The Godavari is India's second longest river after the Ganga. Its source is in Maharashtra, it flows east for 1,465 kilometres draining the states of Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh and Karnataka emptying into Bay of Bengal through its extensive network of tributaries. Measuring up to 312,812 km2, it forms one of the largest river basins in the Indian subcontinent, with only the Ganges and Indus rivers having a larger drainage basin. In terms of length, catchment area and discharge, the Godavari river is the largest in peninsular India, had been dubbed as the Vridha Ganga – Ganges; the river has been revered in Hindu scriptures for many millennia and continues to harbour and nourish a rich cultural heritage. In the past few decades, the river has been barricaded by a number of barrages and dams, restricting its flow; the river delta supports 729 persons/km2 – nearly twice the density average for the nation, has been categorized as having substantial to greater risk of flooding with rising sea levels.
The Godavari originates in the Western Ghats of central India near Nashik in Maharashtra, 80 km from the Arabian Sea. It flows for 1,465 km, first eastwards across the Deccan Plateau turns southeast, entering the West Godavari district and East Godavari district of Andhra Pradesh, until it splits into two distributaries that widen into a large river delta and flow into the Bay of Bengal; the Godavari River has a coverage area of 312,812 km2, nearly one-tenth of the area of India and is greater than the areas of England and Ireland put together. The river basin is considered to be divided into 3 sections: Upper and Lower; these put together account for 24.2% of the total basin area. The rivers annual average water inflows are nearly 110 billion cubic metres. Nearly 50% of the water availability is being harnessed; the water allocation from the river among the riparian states are governed by the Godavari Water Disputes Tribunal. The river has highest flood flows in India and experienced recorded flood of 3.6 million cusecs in the year 1986 and annual flood of 1.0 million cusecs is normal.
In Maharashtra state where it takes origin, the river has an extensive course, the upper basin of which lies within the state, cumulatively draining an area as large as 152,199 km2 – about half the area of Maharashtra. Within Nashik District the river assumes a north-easterly course till it flows into the Gangapur Reservoir created by a dam of the same name; the reservoir along with the Kashypi Dam provides potable water to Nashik, one of the largest cities located on its banks. The river as it emerges through the dam, some 8 km upstream from Nashik, flows on a rocky bed undulated by a series of chasms and rocky ledges, resulting in the formation of two significant waterfalls – the Gangapur waterfalls and the Someshwar Waterfalls, the latter, located at Someshwar and more popularly known as the Dudhsagar Waterfall About 10 km east of Gangapur the river passes the town of Nashik where it collects its effluents in the form of the river Nasardi on its right bank. About 0.5 km south direction from Nashik, the river bends to the east, washing the base of a high cliff the site of a Mughal fort, but, now being eaten away by the action of floods.
About 25 km below Nashik is the confluence of the Godavari and one of its tributaries, the Darna river. The stream occupies, for nine months in the year, a small space in a wide and gravelly bed, the greyish banks being 4 to 6 m high, topped with a deep layer of black soil. A few kilometres after its meeting with the Darna, the Godavari swerves to the north-east, till the Banganga, from the north-west, meets it on the left; the course of the main stream tends more decidedly south. At Nandur-Madhmeshwar, the Kadva, a second large affluent, brings considerable increase to the waters of the Godavari; the river begins its southeasterly course characteristic of rivers of the Deccan Plateau. The river beyond exits the Niphad Taluka of Nashik and enter the Kopargaon taluka, Ahmednagar District. Within Ahmednagar the river completes its short course, flowing alongside the town of Kopargaon and reaching Puntamba. Beyond this the river has been deployed as a natural boundary between the following districts: Ahmednagar and Aurangabad: Along the boundary here, it receives its first major tributary Pravara River, draining the former district, the confluence located at Pravarasangam.
