Kuranda is a town and locality on the Atherton Tableland in the Shire of Mareeba, Far North Queensland, Australia. The town of Myola is located within the locality of Kuranda, it is 25 kilometres via the Kuranda Range road. It is surrounded by tropical rainforest and adjacent to the Wet Tropics World Heritage listed Barron Gorge National Park, it is within the local government area of Shire of Mareeba. Kuranda is positioned on the eastern edge of the Atherton Tableland where the Barron River begins a steep descent to its coastal floodplain; the area is an important wildlife corridor between the Daintree/Carbine Tableland area in the north and Lamb Range/Atherton Tableland in the south, two centres of biodiversity. Parts of Kuranda along its eastern edge, are protected within the Kuranda National Park and Barron Gorge National Park. Both national parks belong to the Wet Tropics World Heritage Area. Barron Gorge Forest Reserve and Formatine Forest Reserve have been established in the south of Kuranda.
Closer to the centre of the town is Jumrum Creek Conservation Park where a near threatened, endemic frog species is protected. An elongated dam created by a weir built for a power station was constructed in 1935 and is used to today for recreation; the rainforest around Kuranda has been home to the Djabugay people for over 10,000 years. Europeans began to explore the area throughout the nineteenth century, it is believed a massacre of indigenous people took place at the location in Kuranda known as Skeleton Creek. Kuranda was first settled in 1885 and surveyed by Thomas Behan in 1888. Construction of the railway from Cairns to Myola began in 1887 and the line reached Kuranda in 1891; the current railway station was built in 1915. Kuranda Post Office opened on 25 June 1891. Between 1912 and 1913 Eric Mjöberg lead an expedition to Queensland in which the Kuranda Aboriginal people were observed. Kuranda District State School and Kuranda State High School amalgamated at the commencement of 2007 to create Kuranda District State College.
Although coffee was grown around Kuranda in the early twentieth century, timber was the town's primary industry for a number of years. Kuranda has been known as a tourist destination since the early 1900s, it was both the local Aboriginals which attracted people to the area. Today Kuranda is a'village in the rainforest' with tourism being the current backbone of the local economy. The'village in the rainforest' concept promoted from the 1970s onwards served two purposes, it attracted those seeking a bohemian enclave in which to reside as well as a being a tourist promotional strategy. Throughout the 1970s and 1980s Kuranda was popular with alternative lifestylers, a theme that still runs through the local community today; the Barron Gorge Hydroelectric Power Station was built nearby in the 1960s. Kuranda Library opened in 1996 and underwent a major refurbishment in 2015. At the 2011 census, the locality Kuranda had a population of 2,966. Kuranda has a number of heritage-listed sites: Cairns-to-Kuranda railway line including the Kuranda railway station.
The town receives thousands of tourists each week who arrive from Cairns either on the Kuranda Scenic Railway, the Skyrail Rainforest cableway, coach or by public bus via the Kuranda Range Road, a 40-minute drive from Cairns. The town is surrounded by tropical rainforest, abundant with wildlife and popular amongst birdwatchers. There are several short walks around the village including the Jum Rum Creek Environmental Park which includes The River Walk. Walking to the Barron Gorge National Park to visit Barron Falls is popular. Another 1 kilometre each way on to Wright's Lookout. There is a shuttle service that provides an alternative to walking with a half-hourly service out to the Barron Gorge National Park; this service includes a visit to Wright's Lookout. Attractions in Kuranda include a bird aviary, butterfly sanctuary, wildlife rescue/rehabilitation centre, reptile park and koala sanctuary. There is a fossil and gemstone museum and candy making displays. Cruises are available aboard'Kuranda Riverboat' on the Barron River.
