North American English regional phonology
North American English regional phonology is the study of variations in the pronunciation of spoken North American English —what are known as "regional accents". Though studies of regional dialects can be based on multiple characteristics including characteristics that are phonemic, phonetic and syntactic, this article focuses only on the former two items. North American English includes American English, which has several developed and distinct regional varieties, along with the related Canadian English, more homogeneous geographically. American English and Canadian English have more in common with each other than with varieties of English outside North America; the most recent work documenting and studying the phonology of North American English dialects as a whole is the 2006 Atlas of North American English by William Labov, Sharon Ash, Charles Boberg, on which much of the description below is based, following on a tradition of sociolinguistics dating to the 1960s. Regional dialects in North America are the most differentiated along the Eastern seaboard, due to distinctive speech patterns of urban centers of the American East Coast like Boston, New York City, certain Southern cities, all of these accents noted by their London-like r-dropping, a feature receding among younger generations in the South.
The Connecticut River is now regarded as the southern and western boundary of the traditional New England accents, today still centered on Boston and much of Eastern New England. The Potomac River divides a group of Northeastern coastal dialects from an area of older Southeastern coastal dialects. All older Southern dialects, have now receded in favor of a rhotic, more unified accent group spread throughout the entire Southern United States since the late 1800s and into the early 1900s. In-between the two aforementioned rivers, some other variations exist, most famous among them being New York City English. Outside of the Eastern seaboard, all other North American English has been rhotic, since the first arrival of English-speaking settlers. Rhoticity is a feature shared today with the English of Ireland, for example, rather than most of the English of England, which has become non-rhotic since the late 1700s; the sound of Western U. S. English, overall, is much more homogeneous than Eastern U.
S. English; the interior and western half of the country was settled by people who were no longer connected to England, living farther from the British-influenced Atlantic Coast. Certain particular vowel sounds are the best defining characteristics of regional North American English including any given speaker's presence, absence, or transitional state of the so-called cot–caught merger. Northeastern New England and Western Pennsylvania accents, as well as all accents of the Western U. S. have a merger of these /ɔː/ and /ɑː/ vowels, so that pairs of words like mock and talk and clawed, or slot and bought rhyme. On the contrary, Philadelphia–Baltimore and New York metropolitan accents, plus inland accents of the Northern and Southern U. S. all resist this merger, keeping the two sounds separate and thus maintaining an extra distinct vowel sound. The rest of the U. S. shows a transitional state of the merger the Midland dialect region, from Ohio to eastern Kansas. Another prominent differentiating feature in regional North American English is fronting of the /oʊ/ in words like goat and toe and /uː/ in words like goose and glue.
This fronting characterizes Midland, Mid-Atlantic, Southern U. S. accents. Northern U. S. English, tends to keep all these vowels more backed. Southern and some Midland U. S. accents are most recognized by the weakening or deleting of the "glide" sound of the /aɪ/ vowel in words like thyme and fine, making the word spy sound something like spa. One phenomenon unique to North American American accents is the irregular behavior of words that in the British English standard, Received Pronunciation, have /ɒrV/. Words of this class include, among others: origin, horrible, warren, tomorrow and sorrow. In General American there is a split: the majority of these words have /ɔːr/, but the last four words of the list above have /ɑːr/. In Canada, all of these words are pronounced as /ɔːr/. In the accents of Greater New York City and the Carolinas, most or all of these words are pronounced /ɑːr/. Based upon the findings and categorizations of the 2006 The Atlas of North American English, the following is one well-supported way to hierarchically classify North American English accents at the level of broad geographic regions, sub-regions, etc.
Most of the rest of this article is organized according to this ANAE classification. Below, the accent represented by each branch, in addition to each of its own features contains all the features of the branch it extends from. Western The Western dialect, including Californian and New Mexican sub-types
Buena Vista Social Club
Buena Vista Social Club is an ensemble of Cuban musicians established in 1996 to revive the music of pre-revolutionary Cuba. The project was organized by World Circuit executive Nick Gold, produced by American guitarist Ry Cooder and directed by Juan de Marcos González, they named the group after the homonymous members' club in the Buenavista quarter of Havana, a popular music venue in the 1940s. To showcase the popular styles of the time, such as son and danzón, they recruited a dozen veteran musicians, many of whom had been retired for many years; the group's eponymous album was recorded in March 1996 and released in September 1997 becoming an international success, which prompted the ensemble to perform with a full line-up in Amsterdam and New York in 1998. German director Wim Wenders captured the performance on film for a documentary—also called Buena Vista Social Club—that included interviews with the musicians conducted in Havana. Wenders' film was released in June 1999 to critical acclaim, receiving an Academy Award nomination for Best Documentary feature and winning numerous accolades including Best Documentary at the European Film Awards.