By virtue of a sub-tributary of Pravara – Mandohol, which originates in Pune District – the basin impinges the Pune District. The river at Paithan has been impounded by the Jayakwadi Dam forming the NathSagar Reservoir. Kalsubai located in Godavari basin, is the highest peak in Maharashtra. Beed and Jalna Beed and Parbhani: Located along here is its merger with Sindphana, an important tributary which drains a large area within Beed; the sub-tributary river Bindusara forms a landmark at Beed. The river beyond, near the village Sonpeth, flows into Parbhani. In Parbhani District, River Godavari flows through Gangakhed taluka; as mentioned above Godavari is called Dakshinganga so the city is called as Gangakhed. As per Hindu rituals this place is considered quite important for after death peace to flow ashes into the river it, its course is non-significant except for receiving two smaller streams – Indrayani and Masuli – merging at its left and right banks respectively. Within the l
The Vijayanagara Empire was based in the Deccan Plateau region in South India. It was established in 1336 by his brother Bukka Raya I of Sangama Dynasty; the empire rose to prominence as a culmination of attempts by the southern powers to ward off Islamic invasions by the end of the 13th century. It lasted until 1646, although its power declined after a major military defeat in the Battle of Talikota in 1565 by the combined armies of the Deccan sultanates; the empire is named after its capital city of Vijayanagara, whose ruins surround present day Hampi, now a World Heritage Site in Karnataka, India. The writings of medieval European travelers such as Domingo Paes, Fernão Nunes, Niccolò Da Conti, the literature in local languages provide crucial information about its history. Archaeological excavations at Vijayanagara have revealed the empire's wealth; the empire's legacy includes many monuments spread over South India, the best known of, the group at Hampi. Different temple building traditions in South and Central India came together in the Vijayanagara Architecture style.
This synthesis inspired architectural innovation in Hindu temples' construction. Efficient administration and vigorous overseas trade brought new technologies such as water management systems for irrigation; the empire's patronage enabled fine arts and literature to reach new heights in Kannada, Telugu and Sanskrit, while Carnatic music evolved into its current form. The Vijayanagara Empire created an epoch in South Indian history that transcended regionalism by promoting Hinduism as a unifying factor. Karnata Rajya was another name for the Vijayanagara Empire, used in some inscriptions and literary works of the Vijayanagara times including the Sanskrit work Jambavati Kalyanam by King Krishnadevaraya and Telugu work Vasu Charitamu. Differing theories have been proposed regarding the origins of the Vijayanagara empire. Many historians propose that Harihara I and Bukka I, the founders of the empire, were Kannadigas and commanders in the army of the Hoysala Empire stationed in the Tungabhadra region to ward off Muslim invasions from the Northern India.
Others claim that they were Telugu people, first associated with the Kakatiya Kingdom, who took control of the northern parts of the Hoysala Empire during its decline. Irrespective of their origin, historians agree the founders were supported and inspired by Vidyaranya, a saint at the Sringeri monastery to fight the Muslim invasion of South India. Writings by foreign travelers during the late medieval era combined with recent excavations in the Vijayanagara principality have uncovered much-needed information about the empire's history, scientific developments and architectural innovations. Before the early 14th-century rise of the Vijayanagara Empire, the Hindu states of the Deccan – the Yadava Empire of Devagiri, the Kakatiya dynasty of Warangal, the Pandyan Empire of Madurai had been raided and attacked by Muslims from the north, by 1336 these upper Deccan region had all been defeated by armies of Sultan Alauddin Khalji and Muhammad bin Tughluq of the Delhi Sultanate. Further south in the Deccan region, a Hoysala commander, Singeya Nayaka-III declared independence after the Muslim forces of the Delhi Sultanate defeated and captured the territories of the Seuna Yadavas of Devagiri in 1294 CE.
He created the Kampili kingdom. Kampili existed near Gulbarga and Tungabhadra river in northeastern parts of the present-day Karnataka state, it ended after a defeat by the armies of Delhi Sultanate. The triumphant army led by Malik Zada sent the news of its victory, over Kampili kingdom, to Muhammad bin Tughluq in Delhi by sending a straw-stuffed severed head of the dead Hindu king. Within Kampili, on the day of certain defeat, the populace committed a jauhar in 1327/28 CE. Eight years from the ruins of the Kampili kingdom emerged the Vijayanagara Kingdom in 1336 CE. In the first two decades after the founding of the empire, Harihara I gained control over most of the area south of the Tungabhadra river and earned the title of Purvapaschima Samudradhishavara. By 1374 Bukka Raya I, successor to Harihara I, had defeated the chiefdom of Arcot, the Reddys of Kondavidu, the Sultan of Madurai and had gained control over Goa in the west and the Tungabhadra-Krishna River doab in the north; the original capital was in the principality of Anegondi on the northern banks of the Tungabhadra River in today's Karnataka.