Kuranda provides the visitor with many shopping opportunities, all within easy walking distance around the CBD, including the markets which consist of a range of stalls with locally made arts and produce. Kuranda has numerous art galleries and specialty shops offering a wide selection of locally made and designed art and handicrafts as well as a variety of sidewalk cafes and restaurants. Kuranda is a major centre for opals and didgeridoos, it was the first home of the Tjapukai Indigenous Dance Theatre, established by former New Yorkers Judy and Don Freeman, together with indigenous dancer and actor, David Hudson. The theatre is now located adjacent the Skyrail Terminal at Smithfield. Mareeba Shire Council operate a public library in Kuranda at 18-22 Arara Street; the Kuranda Historical Society was established in 2017 and seeks to collect and display items of historical interest relating to the Kuranda area. The Kuranda Media Association publish a monthly newspaper called "The Kuranda Paper"; the Kuranda branch of the Queensland Country Women's Association meets at the CWA Hall on the corner of Barang Street and Thongon Street.
Kuranda District State School and Kuranda State High School amalgamated in 2007 to form Kuranda District State College. The nocturnal frog species Litoria myola is only found in the vicinity of a few creeks near Kuranda; the area boasts a rich diversity of invertebrate fauna including Australi
Babinda is a small town and locality in the Cairns Region, Australia. It is located 60 kilometres south of Cairns; the town is noted for its proximity to Queensland's two highest mountains Mount Bartle Frere and Mount Bellenden Ker. Babinda and Tully annually compete for an award for Australia's wettest town. Babinda is the winner, recording an annual average rainfall of over 4279.4 millimetres each year. Babinda takes its name from the local Indigenous Australian language for mountain. Other sources, claim it is a Yidinji word for water referring to the high rainfall of the area. Babinda State School opened on 4 November 1914. Babinda Post Office opened by 1915; the Babinda War Memorial was unveiled by the chairman of the Cairns Shire Council Seymour Warner on 25 April 1927. The Babinda Public Library building opened in 1955. In March 2006, Babinda was struck by Cyclone Larry. At the 2011 census the town recorded a population of 1,068. Babinda has a number of heritage-listed sites, including: 65-85 Munro Street: Babinda Hotel 109 Munro Street: Babinda Air Raid Shelter The 2006 Census by the Australian Bureau of Statistics counted 1,167 persons in Babinda on census night.
Of these, 49.7% were male and 50.3% were female. The majority of residents are of Australian birth, with other common census responses being Italy and New Zealand; the age distribution of Babinda residents is skewed higher than the greater Australian population. 70.1% of residents were over 25 years in 2006, compared to the Australian average of 66.5%. The local newspapers are The Cairns Post. There are many different community events in Babinda; the annual Harvest Festival is celebrated in October and features some unusual events including the Sugar Bowl competition, the Gumboot Toss and the Umbrella Toss. The festival did not occur in 2006 due to Cyclone Larry. Babinda is served on the corner of Pollard and the Boulders Road. St Rita's School, on Church Street, Babinda Kindergarten on Church Street and Babinda Early Learning on Pollard Road; the Cairns Regional Council operates a public library in Babinda at 24 Munro Street. The Babinda branch of the Queensland Country Women's Association meets at the QCWA Hall in School Road.
The Boulders and Devil's Pool are popular tourist attractions. A picnic area is located nearby, beside Babinda Creek. Babinda is situated on the Bruce Highway; the town has a railway station for access to the long-distance train services only the Spirit of Queensland for which an advance booking must be made for the train to stop in Babinda. Babinda has a tropical rainforest climate with persistently wet weather, it is well known and recognised as the wettest town in Australia, with an annual average rainfall of 4279.4 mm. Monthly totals over 1000 mm are not uncommon, sometimes between January and April, whole months will go by without a single sunny day; the wet season lasts from December to May. During the wet season, heavy monsoonal downpours occur daily and even heavier rain from tropical lows or cyclones occurs. Rainfall still totals well over 100mm a month during the dry season. Thunderstorms with dangerous lightning and damaging winds can be a threat from October to December. Suburbs of Cairns Media related to Babinda, Queensland at Wikimedia Commons University of Queensland: Queensland Places: Babinda Watch historical footage of Babinda and Far North Queensland from the National Film and Sound Archive of Australia's collection.
