal independent school serving grades 9-12/PG, South Kent School, an all-boys Episcopal independent school, Marvelwood School, a co-ed non-sectarian independent school. Route 7 is the main north-south highway in the town. William H. Armstrong, author of Sounder Herman R. Beardsley, Justice of the Vermont Supreme Court Joe Bouchard, founding member of rock group Blue Öyster Cult James Burnham, American political theorist, spent his final years in Kent, where he died Ted Danson and graduate of Kent School Oscar De la Renta, fashion designer Lana del Rey and graduate of Kent School Brendan Fraser, actor Adam Kennedy actor, painter, died in Kent Henry Kissinger, former U
Thomas Jefferson was an American statesman, lawyer and Founding Father who served as the third president of the United States from 1801 to 1809. He had served as the second vice president of the United States from 1797 to 1801; the principal author of the Declaration of Independence, Jefferson was a proponent of democracy and individual rights motivating American colonists to break from the Kingdom of Great Britain and form a new nation. Jefferson was of English ancestry and educated in colonial Virginia, he graduated from the College of William & Mary and practiced law, with the largest number of his cases concerning land ownership claims. During the American Revolution, he represented Virginia in the Continental Congress that adopted the Declaration, drafted the law for religious freedom as a Virginia legislator, served as the 2nd Governor of Virginia from 1779 to 1781, during the American Revolutionary War, he became the United States Minister to France in May 1785, subsequently the nation's first secretary of state under President George Washington from 1790 to 1793.
Jefferson and James Madison organized the Democratic-Republican Party to oppose the Federalist Party during the formation of the First Party System. With Madison, he anonymously wrote the controversial Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions in 1798 and 1799, which sought to strengthen states' rights by nullifying the federal Alien and Sedition Acts; as president, Jefferson pursued the nation's shipping and trade interests against Barbary pirates and aggressive British trade policies. He organized the Louisiana Purchase doubling the country's territory; as a result of peace negotiations with France, his administration reduced military forces. He was reelected in 1804. Jefferson's second term was beset with difficulties at home, including the trial of former vice president Aaron Burr. American foreign trade was diminished when Jefferson implemented the Embargo Act of 1807, responding to British threats to U. S. shipping. In 1803, Jefferson began a controversial process of Indian tribe removal to the newly organized Louisiana Territory, he signed the Act Prohibiting Importation of Slaves in 1807.
Jefferson, while a planter and politician, mastered many disciplines, which ranged from surveying and mathematics to horticulture and mechanics. He was an architect in the classical tradition. Jefferson's keen interest in religion and philosophy led to his presidency of the American Philosophical Society. A philologist, Jefferson knew several languages, he corresponded with many prominent people. His only full-length book is Notes on the State of Virginia, considered the most important American book published before 1800. After retiring from public office, Jefferson founded the University of Virginia. Although regarded as a leading spokesman for democracy and republicanism in the era of the Enlightenment, Jefferson's historical legacy is mixed; some modern scholarship has been critical of Jefferson's private life, pointing out the contradiction between his ownership of the large numbers of slaves that worked his plantations and his famous declaration that "all men are created equal." Another point of controversy stems from the evidence that after his wife Martha died in 1782, Jefferson fathered children with Martha's half-sister, Sally Hemings, his slave.
Despite this, presidential scholars and historians praise his public achievements, including his advocacy of religious freedom and tolerance in Virginia. Jefferson continues to rank among U. S. presidents. Thomas Jefferson was born on April 13, 1743, at the family home in Shadwell in the Colony of Virginia, the third of ten children, he was of English, Welsh and was born a British subject. His father Peter Jefferson was a surveyor who died when Jefferson was fourteen. Peter Jefferson moved his family to Tuckahoe Plantation in 1745 upon the death of William Randolph, the plantation's owner and Jefferson's friend, who in his will had named him guardian of his children; the Jeffersons returned to Shadwell in 1752, where Peter died in 1757. Thomas inherited 5,000 acres of land, including Monticello, he assumed full authority over his property at age 21. Jefferson began his childhood education beside the Randolph children with tutors at Tuckahoe. Thomas' father, was self-taught, regretting not having a formal education, he entered Thomas into an English school early, at age five.
In 1752, at age nine, he began attending a local school run by a Scottish Presbyterian minister and began studying the natural world, for which he grew to love. At this time he began studying Latin and French, while learning to ride horses. Thomas read books from his father's modest library, he was taught from 1758 to 1760 by Reverend James Maury near Gordonsville, where he studied history and the classics while boarding with Maury's family. During this period Jefferson came to know and befriended various American Indians, including the famous Cherokee chief, who stopped at Shadwell to visit, on their way to Williamsburg to trade. During the two years Jefferson was with the Maury family, he traveled to Williamsburg and was a guest of Colonel Dandridge, father of Martha Washington. In Williamsburg the young Jefferson met and came to admire Patrick Henry, eight ye
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Ezra Stiles was an American academic and educator, a Congregationalist minister and author. He was seventh president of Yale College, one of the founders of Brown University. Born the son of the Rev. Isaac Stiles in North Haven and Kezia Taylor, the daughter of poet Edward Taylor. Ezra Stiles graduated from Yale in 1746, he studied theology and was ordained in 1749, tutoring at Yale from that year until 1755. At one point he nearly became an Anglican: the Rev. Dr. Samuel Johnson in a letter to Archbishop Seeker of Canterbury on April 10, 1762, confided that Stiles "was once on the point of conforming to the Church, but was dissuaded by his friends, is become much of a Latitudinarian." Styles resigned from the ministry in 1753 to study law and practice at New Haven, but returned to the cloth as a Congregationalist minister two years later. Historians Helen A. Lane and Marion B. Walkden report, they state: Ezra Stiles, first settled minister of the church, was made president of Yale College. Driven out by the British in March of 1776, he arrived in Dighton with his family and several of his former Newport congregation.