It was moved to nearby Vijayanagara on the river's southern banks during the reign of Bukka Raya I, because it was easier to defend against the Muslim armies persistently attacking it from the northern lands. With the Vijayanagara Kingdom now imperial in stature, Harihara II, the second son of Bukka Raya I, further consolidated the kingdom beyond the Krishna River and brought the whole of South India under the Vijayanagara umbrella; the next ruler, Deva Raya I, emerged successful against the Gajapatis of Odisha and undertook important works of fortification and irrigation. Italian traveler Niccolo de Conti wrote of him as the most powerful ruler of India. Deva Raya II succeeded to the throne in 1424 and was the most capable of the Sangama Dynasty rulers, he quelled rebelling feudal lords as well as the Zamorin of Quilon in the south. He became overlord of the kings of Burma at Pegu and Tanasserim. Firuz Bahmani of Bahmani Sultanate entered into a treaty with Deva Raya I of Vijayanagara in 1407 that required the latter to pay Bahmani an annual trib
The Kara Koyunlu or Qara Qoyunlu called the Black Sheep Turkomans, were a Muslim Oghuz Turkic monarchy that ruled over the territory comprising present-day Azerbaijan, Armenia, northwestern Iran, eastern Turkey, northeastern Iraq from about 1374 to 1468. The Kara Koyunlu Turkomans at one point established their capital in Herat in modern-day Afghanistan, they were vassals of the Jalairid Sultanate in Baghdad and Tabriz from about 1375, when the leader of their leading tribe ruled over Mosul. However, they rebelled against the Jalairids, secured their independence from the dynasty with the conquest of Tabriz by Qara Yusuf. In 1400, Timur defeated the Kara Koyunlu, Qara Yusuf fled to Egypt, seeking refuge with the Mamluk Sultanate, he by 1406 had taken back Tabriz. In 1410, the Kara Koyunlu captured Baghdad; the installation of a subsidiary Kara Koyunlu line there hastened the downfall of the Jalairids they had once served. Despite internal fighting among Qara Yusuf's descendants after his death in 1420, the increasing threat of the Armenian separatists and Ajam, Kara Koyunlu broke up due to series of different Armenian revolts.
According to R. Quiring-Zoche in the, Encyclopædia Iranica: The argument that there was a clear-cut contrast between the Sunnism of the Āq Qoyunlū and the Shiʿism of the Qara Qoyunlū and the Ṣafawīya rests on Safavid sources and must be considered doubtful. C. E. Bosworth in, The New Islamic Dynasties, states: As to the religious affiliations of the Qara Qoyunlu, although some of the member of the family had Shi'i-type names and there were occasional Shi'i coin legends, there seems no strong evidence for definite Shi'i sympathies among many Turkmen elements of the time. Jahan Shah made peace with the Timurid Shahrukh Mirza; when Shahrukh Mirza died in 1447, the Kara Koyunlu Turkomans annexed portions of Iraq and the eastern coast of the Arabian Peninsula as well as Timurid-controlled western Iran. Though much territory was gained during his rule, Jahān Shāh's reign was troubled by his rebellious sons and the autonomous rulers of Baghdad, whom he expelled in 1464. In 1466, Jahan Shah attempted to take Diyarbakır from the Aq Qoyunlu, this was a catastrophic failure resulting in Jahān Shāh's death and the collapse of the Kara Koyunlu Turkomans' control in the Middle East.
By 1468, at their height under Uzun Hasan, Aq Qoyunlu defeated the Qara Qoyunlu and conquered Iraq and western Iran. Armenia fell under the control of the Kara Koyunlu in 1410; the principal Armenian sources available in this period come from the historian Tovma Metsopetsi and several colophons to contemporary manuscripts. According to Tovma, although the Kara Koyunlu levied heavy taxes against the Armenians, the early years of their rule were peaceful and some reconstruction of towns took place; this peaceful period was, shattered with the rise of Qara Iskander, who made Armenia a "desert" and subjected it to "devastation and plunder, to slaughter, captivity". Iskander's wars with and eventual defeat by the Timurids invited further destruction in Armenia, as many Armenians were taken captive and sold into slavery and the land was subjected to outright pillaging, forcing many of them to leave the region. Iskander did attempt to reconcile with the Armenians by appointing an Armenian from a noble family, Rustum, as one of his advisers.