This was followed up by a second documentary: Buena Vista Social Club: Adios in 2017. The success of both the album and film sparked a revival of interest in traditional Cuban music and Latin American music in general; some of the Cuban performers released well-received solo albums and recorded collaborations with stars from different musical genres. The "Buena Vista Social Club" name became an umbrella term to describe these performances and releases, has been likened to a brand label that encapsulates Cuba's "musical golden age" between the 1930s and 1950s; the new success was fleeting for the most recognizable artists in the ensemble: Compay Segundo, Rubén González, Ibrahim Ferrer, who died at the ages of ninety-five, eighty-four, seventy-eight respectively. Several surviving members of the Buena Vista Social Club, such as veteran singer Omara Portuondo, trumpeter Manuel "Guajiro" Mirabal, laúd player Barbarito Torres and trombonist and conductor Jesús "Aguaje" Ramos tour worldwide, to popular acclaim, with new members such as singer Carlos Calunga and pianist Rolando Luna, as part of a 13-member band called Orquesta Buena Vista Social Club.
The Buenavista Social Club was a members-only club located in Buenavista, a quarter in the current neighbourhood of Playa, one of the 15 municipalities in Cuba's capital, Havana. The original club was founded in 1932 in a small wooden venue at calle Consulado y pasaje “A”. In 1939, due to lack of space the club relocated to number 4610 on Avenue 31, between calles 46 and 48, in Almendares, Marianao; this location is recalled by Juan Cruz, former director of the Marianao Social Club and master of ceremonies at the Salón Rosado de la Tropical. As seen in the Buena Vista Social Club documentary, when musicians Ry Cooder, Compay Segundo and a film crew attempted to identify the location of the club in the 1990s, local people could not agree on where it had stood. At the time, clubs in Cuba were segregated; the Buenavista Social Club operated as a black society, rooted in a cabildo. Cabildos were fraternities organized during the 19th century by African slaves; the existence of many other black societies such as Marianao Social Club, Unión Fraternal, Club Atenas, Buenavista Social Club, exemplified the remnants of institutionalized racial discrimination against Afro-Cubans.
These societies operated as recreational centers where workers went to drink, play games and listen to music. In the words of Ry Cooder, Society in Cuba and in the Caribbean including New Orleans, as far as I know, was organized around these fraternal social clubs. There were clubs of cigar wrappers, clubs for baseball players and they'd play sports and cards—whatever it is they did in their club—and they had mascots, like dogs. At the Buena Vista Social Club, musicians went there to hang out with each other, like they used to do at musicians' unions in the U. S. and they'd have activities. As a music venue, the Buenavista Social Club experienced the peak of Havana's nightclub life, when charangas and conjuntos, played several sets every night, going from club to club over the course of a week. Bands would dedicate songs to the clubs where they played. In the case of the Buenavista Social Club, an eponymous danzón was composed by Israel López "Cachao" in 1938, performed with Arcaño y sus Maravillas.
In addition, Arsenio Rodríguez dedicated "Buenavista en guaguancó" to the same place. Together with Orquesta Melodías del 40, the Maravillas and Arsenio's conjunto were known as Los Tres Grandes, drawing the largest audiences wherever they played; these vibrant times in Havana were described by pianist Rubén González, who played in Arsenio's conjunto, as "an era of real musical life in Cuba, when there was little money to earn, but everyone played because they wanted to". Shortly after the Cuban Revolution of 1959, newly elected Cuban President Manuel Urrutia Lleó, a devout Christian, began a program of closing gambling outlets and other establishments associated with Havana's hedonistic lifestyle; this had an immediate impact on the livelihoods of local entertainers. As the Cuban government shifted towards the left in an effort to build a "classless and colourblind society", it struggled to define policy toward forms of cultural expression in the black community.