Cairns Regional Council "Babinda". The Age. Melbourne, Australia. 8 February 2004. Retrieved 30 March 2011
Mission Beach, Queensland
Mission Beach is a small town and locality in the Cassowary Coast Region, Australia. In the 2016 census Mission Beach and surrounding villages had a total population of 3,597 people. Mission Beach is bounded on the east by the Coral Sea; the popular tourist destination of Dunk Island lies 4 kilometres offshore. Today, what were once separate villages have now grown such that they are considered one town, Mission Beach; the villages are, from south to north, South Mission Beach, Wongaling Beach, Mission Beach, Bingil Bay, Brooks Beach and Carmoo. Development is continuing at Garners Beach to the north. Clump Point is the northern end of a sandy beach 13 kilometres long facing the Coral Sea which runs south to Tam O'Shanter Point in South Mission Beach at the southern end. Clump Point was descriptively named by Captain Owen Stanley of the Royal Navy survey ship HMS Rattlesnake. In 1872 it was alleged by two sailors, that the captain and some of the crew of the ill-fated Maria, wrecked in a "typhoon", were killed and eaten by natives north of Tam O'Shanter Point.
Survivor Thomas Ingham attests that the aborigines were friendly with his party until joined by another group of unfriendly natives. A group of vigilantes raided the area now called South Mission Beach and attacked a local aboriginal camp. In 1916 Ingham wrote: "Sub-Inspector Johnstone gave short-shrift to the cannibals, who had eaten the captains party, the brutes who had speared me and taken my belt was seen to be wearing it around his head like a crown; that sealed his fate. This belt saved my life, it made him a king when he bought about his demise. Sub-Inspector Johnstone gave it back to me, I have kept it since." The river Louisa was renamed Maria Creek after the wreck. Johnstone River was named after Sub Inspector Johnstone. In the early 20th century Chinese banana farmers used Aborigines as labourers in the Tully River region. Opium addiction and conflict with European settlers resulted in the Queensland government creating an Aboriginal internment centre at the present Mission Beach. Superintendent John Martin Kenny started the necessary work on 1 September 1914.
There was no mission in the religious sense. The settlement had characteristics of a penal settlement; the Hull River detention centre and superintendent's residence were destroyed in the cyclone of 10 March 1918 and were not rebuilt. Superintendent Kenny and his daughter were killed by debris; the surviving Aborigines were forcefully moved to Queensland. The first white settlers, the Cutten brothers, came to Mission Beach area in 1882 and settled at Bingil Bay, where they farmed mangoes, pineapples, citrus fruit and coconuts, they manufactured their own coffee. Produce was shipped south on cargo-boats. Before this the only white people to enter this area were the timber-getters who sometimes camped on the beach and retrieved timber from the adjacent rain forests, they employed local Aborigines for their assistance in their timber hauling, paying the Aboriginal labourers with tobacco and tools. After the Cutten brothers, the Unsworths settled at Narragon Beach, the Garners came and settled at Garners Beach, the Porter brothers settled at what the locals refer to as Porter's Creek at the south end of North Mission Beach.
Mission Beach Post Office opened on 15 December 1949. In the 2006 census Mission Beach had a population of 515. Mission Beach State School is located at Webb Road Wongaling Beach, it is a Prep to Year 6 school and details of the curriculum and resources can be found on the Mission Beach State School Website. In early October there is the evolve music festival than shows local musicians and a few bands from around Australia. There is a market there that has food, clothes and other festival stuff. Rugby League plays a big part in the town, with Tully Tigers the main club. Mission Beach is now a thriving tourist town, able to maintain its small town feel. One reason for this is that the town is spread out along a thin strip of land between the ocean and the hills and farmland behind; this has spread out a large tourism market, the village doesn't feel as busy as one might expect. The beach is flanked by green mountains rising just a short distance inland, provides views out to the Family Islands. Close to shore at Mission Beach lies a shallow reef.