When the Timurids launched their final incursion into the region, they convinced Jihanshah, Iskander's brother, to turn on his brother. Jihanshah pursued a policy of persecution against the Armenians in Syunik and colophons to Armenian manuscripts record the sacking of the Tatev monastery by his forces, but he, sought a rapprochement with the Armenians, allotting land to feudal lords, rebuilding churches, approving the relocation of the seat of the Armenian Apostolic Church's Catholicos to Etchmiadzin Cathedral in 1441. For all this, Jihanshah continued to attack Armenian towns and take Armenian captives as the country saw further devastation in the final years of Jihanshah's failed struggles with the Aq Qoyunlu. One of the most prominent monuments built by the Kara Koyunlu dynasty remains today in the vicinity of the Armenian capital, the Mausoleum of Kara Koyunlu emirs. Turkmenistan and Armenia both contribute to the restoration and preservation of this medieval piece of architecture. List of rulers of Kara Koyunlu Turkmen incursions into Georgia Bosworth, Clifford E..
The New Islamic Dynasties. Columbia University Press. Kouymjian, Dickran. "Armenia from the fall of the Cilician Kingdom to the forced emigration under Shah Abbas". In Hovannisian, Richard G; the Armenian People From Ancient to Modern Times, Volume I: The Dynastic Periods: From Antiquity to the Fourteenth Century. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 978-1-4039-6421-2. Minorsky, V.. "Jihān-Shāh Qara-Qoyunlu and His Poetry". Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies. 16: 271–97. Doi:10.1017/s0041977x00105981. JSTOR 609169. Quiring-Zoche, R.. AQ QOYUNLŪ. Encyclopedia Iranica. Bosworth, Clifford; the New Islamic Dynasties, 1996. Khachikyan, Levon. ԺԵ դարի հայերեն ձեռագրերի հիշատակարաններ, մաս 1. Yerevan, 1955. Morby, John; the Oxford Dynasties of the World, 2002. Sanjian, Avedis K. Colophons of Armenian manuscripts, 1301-1480: A Source for Middle Eastern History, Selected and Annotated by Avedis K. Sanjian. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1969
Rajahmundry known as Rajamahendravaram, is a city located in East Godavari district in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. The city is located on the banks of Godavari River, it is a Municipal corporation and the headquarters of both Rajahmundry Rural and Rajahmundry Urban mandals. It is administered under Rajahmundry revenue division; as per 2018 Census, it is the fourth most populous city in the state, with a population of 782,375. The city is known for its Historical, Cultural and Economic backgrounds and hence, it is known as the Cultural Capital of Andhra Pradesh; the Road cum Rail bridge across Godavari River, one of the longest of it's kind, connects the city with the town of Kovvur. The city earlier was called Rajamahendravaram, derived from the Sanskrit name Rajamahendrapuram. Carrying the same meaning, it is referred to as Rajamahendri, which during the British colonial era became Rajahmundry. On 10th October 2015, the State Government of Andhra Pradesh renamed the city with its original name.
Rajahmundry was established by Ammaraja Vishnuvardhana the First. The city as a prominent settlement can be traced back to the rule of the Eastern Chalukya king Rajaraja Narendra, who reigned around 1022AD. Remains of 11th Century palaces and forts still exist. Rulers: Eastern Chalukyas Kakatiyas Reddy and Gajapathi Rulers Vijayanagar Rulers Nizam Rule European Rulers and ZamindarsRajamahendravaram was under Dutch rule for some time. In 1602, the Dutch constructed a fort here. In 1857, the British conquered the Dutch, they converted it into a jail in 1864 and elevated it into a central jail in 1870. The jail is spread over 196 acres out. In the Madras Presidency, the District of Rajahmundry was created in 1823, it was bifurcated into Godavari and Krishna districts. During British rule, Rajahmundry was the headquarters of Godavari district, further bifurcated into East Godavari and West Godavari districts in 1925; when the Godavari district was split, Kakinada became the headquarters of East Godavari.