Casablanca, Nest of Spies
Casablanca, Nest of Spies is a 1963 French-Spanish-Italian spy film directed by Henri Decoin and starring Sara Montiel, Maurice Ronet and Franco Fabrizi. Set in 1942 in Casablanca, it was shot in Alicante. Sara Montiel as Teresa Maurice Ronet as Maurice Desjardins Franco Fabrizi as Max von Stauffen Leo Anchóriz as Lucien José Guardiola as Pierrot Gérard Tichy as The Mayor Matilde Muñoz Sampedro Naima Lamcharki Isarco Ravaioli Lorenzo Robledo Carlo Croccolo Casablanca, Nest of Spies on IMDb
Popular music is music with wide appeal, distributed to large audiences through the music industry. These forms and styles can be performed by people with little or no musical training, it stands in traditional or "folk" music. Art music was disseminated through the performances of written music, although since the beginning of the recording industry, it is disseminated through recordings. Traditional music forms such as early blues songs or hymns were passed along orally, or to smaller, local audiences; the original application of the term is to music of the 1880s Tin Pan Alley period in the United States. Although popular music sometimes is known as "pop music", the two terms are not interchangeable. Popular music is a generic term for a wide variety of genres of music that appeal to the tastes of a large segment of the population, whereas pop music refers to a specific musical genre within popular music. Popular music songs and pieces have singable melodies; the song structure of popular music involves repetition of sections, with the verse and chorus or refrain repeating throughout the song and the bridge providing a contrasting and transitional section within a piece.
In the 2000s, with songs and pieces available as digital sound files, it has become easier for music to spread from one country or region to another. Some popular music forms have become global, while others have a wide appeal within the culture of their origin. Through the mixture of musical genres, new popular music forms are created to reflect the ideals of a global culture; the examples of Africa and the Middle East show how Western pop music styles can blend with local musical traditions to create new hybrid styles. Scholars have classified music as "popular" based on various factors, including whether a song or piece becomes known to listeners from hearing the music. Sales of'recordings' or sheet music are one measure. Middleton and Manuel note that this definition has problems because multiple listens or plays of the same song or piece are not counted. Evaluating appeal based on size of audience or whether audience is of a certain social class is another way to define popular music, but this, has problems in that social categories of people cannot be applied to musical styles.
Manuel states that one criticism of popular music is that it is produced by large media conglomerates and passively consumed by the public, who buy or reject what music is being produced. He claims that the listeners in the scenario would not have been able to make the choice of their favorite music, which negates the previous conception of popular music. Moreover, "understandings of popular music have changed with time". Middleton argues that if research were to be done on the field of popular music, there would be a level of stability within societies to characterize historical periods, distribution of music, the patterns of influence and continuity within the popular styles of music. Anahid Kassabian separated popular music into four categories. A society's popular music reflects the ideals that are prevalent at the time it is performed or published. David Riesman states that the youth audiences of popular music fit into either a majority group or a subculture; the majority group listens to the commercially produced styles while the subcultures find a minority style to transmit their own values.
This allows youth to choose what music they identify with, which gives them power as consumers to control the market of popular music. Music critic Robert Christgau coined the term "semipopular music" in 1970, to describe records that seemed accessible for popular consumption but proved unsuccessful commercially. "I recognized that something else was going on—the distribution system appeared to be faltering, FM and all", he wrote in Christgau's Record Guide: Rock Albums of the Seventies, citing that records like The Velvet Underground and The Gilded Palace of Sin possessed populist qualities yet failed to impact the record charts. "Just as semiclassical music is a systematic dilution of highbrow preferences, semipopular music is a cross-bred concentration of fashionable modes." In his mind, a liking "for the nasty and short intensifies a common semipopular tendency in which lyrical and conceptual sophistication are applauded while musical sophistication—jazz chops or classical design or avant-garde innovation—is left to the specialists."