The reef runs from the mouth of Porter's Creek at the south end of North Mission Beach to Clump Point, a popular fishing spot, the main departure and arrival point for the Dunk Island Ferry. Surrounded by World Heritage rainforest on one side and the World Heritage listed Great Barrier Reef on the other, Mission Beach is home to many wildlife species, most notable is the cassowary; this large flightless bird can be found in the rainforest surrounding the area but appears to be thriving in spite of land clearing and predators such as wild dogs and feral pigs. Much of the area is part of the Coastal Wet Tropics Important Bird Area, identified as such by BirdLife International because of its importance for the conservation of lowland tropical rainforest birds. Mission Beach is the mainland gateway to Dunk Island, with water taxis and ferries shuttling guests and day-trippers out to the island and its resort
A national park is a park in use for conservation purposes. It is a reserve of natural, semi-natural, or developed land that a sovereign state declares or owns. Although individual nations designate their own national parks differently, there is a common idea: the conservation of'wild nature' for posterity and as a symbol of national pride. An international organization, the International Union for Conservation of Nature, its World Commission on Protected Areas, has defined "National Park" as its Category II type of protected areas. While this type of national park had been proposed the United States established the first "public park or pleasuring-ground for the benefit and enjoyment of the people", Yellowstone National Park, in 1872. Although Yellowstone was not termed a "national park" in its establishing law, it was always termed such in practice and is held to be the first and oldest national park in the world. However, the Tobago Main Ridge Forest Reserve, the area surrounding Bogd Khan Uul Mountain are seen as the oldest protected areas, predating Yellowstone by nearly a century.
The first area to use "national park" in its creation legislation was the U. S.'s Mackinac, in 1875. Australia's Royal National Park, established in 1879, was the world's third official national park. In 1895 ownership of Mackinac National Park was transferred to the State of Michigan as a state park and national park status was lost; as a result, Australia's Royal National Park is by some considerations the second oldest national park now in existence. Canada established Parks Canada in 1911, becoming the world's first national service dedicated to protecting and presenting natural and historical treasures; the largest national park in the world meeting the IUCN definition is the Northeast Greenland National Park, established in 1974. According to the IUCN, 6,555 national parks worldwide met its criteria in 2006. IUCN is still discussing the parameters of defining a national park. National parks are always open to visitors. Most national parks provide outdoor recreation and camping opportunities as well as classes designed to educate the public on the importance of conservation and the natural wonders of the land in which the national park is located.
In 1969, the IUCN declared a national park to be a large area with the following defining characteristics: One or several ecosystems not materially altered by human exploitation and occupation, where plant and animal species, geomorphological sites and habitats are of special scientific and recreational interest or which contain a natural landscape of great beauty. In 1971, these criteria were further expanded upon leading to more clear and defined benchmarks to evaluate a national park; these include: Minimum size of 1,000 hectares within zones in which protection of nature takes precedence Statutory legal protection Budget and staff sufficient to provide sufficient effective protection Prohibition of exploitation of natural resources qualified by such activities as sport, fishing, the need for management, etc. While the term national park is now defined by the IUCN, many protected areas in many countries are called national park when they correspond to other categories of the IUCN Protected Area Management Definition, for example: Swiss National Park, Switzerland: IUCN Ia - Strict Nature Reserve Everglades National Park, United States: IUCN Ib - Wilderness Area Victoria Falls National Park, Zimbabwe: IUCN III - National Monument Vitosha National Park, Bulgaria: IUCN IV - Habitat Management Area New Forest National Park, United Kingdom: IUCN V - Protected Landscape Etniko Ygrotopiko Parko Delta Evrou, Greece: IUCN VI - Managed Resource Protected AreaWhile national parks are understood to be administered by national governments, in Australia national parks are run by state governments and predate the Federation of Australia.