Rajahmundry was the hotbed of several movements during India's freedom struggle and acted as a base for many key leaders. When the Indian National Congress had its first meeting in Bombay, two leaders from Rajahmundry, Nyapathi Subba Rao and Kandukuri Veeresalingam, participated in it. Subba Rao, founder of Hindu Samaj in Rajahmundry, was one of the six founders of India's noted English daily, The Hindu; the Renaissance of Andhra Pradesh started in Rajahmundry. Kandukuri Veeresalingam is known as the Father of reforms in Andhra Pradesh, he started a monthly magazine Vivekavardhini, a school for girls at Dowleswaram in 1874. The first widow remarriage took place on 11 December 1881. A society with 16 members was started on 22 June 1884, which used to look after widow remarriages in Rajahmundry; the town hall was established in 1890 by Veeresalingam. Bipin Chandra Pal visited Rajahmundry in April 1905 during the Vandemataram Movement. During his visits, he used to address the public in "Pal Chowk".
Annie Besant visited Rajahmundry twice. First, she came during the foundations of a branch of the Divya Gyan Samaj at Alcot Gardens were being laid, she came again during the opening ceremony. Ramakrishna Mission was established in the city during 1950–51 near Kambal tank; the place is now the Ayakar Bhavan. Rajahmundry is acclaimed as the birthplace of the Telugu language – its grammar and script evolved from the pen of the city-born poet Nannayya. Known as'Ādi Kavi' of Telugu, along with Tikkana and Yerrana, translated the Sanskrit version of Mahabharata into Telugu. Kandukuri Veeresalingam – a social reformer and the author of Rajashekhara Charithra, the first Telugu novel – was from Rajahmundry. Rajamahendravaram is located at 16.98°N 81.78°E / 16.98. With an average elevation of 14 metres. There is sugarcane cultivation in the area. River Godavari flows through the west of Rajahmundry; the Rajahmundry traps, part of the Deccan Traps, are located on the Godavari river and are of particular interest to geologists.
The weather is humid, with a tropical climate and, thereby, no distinct seasons. The mean maximum temperature is 32 °C; the hottest season is from April to June, with temperature ranging from 34 °C to 48 °C with maximum of 51 °C recorded in May 2002 and May 2007. The coolest months are December and January, when it is pleasant at 27 °C to 30 °C. There is heavy monsoon rain at the end of summer, with depressions in the Bay of Bengal; as of 2018 Census of India, the city had a population of 540,825. The total population constitute 266,708 males and 274,117 females — a sex ratio of 1027 females per 1000 males, higher than the national average of 940 per 1000. 29,883 children are in the age group of 0–6 years, of which 15,152 are boys and 14,731 are girls—a ratio of 972 per 1000. The average literacy rate stands at 84.28% with 264,653 literates higher than the national average of 73.00%. The urban agglomeration had a population of 678,199, of which males constitute 336,489, females constitute 341,710 —a sex ratio of 1015 females per 1000 males and 42,968 children are in the age group of 0–6 years.
There are a total of 556,123 literates with an average literacy rate of 82.50%. Rajahmundry Municipal Corporation is spread over an area of 224.43 km2 with 50 wards. The Mayor of the corporation is Pantam Rajini Sesha Sai and the commissioner is Sumit kumar Gandhi The Government is planning to construct an Under Ground Drianage system in the city, it is one of the largest bullion markets in India which consists hundreds of
The Krishna River is the fourth-biggest river in terms of water inflows and river basin area in India, after the Ganga and Brahmaputra. The river is 1,400 kilometres long; the river is called Krishnaveni. It is one of the major sources of irrigation for Maharashtra, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh; the Krishna river originates in the Western Ghats near Mahabaleshwar at an elevation of about 1,300 metres, in the state of Maharashtra in central India. It is one of the longest rivers in India; the Krishna river is around 1,400 km in length. The Krishna river's source is at Mahabaleswar near the Jor village in the extreme north of Wai Taluka, Satara District, Maharashtra in the west and empties into the Bay of Bengal at Hamasaladeevi in Andhra Pradesh, on the east coast, it flows through the state of Karnataka before entering Telangana State. The delta of this river is one of the most fertile regions in India and was the home to ancient Satavahana and Ikshvaku Sun Dynasty kings. Vijayawada is the largest city on the River Krishna.