Form in popular music is most sectional, the most common sections being verse, chorus or refrain, bridge. Other common forms include thirty-two-bar form, chorus form *, twelve-bar blues. Popular music songs are composed using different music for each stanza of the lyrics; the verse and chorus are considered the primary elements. Each verse has the same melody, but the lyrics change for most verses; the chorus has a melodic phrase and a key lyrical line, repeated. Pop songs may have an introduction and coda, but these elements are not essential to the identity of most songs
Cake is an American alternative rock band from Sacramento, consisting of singer John McCrea, trumpeter Vince DiFiore, guitarist Xan McCurdy, bassist Daniel McCallum and drummer Todd Roper. The band has been noted for McCrea's sarcastic lyrics and monotone vocals, their wide-ranging musical influences, including country music, rock, Iranian folk music and hip hop. Cake was formed in 1991 by McCrea, DiFiore, Greg Brown, Frank French and Shon Meckfessel, who soon left and was replaced by Gabe Nelson. Following the self-release of its debut album, Motorcade of Generosity, the band was signed to Capricorn Records in 1995 and released its first single, "Rock'n' Roll Lifestyle", which hit number 35 on the Modern Rock Tracks music chart and was featured on MTV's 120 Minutes. Cake's second album, 1996's Fashion Nugget, went platinum on the strength of its lead single, "The Distance". Following a tour of Europe and the United States, both Brown and Damiani announced they were leaving Cake, which led to speculation about the band's future.
Prolonging the Magic, the band's third album, was released in 1998 and went platinum, having shipped over one million units. Following a series of tours, including several versions of the Unlimited Sunshine Tour, the band released Pressure Chief in 2004, its second and last album on Columbia. After creating its own label, Upbeat Records, the band released Showroom of Compassion in 2011, which became its first album to debut at the top of the Billboard charts, selling 44,000 copies in the first week after release. Cake was formed in 1991 when John McCrea, a Sacramento, California native who had moved to Los Angeles with a band only to see it "quickly crumble around him", returned to Sacramento, he began looking for a new band to play with, having "grown tired of Sacramento's coffeehouse circuit", attracted trumpet player Vince DiFiore, guitarist Greg Brown, bassist Shon Meckfessel and drummer Frank French. All were active in the music scene at the time; the band soon came up with the name "Cake".
Meckfessel soon left to attend college, was replaced by Gabe Nelson. After touring and becoming part of the club scene in San Francisco, the band independently recorded and released Motorcade of Generosity in 1994, selling copies from their van as a method of paying touring expenses. Motorcade was named one of the best indie releases of 1994 by Pulse!, after a concert at the Great American Music Hall Bonnie Simmons agreed to manage the band, leading to them signing a deal with Capricorn Records, who re-released the album in 1995. The first single, Rock'n' Roll Lifestyle, hit number 35 on the Modern Rock Tracks music chart and was featured on MTV's 120 Minutes. Critical reactions to the album were positive; the album was nominated for a Bammy Award in the category of "Outstanding Debut Album". Some critics were less appreciative. Mindy LaBernz, in The Austin Chronicle, described the album as "cover-free, since we're on the subject, genre-free. A quartet made five by a trumpet player, Cake carry themselves with the snittiness of technically proficient, lyrically aware music lovers, who are anachronistically untrendy and brazenly proud of it".