Among them was William Ellery, singer of the Declaration of Independence. Ezra as minister of the half finished church at Lower Four Corners was paid about three hundred dollars and wood. While minister of the Dighton Church, Ezra Stiles received on July 13th a copy of the Declaration of Independence to be read to the congregation, it was brought to him by father of the famous preachers. Among Rev. Stiles’ many friends were Benjamin Franklin, Robert J. Payne, General Stark, John Adams, President Langdon of Harvard, many leaders of the Revolutionary War period. In 1784, Stiles was elected an honorary member of the Society of the Cincinnati of Connecticut, one of the first so honored, for his ardent support of the Patriot cause. Trinity Church, the Anglican Church in Newport, Rhode Island, asked him to become its minister, but he turned the offer down. Instead, in 1755, he became pastor of the Second Congregational Church in Newport, where he served as Librarian of the Redwood Library and Athenaeum.
He kept an informative diary of his life and distinguished acquaintances in Newport, including his association with Aaron Lopez. Newport's Ezra Stiles House is on the National Historic Register. From time to time, Stiles invested with the merchants and sea captains of his congregation. Around the same time, he wrote a joint letter with fellow Newport minister Samuel Hopkins condemning "the great inhumanity and cruelty" of slavery in the United States. In 1764, Stiles helped establish the College in the English Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations by contributing to the drafting of its charter and by serving with 35 others—including Stephen Hopkins, William Ellery, Samuel Ward, the Reverend John Gano, the Reverend Isaac Backus, the Reverend Samuel Stillman, the Reverend James Manning—as a founding fellow or trustee. In drafting the charter, Stiles combined broad-minded public statements defining Rhode Island College as a "liberal and catholic institution" in which "shall never be admitted a religious test" with private partisanship: his draft charter packed the board of trustees and the fellows of the college with his fellow Congregationalists, but the Rhode Island Assembly caught on to his plan, changed his numbers to increase the number of Baptists and Quakers, reflecting the more ecumenical character of the state.
Stiles struck up a close friendship with Rabbi Haim Isaac Carigal during the latter's six-month residence in Newport in 1773. Stiles' records note 28 meetings to discuss a wide variety of topics from Kabbalah to the politics of the Holy Land. Stiles improved his rudimentary knowledge of Hebrew, to the point where he and Carigal corresponded by mail in the language. Stiles' knowledge of Hebrew enabled him to translate large portions of the Hebrew Old Testament into English. Stiles believed, as did many Christian scholars of the time, that facility with the text in its original language was advantageous for proper interpretation. Before Regular troops of the colonial army arrived in Newport in late 1776, Stiles left, he became Pastor of the Congregational Church at Portsmouth, New Hampshire, in 1777. As a pastor Stiles, defended the monarchy as the best form of government in his sermon, entitled The United States elevated to Glory and Honor, to the General Assembly of the State of Connecticut in 1783.
He stated that: "A monarchy conducted with infinite wisdom and infinite benevolence is the most perfect of all possible governments." In 1778, he was appointed president of a post he held until his death. Stiles freed Newport on June 1778, as he prepared to move to New Haven; as president of Yale, Stiles became its first professor of Semitics, required all students to study Hebrew. By 1790, however, he was forced to face failure in instilling an interest in the language in the student body, writing From my first accession to the Presidency... I have obliged all the Freshmen to study Hebrew; this has proved disagreeable to a Number of the Students. This year I have determined to instruct only those who offe
A front vowel is any in a class of vowel sound used in some spoken languages, its defining characteristic being that the highest point of the tongue is positioned in front in the mouth without creating a constriction that would make it a consonant. Front vowels are sometimes called bright vowels because they are perceived as sounding brighter than the back vowels. Near-front vowels are a type of front vowel. Rounded front vowels are centralized, that is, near-front in their articulation; this is one reason. The front vowels that have dedicated symbols in the International Phonetic Alphabet are: close front unrounded vowel close front compressed vowel near-close front unrounded vowel near-close front compressed vowel close-mid front unrounded vowel close-mid front compressed vowel open-mid front unrounded vowel open-mid front compressed vowel near-open front unrounded vowel open front unrounded vowel open front rounded vowel There are front vowels without dedicated symbols in the IPA: close front protruded vowel near-close front protruded vowel close-mid front protruded vowel mid front unrounded vowel or mid front compressed vowel or mid front protruded vowel or open-mid front protruded vowel As above, other front vowels can be indicated with diacritics of relative articulation applied to letters for neighboring vowels, such as ⟨i̞⟩, ⟨e̝⟩ or ⟨ɪ̟⟩ for a near-close front unrounded vowel.
In articulation, front retracted vowels. In this conception, front vowels are a broader category than those listed in the IPA chart, and, mid-central vowels. Raised or retracted vowels may be fronted by certain consonants, such as palatals and in some languages pharyngeals. For example, /a/ may be fronted to next to /j/ or /ħ/. In the history of many languages, for example French and Japanese, front vowels have altered preceding velar or alveolar consonants, bringing their place of articulation towards palatal or postalveolar; this change can be allophonic variation. This historical palatalization is reflected in the orthographies of several European languages, including the ⟨c⟩ and ⟨g⟩ of all Romance languages, the ⟨k⟩ and ⟨g⟩ in Norwegian, Swedish and Icelandic, the ⟨κ⟩, ⟨γ⟩ and ⟨χ⟩ in Greek. English without as much regularity. However, for native or early borrowed words affected by palatalization, English has altered the spelling after the pronunciation Back vowel List of phonetics topics