It causes heavy soil erosion during the monsoon floods. It flows fast and furious reaching depths of over 75 feet. There is a saying in Marathi: "Shant vaahate Krishnamaai" which means "quiet flows Krishna"; this term is used to describe. The largest tributary of the Krishna River is the Tungabhadra River with a drainage basin measuring 71,417 km2, running for about 531 km, but the longest tributary is the Bhima River, which makes a total run of 861 km and has an large drainage area of 70,614 km2. Three tributaries Panchganga and Yerla meet Krishna river near Sangli; these places are considered holy. It is said. Sangameswaram of Kurnool district in Andhra Pradesh is a famous pilgrim center for Hindus where Tungabhadra and Bhavanasi rivers join the Krishna river; the Sangameswaram temple is now drowned in the Srisailam reservoir, visible for devotees only during summer when the reservoir's water level comes down. Krishna Basin extends over an area of 258,948 km2, nearly 8% of the total geographical area of the country.
This large basin lies in the states of Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and Maharashtra. The Krishna river rises in the Western Ghats, at an elevation of about 1,337 m just north of Mahabaleshwar, about 64 km from the Arabian Sea, it outfalls into the Bay of Bengal. The principal tributaries joining Krishna are the Ghataprabha River, Malaprabha River, Bhima River, Tungabhadra River and Musi River. Most of this basin comprises rolling and undulating country, except for the western border, formed by an unbroken line of the Western Ghats; the important soil types found in the basin are black soils, red soils and lateritic soils, mixed soils and black soils and saline and alkaline soils. An average annual surface water potential of 78.1 km3 has been assessed in this basin. Out of this, 58.0 km3 is utilizable water. Culturable area in the basin is about 203,000 km2, 10.4% of the total cultivable area of the country. As the water availability in the Krishna river was becoming inadequate to meet the water demand, Godavari River is linked to the Krishna river by commissioning the Polavaram right bank canal with the help of Pattiseema lift scheme in the year 2015 to augment water availability to the Prakasam Barrage in Andhra Pradesh.
The irrigation canals of Prakasam Barrage form part of National Waterway 4. Agumbe which receives second highest rainfall in India, is located in the Krishna river basin. Mullayanagiri peak in Karnataka at an altitude of 1,930 m above msl, is the highest point of the Krishna basin; this river is revered by Hindus as sacred. The river is believed to remove all sins of people by taking a bath in this river; the centre of attraction is the Krishna Pushkaram fair, held once in twelve years on the banks of the Krishna river. There are many pilgrimage places in Maharashtra, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh on the course of the river; the first holy place on the river Krishna is at Wai, known for the Mahaganpati Mandir and Kashivishweshwar temple. It has seven ghats along the river. Temples like Dattadeva temple, revered by the people of Maharashtra, are located on the banks of Krishna at Narsobawadi and Audumbar near Sangli. Located on the banks of the river Krishna are the Sangameshwar Shiva temple at Haripur, goddess Kanaka Durga Temple in Vijayawada and Ramling temple near Sangli, Mallikarjuna Jyotirlinga, Amareshwara Swamy Temple, Dattadeva temple, Sangameshwara Shiva temples at Alampur in Telangana.