In Canada, there are both national parks operated by the federal government and provincial or territorial parks operated by the provincial and territorial governments, although nearly all are still national parks by the IUCN definition. In many countries, including Indonesia, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, national parks do not adhere to the IUCN definition, while some areas which adhere to the IUCN definition are not designated as national parks. In 1810, the English poet William Wordsworth described the Lake District as a sort of national property, in which every man has a right and interest who has an eye to perceive and a heart to enjoy; the painter George Catlin, in his travels through the American West, wrote during the 1830s that the Native Americans in the United States might be preserved...in a magnificent park... A nation's Park, containing man and beast, in all the wild and freshness of their nature's beauty! The first effort by the U. S. Federal government to set aside such protected lands was on 20 April 1832, when President Andrew Jackson signed legislation that the 22nd United States Congress had enacted to set aside four sections of land around what is now Hot Springs, Arkansas, to protect the natural, thermal springs and adjoining mountainsides for the futur
Coen is a town and locality in the Shire of Cook, Australia. The town of Coen is inland on the Peninsula Developmental Road, the main road on the Cape York Peninsula in far northern Queensland. In the 2011 census, Coen had a population of 416 people; the locality of Coen is on the eastern side of Cape York Peninsula with the Coral Sea forming its eastern boundary. Part of the northern boundary follows the Archer River, while the Coen River forms part of its western boundary; the Peninsula Developmental Road runs north to south through the locality. In 1623, Jan Carstensz, the navigator of the ship Pera of the Dutch East India Company named a river on Cape York Peninsula after Jan Pieterszoon Coen, the Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies. Today that river is known as the Archer River and the name Coen River is given to one of its tributaries. Gold was discovered on the Coen River in 1876. Coen came into being first as a small fort built by gold miners and prospectors in May 1877 but this first gold rush came to an end, the settlement did not recover until 1883.
It became a centre for several small goldmines in the region but, in 1893, the rich Great Northern mine boomed and the town became a more substantial place. Coen Post Office opened on 20 June 1893; the Great Northern mine continued operations until 1916 and produced some 52,000 troy ounces of gold before it closed. On 3 July 2014, Barry Port retired from the Queensland Police, he was Australia's last Aboriginal police tracker. In his 36 years working for the police, he has tracked criminals, missing stowaways. Today Coen provides services to the region, is an important supply point on the long unpaved road leading to Weipa and other northern communities, it is a popular stopping point for tourists driving to the tip of Cape York - the northernmost part of the Australian mainland. It has an airstrip at Coen Airport, public library, hotel/motel, guest house, two general stores and fuel outlets, post office, police station, camping grounds, primary school kindergarten, ranger base and more. There is a scheduled air service to Cairns four times a week.
Coen is an ideal destination for birdwatchers: there are good accommodations and a large and varied bird fauna with representatives from rain forest, monsoon forest and coastal forests. Coen has a number of heritage-listed sites, including: Coleman Close: Coen Carrier Station Moon, Ron & Viv. 2003. Cape York: An Adventurer's Guide. 9th edition. Moon Adventure Publications, Victoria. ISBN 0-9578766-4-5 Roberts, Jan. 1981. Massacres to Mining: The Colonization of Aboriginal Australia. Dove Communications, Victoria. Rev. Australian ed. Previous ed.: CIMRA and War on Want, 1978, London. ISBN 0-85924-171-8. Premier's Department. 1989. Cape York Peninsula Resource Analysis. Cairns.. ISBN 0-7242-7008-6 Ryan and Burwell, eds. 2000. Wildlife of Tropical North Queensland: Cooktown to Mackay. Queensland Museum, Brisbane. ISBN 0-85905-045-9. Scarth-Johnson, Vera. 2000. National Treasures: Flowering plants of Cooktown and Northern Australia. Vera Scarth-Johnson Gallery Association, Cooktown. ISBN 0-646-39726-5. Sutton, Peter.