The signing to Capricorn and re-release of Motorcade led to both French and Nelson leaving the band, citing their dislike of "the prospect of extensive national touring". Fashion Nugget, Cake's second album, was released on September 17, 1996. Like Motorcade, it was released on Capricorn Records. Cake considered the album more professionally produced than Motorcade, despite references to its "raw" sound, the reception was again positive; the album's first single, "The Distance", written by Greg Brown, became the band's biggest hit to date and is considered their "ubiquitous" song. On the strength of "The Distance", Fashion Nugget was certified gold on December 9, 1996 and platinum on April 10, 1997; the second single from
Latin for Lovers
Latin for Lovers was a Doris Day album composed of songs originating in Latin America, released by Columbia Records on March 22, 1965 as a monophonic LP and a stereophonic album. Although "Fly Me to the Moon" was not of Latin-American origin, it was an early song adapted to the bossa nova dance becoming popular, so associated at the time with Latin America. A Columbia 45 r.p.m. Single. #4-43278, was released to coincide with the album. It featured ``. Neither song charted; the songs were arranged by Mort Garson, who conducted the Orchestra. The album was reissued in 2001, combined with Doris Day's Sentimental Journey, as a CD. "Corcovado" "Fly Me to the Moon" "Meditation" "Dansero" "Summer Has Gone" "How Insensitive" "Slightly Out of Tune" "Our Day Will Come" "Be True to Me" "Perhaps, Perhaps" "Be Mine Tonight" "Por Favor"
Louie (U.S. TV series)
Louie is an American comedy-drama television series that premiered on FX on June 29, 2010. It is written, created and produced by comedian Louis C. K. who stars in the show as a fictionalized version of himself, a comedian and newly divorced father raising his two daughters in New York City. The show has a loose format atypical for television comedy series, consisting of unconnected storylines and segments that revolve around Louie's life, punctuated by live stand-up performances; the show has been met with critical acclaim and was included in various critics' TV show top-ten lists when it premiered in 2010. C. K. has received several Primetime Emmy Award nominations for his acting and directing and has won for Outstanding Writing for a Comedy Series at the 64th and 66th Primetime Emmy Awards. Amid an "extended hiatus" for the show, FX ended their business partnership with Louis C. K.'s production company, Pig Newton, in November 2017, after he confirmed that a series of sexual misconduct allegations against him were true.
Louie is loosely based on comedian Louis C. K.'s life, showing segments of him doing his stand-up routine onstage, depicting his life offstage as a divorced father of two girls. Each episode features a longer full-episode story; the stories of all episodes revolve around Louie. The pieces are interspersed with short clips of Louie's stand-up performed in New York comedy clubs the Comedy Cellar and Carolines in Manhattan; the stand-up in the show consists of original material recorded for the series, is shot from the stage rather than from the more traditional audience perspective. Sometimes these comedy segments are integrated into the stories themselves, whereas other times they serve to bookend them with a loosely connected topic. In the first season, blunt awkward conversations between Louie and his therapist are shown occasionally. Beginning in the third season, some episodes do not feature any stand-up performances or the opening credit sequence. Episodes in the series have standalone plots, although some recurring roles provide story arc continuity between episodes.
Continuity is not enforced. As C. K. explained, "Every episode has its own goal, if it messes up the goal of another episode... I just don't care." Some stories take place outside of the show's main time frame. For two examples, the episode "God" depicts Louie's childhood, the episode "Oh Louie" shows the comedian 9 years earlier in his career. Beginning in the third season, Louie has moved toward story continuity within the season, it includes multi-episode story arcs; the pilot episode includes segments depicting a school field trip and an embarrassing first date, with subsequent episodes covering a diverse range of material, including divorce, sexual orientation and Catholic guilt. C. K. plays the only character who appears in every episode. Louie lacks a regular fixed cast, instead features many guest appearances by stand-up comedians and actors; as a stand-up comedian in New York City, Louie's social circle on the show consists of other comedians, many notable comedians have had recurring roles as fictionalized versions of themselves.
Most episodes tend to focus on Louie's interactions with new characters. However, the show features a number of recurring characters, including Louie's two daughters and Jane. Since Louie lacks continuity between episodes, supporting actors reappear in multiple roles, as is the case with William Stephenson, who appears as a bus driver in the pilot and as himself in "Oh Louie/Tickets". Furthermore, Louie's mother and sisters have each been portrayed by multiple actresses, although his children have been portrayed by Delany and Parker since the middle of the first season, his ex-wife is portrayed by Brooke Bloom in a flashback scene of "Elevator Part 4". Hadley Delany as Lilly. Louie's older daughter, she is intelligent and earnest, but isn't happy at the public school she and her sister attend. Ursula Parker as Jane. Louie's younger daughter, she is impulsive, with a vivid imagination. Jane is portrayed by Ashley Gerasimovich for four episodes in the first season before Parker took over the role, she is a talented violinist with a knack for foreign languages.
Pamela Adlon as Pamela. A friend of Louie love interest, their children play together at the local playground, where Louie and Pamela form a friendship which causes Louie to develop unrequited feelings for her. Pamela moves to Paris in the second-season finale, hoping to reconcile with her estranged husband, but returns in the fourth season and says she is now ready for a relationship with Louie. Adlon serves