Wide spread area near to the Krishna river holds the rich fauna. The last surviving Mangrove forests in the Krishna estuary have been declared as the Krishna Wildlife Sanctuary; the sanctuary is the home to the large number of migratory birds. Fishing cat, Estuarine crocodile, spotted deer, black buck, snake and jackal can be spotted in the sanctuary; the sanctuary supports rich vegetation with plants like Rhizophora and Aegiceros. The following are few other wildlife sanctuaries located in the river basin; the following are few other waterfalls located in the river basin The Krishna River is spanned by several bridges along its course, some of which are listed below. Krishna Bridge, Maharashtra – This bridge, located in the Dharmpuri Peth area of the town of Wai, is one o
Odisha is one of the 29 states of India. Located in eastern India, it is surrounded by the states of West Bengal to the north-east, Jharkhand to the north, Chhattisgarh to the west and north-west, Andhra Pradesh to the south. Odisha has 485 kilometres of coastline along the Bay of Bengal from Balasore to Ganjam, it is the 9th largest state by area, the 11th largest by population. It is the 3rd most populous state of India in terms of tribal population. Odia is the official and most spoken language, spoken by 36.6 million according to the 2016 Census. The ancient kingdom of Kalinga, invaded by the Mauryan emperor Ashoka in 261 BCE resulting in the Kalinga War, coincides with the borders of modern-day Odisha; the modern state of Odisha was established on 1 April 1936, as a province in British India, consisted predominantly of Odia-speaking regions. 1 April is celebrated as Odisha Day. The region is known as Utkala and is mentioned in India's national anthem, "Jana Gana Mana". Cuttack was made the capital of the region by Anantavarman Chodaganga in c.
1135, after which the city was used as the capital by many rulers, through the British era until 1948. Thereafter, Bhubaneswar became the capital of Odisha; the term "Odisha" is derived from the ancient Prakrit word "Odda Visaya" as in the Tirumalai inscription of Rajendra Chola I, dated to 1025. Sarala Das, who translated the Mahabharata into the Odia language in the 15th century, calls the region Odra Rashtra and Odisha; the inscriptions of Kapilendra Deva of the Gajapati Kingdom on the walls of temples in Puri call the region Odisha or Odisha Rajya. The name of the state was changed from Orissa to Odisha, the name of its language from Oriya to Odia, in 2011, by the passage of the Orissa Bill, 2010 and the Constitution Bill, 2010 in the Parliament. After a brief debate, the lower house, Lok Sabha, passed the bill and amendment on 9 November 2010. On 24 March 2011, Rajya Sabha, the upper house of Parliament passed the bill and the amendment. Prehistoric Acheulian tools dating to Lower Paleolithic era have been discovered in various places in the region, implying an early settlement by humans.
Kalinga has been mentioned in ancient texts like Vayu Purana and Mahagovinda Suttanta. The Sabar people of Odisha have been mentioned in the Mahabharata. Baudhayana mentions Kalinga as not yet being influenced by Vedic traditions, implying it followed tribal traditions. Ashoka of the Mauryan dynasty conquered Kalinga in the bloody Kalinga War in 261 BCE, the eighth year of his reign. According to his own edicts, in that war about 100,000 people were killed, 150,000 were captured and more were affected; the resulting bloodshed and suffering of the war is said to have affected Ashoka. He converted to Buddhism. By c. 150 BCE, emperor Kharavela, a contemporary of Demetrius I of Bactria, conquered a major part of the Indian sub-continent. Kharavela was a Jain ruler, he built the monastery atop the Udayagiri hill. Subsequently, the region was ruled by monarchs, such as Shashanka, it was a part of Harsha's empire. The kings of the Somavamsi dynasty began to unite the region. By the reign of Yayati II, c. 1025 CE, they had integrated the region into a single kingdom.
Yayati II is supposed to have built the Lingaraj temple at Bhubaneswar. They were replaced by the Eastern Ganga dynasty. Notable rulers of the dynasty were Anantavarman Chodaganga, who began re-construction on the present-day Shri Jagannath Temple in Puri, Narasimhadeva I, who constructed the Konark temple; the Eastern Ganga Dynasty was followed by the Gajapati Kingdom. The region resisted integration into the Mughal empire until 1568, when it was conquered by Sultanate of Bengal. Mukunda Deva, considered the last independent king of Kalinga, was defeated and was killed in battle by a rebel Ramachandra Bhanja. Ramachandra Bhanja himself was killed by Bayazid Khan Karrani. In 1591, Man Singh I governor of Bihar, led an army to take Odisha from the Karranis of Bengal, they agreed to treaty because their leader Qutlu Khan Lohani had died. But, they broke the treaty by attacking the temple town of Puri. Man Singh pacified the region. Orissa was the first subah added to Akbar's fifteen by Shah Jahan, it had Cuttack as seat and bordered Bihar and Golconda subahs as well as the remaining independent and tributary chiefs.