Languages of Cape York: Papers presented to a Symposium organised by the Australian Institute of Aboriginal Studies. Australian Institute of Aboriginal Studies, Canberra.. ISBN 0-85575-046-4 Wallace, Lennie. 2003. Cape York Peninsula: A History of Unlauded Heroes 1845-2003. Central Queensland University Press, Rockhampton. ISBN 1-876780-43-6 Wynter, Jo and Hill, John. 1991. Cape York Peninsula: Pathways to Community Economic Development; the Final Report of The Community Economic Development Projects Cook Shire. Cook Shire Council. McIvor, Roy. Cockatoo: My Life in Cape York. Stories and Art. Roy McIvor. Magabala Books. Broome, Western Australia. ISBN 978-1-921248-22-1
Wujal Wujal is a small Aboriginal community on the north and south sides of the Bloomfield River in northern Queensland, Australia. It has an area of 19.94 square kilometres of land. At the 2006 census, Wujal Wujal had a population of 326, it is located 30 kilometres north of Cape Tribulation and 60 kilometres south of Cooktown. Access to the community is via sealed road from Cooktown, or by the Bloomfield Track, an unsealed road from Cape Tribulation, only suitable for four wheel drive vehicles; this is due to the gradient of the terrain and the many streams and rivers that make up the Daintree drainage basin which cross the path at regular intervals. During high waterflow the road from Cape Tribulation is impassable; the rare Bloomfield River Cod is found only in the Bloomfield River and is named after this community. The community of Wujal Wujal is located in the Cape York region with the surrounding environment and cultural tourism attracting many people to the region. Wujal Wujal is part of the traditional homelands of the Eastern Kuku Yalanji.
The name ‘Wujal Wujal’ or ‘many falls’ is derived from the local language. There are several Indigenous languages spoken within this community; the Bloomfield River mission was established on land belonging to the Kuku-Yalanji people. The first recorded Europeans to visit the Bloomfield River were Royal Navy Lieutenant Commander Frederick Bedwell and Captain Phillip Parker King on board the HMS Mermaid on a hydrological survey of the east coast of Australia. In June 1819, HMS Mermaid anchored in Weary Bay and:"Mr. Bedwell was sent to examine the opening, called Blomfield's Rivulet …Near the entrance upon the bank of the inlet several huts were noticed, near them Mr. Bedwell found a canoe. In 1872, William Hann was commissioned by the Queensland Government to explore Cape York Peninsula to assess its mineral and land resources. On their return, the party reached the coast at Weary Bay and followed the Bloomfield River upstream. Hann was responsible for discovering and naming the Palmer and Daintree rivers.
One of Hann’s party discovered gold on the Palmer River. After hearing of the discovery, James Venture Mulligan led an expedition to the Palmer River in 1873. Mulligan reported that the sandbars of the river glittered with gold, which started a huge gold rush to the district. By late 1873, the first government officials and prospectors came ashore at the Endeavour River accompanied by a detachment of Native Police. In 1874, Cooktown was established. Within 4 months and the Palmer River goldfield had a population of about 3,000 people, many of whom were Chinese immigrants. By 1880, the population of Cooktown had grown to about 7,000. Conflict between the Europeans and local Aboriginal people began immediately. In October 1873, 93 miners set out from the Endeavour River to blaze a track to the Palmer River. There were several skirmishes along the way, culminating in a pitched battle between about 150 Aboriginal warriors and the expedition members at their camp near the Normanby River; the site of this encounter was subsequently named ‘Battle Camp’.
A contemporary newspaper published the following account of the battle from one of the expedition members:"Blacks surprised us at daybreak, about 150, all were armed. They were unable to penetrate the thick scrub; the Native Police officer reported that they had found the Aborigines "exceedingly daring appearing in most threatening attitudes" and had to disperse them on three or four occasions". In 1875, a prospecting party on the Bloomfield River was attacked and driven back to Cooktown by Aboriginal people; the Native Police established a camp at Laura in 1875. A further detachment under the command of Sub-Inspector O’Connor arrived in January 1876; the first pastoralists in the Bloomfield River district were Frederick Bauer. Bauer established the Bloomfield River Sugar Company on the north side of the river with imported Malay labour; the town of Ayton was established around the sugar mill. The Kuku Yalanji people continued to resist the invasion of their lands by the miners and timber getters.