From 1717, the Orissa and Bihar governors were reduced to deputies of the Nawab of the pseudo-autonomous Bengal Subah. In 1751, the Nawab of Bengal Alivardi Khan ceded the region to the Maratha Empire; the British had occupied the Northern Circars, comprising the southern coast of Odisha, as a result of the 2nd Carnatic War by 1760, incorporated them into the Madras Presidency gradually. In 1803, the British ousted the Marathas from the Puri-Cuttack region of Odisha during the Second Anglo-Maratha War; the northern and western districts of Odisha were incorporated into the Bengal Presidency. The Orissa famine of 1866 caused an estimated 1 million deaths. Following this, large-scale irrigation projects were undertaken. In 1903, the Utkal Sammilani organisation was founded to demand the unification of Odia-speaking regions into one state. On 1 April 1912, the Orissa Province was formed. On 1 April 1936, Orissa were split into separate provinces; the new province of Orissa came into existence on a linguistic basis during the British rule in India, with Sir John Austen Hubback as
Achyuta Deva Raya
Achyuta Deva Raya was a ruler of a Vijayanagara Empire of South India. He was the younger brother of Krishna Deva Raya, whom he succeeded in 1529. Fernao Nuniz was a Portuguese traveller and horse trader who visited India during reign of Achyutaraya and who spent three years in Vijayanagara, he patronised Kannada poet Chatu Vittalanatha, the great composer and singer Purandaradasa, the Sanskrit scholar Rajanatha Dindima II. Upon his death, the succession was disputed, his nephew, Sadasiva Raya became king while yet a child, under the regency of Aliya Rama Raya, a son-in-law of Krishnadevaraya. The time when Achyuta Deva Raya became the king was by no means a favorable one; the peace and prosperity of the halcyon days under Krishnadevaraya were coming to an end. Feudatories and enemies were waiting for an opportunity to bring down the empire. In addition, Achyuta Deva Raya had to contend with the powerful Aliya Rama Raya, competing for the throne. While the works of Nuniz speak lowly of Achyuta Deva Raya as being a king given to vices and cruelty, there is enough evidence to prove that the king was indeed noteworthy in his own right and fought hard to keep the prosperity of the kingdom alive.
He had been handpicked by Krishna Deva Raya himself as an able successor. Ismail Adil Shah of Bijapur captured the Raichur doab; however the Gajapati's of Orissa and Quli Qutub Shah of Golconda were pushed back. Now Achyuta Deva Raya along with his general Salakaraju Tirumala went on a southern campaign to bring the chiefs of Travancore and Ummatur under control; this they did successfully. They invaded the doab north of Tungabhadra and recaptured the forts of Raichur and Mudgal; the two Sanskrit works Achyutabhyudayam and Varadambikaparinayam describe the king's life and rule in detail. Throughout his rule, Achyuta Deva Raya had to contend with the manipulations of Rama Raya who in his powerful capacity had replaced many of the faithful servants of the Kingdom in high ranking positions with men of his own favour. On more than one occasion the Bahamani Sultans were brought in to play the role of mediator between the king and Ailya Rama Raya in the game of power sharing; this would further weaken the kingdom.
Around 1540 Aliya Rama Raya imprisoned Achyuta Deva Raya in a coup. In 1542 Achyuta Deva Raya died, was succeeded by his young son of Venkata I, but he was soon killed, Sadasiva Raya became the new king. Aliya Rama Raya became the regent and let little governance in the hands of Sadasiva Raya; the Tiruvengalanatha temple was built at Vijayanagara during his reign. It has become popularly known by his name as Achyutaraya temple, rather than by the name of the deity Lord Venkateshwara to whom the temple was dedicated. Prof K. A. Nilakanta Sastri, History of South India, From Prehistoric times to fall of Vijayanagar, 1955, OUP, New Delhi Coins Pictures of temple on HampiOnline.com Achyuta Rayas Temple Photographs, 2013 Learn more about Achyutaraya Temple on HampiOnline.com