Frontier violence in the region was a frequent occurrence during the 1870s, resulting in hundreds of casualties. During the 1880s there was a gradual change in north Queensland in the government policy of taking the country by lethal force. Instead, Aboriginal people were removed off their country on to missions, where they would not trouble the settlers and provided a cheap source of labour; this policy change resulted in a decision to establish two Aboriginal reserves in the Cooktown district. In 1885, Lutheran missionary Johann Flierl was travelling to New Guinea to establish a mission, when he was unexpectedly delayed in Cooktown. While there, he negotiated with the Queensland Government to establish a mission close to Cooktown at Cape Be
Cardwell is a tropical coastal town and locality in the Cassowary Coast Region in Far North Queensland, Australia. In the 2016 census, Cardwell had a population of 1,309 people; the Bruce Highway National Highway 1 and the North Coast railway line are the dominant transport routes. Cardwell suffered significant damage from Cyclone Yasi, a category 5 cyclone, in February 2011. West of Cardwell the rugged topography of the Cardwell Range intercepts the trade winds resulting in high rainfall; the coastal escarpment is covered in rainforest which transitions to the west to eucalypt woodland and tropical savanna. Cardwell Range biodiversity has been protected by the introduction of Forestry Reserves, National Parks and Queensland World Heritage Wet Tropics Areas. Seaward lies the Coral Sea, the Great Barrier Reef and Lagoon, Rockingham Bay and Hinchinbrook Channel. Islands are visible from Cardwell including protected areas i.e. Hinchinbrook Island, Goold Island and the Brook Islands Group. Oyster Point is one kilometre south of Cardwell.
This location experienced one of Australia's important conservation battles. With the establishment of Port Hinchinbrook, the Marina Public Boat Ramp provides year round access to the protected marine environments of Hinchinbrook Channel, Estuaries and Great Barrier Reef; the Cardwell Jetty is an important infrastructure asset, where visitors can socialize and view the coastal scenery. The Aboriginal heritage is defined by Language Groups; the first Europeans settled in the area in January 1864 in order to create a port called "Port Hinchinbrook". Subsequently, the town was renamed after 1st Viscount Cardwell. Cardwell was the first port settlement on the Queensland coast north of Port Denison; the first party of non-indigenous people to settle at Rockingham Bay arrived in January 1864 and was led by George Elphinstone Dalrymple. They were 20 in number including James Morrill, William Alcock Tully, Arthur Jervoise Scott, Lieut. Marlow of the Native Police and his troopers Norman and Warbragen. Dalrymple brought his "black boy" servant, an Aboriginal man from Stradbroke Island that he called "Cockey".
They came from Bowen on the small schooner Policeman, under the command of ex-Native Police officer Captain Walter Powell, with the 3 ton cutter Heather Bell in tow. Dalrymple's main purpose in establishing a settlement in Rockingham Bay was to create a port as close as possible to the Valley of Lagoons Station of which he was part owner. Soon after disembarking from the Policeman, he endeavoured to create a road from the coast to the Valley of Lagoons by expanding existing native paths. A few miles inland from the landing site was a beautiful aboriginal village and bora ground surrounded by native banana plantations that reminded Dalrymple of villages in Ceylon; the Warrgamay people in the area and on nearby Hinchinbrook Island were described as numerous and having some of the largest spears and wooden swords recorded in Australia. Having told the local people through his interpreter that he had come to take possession of their lands, Dalrymple bizarrely expressed frustration at the supposed inability of the aboriginals to understand the concept of "Thou shalt not steal".
James Morrill was more factual in his account of the founding of Cardwell writing that "I said to that they must clear out..as we wished to occupy the land and would shoot any who approached, that we were strong and that another party would soon follow", he described how a group of Aboriginals "were set upon by Dalrymple's men and rather cut up."Cardwell Post Office opened on 10 July 1864. In March 1865, Lieutenant Blakeney and seven troopers of the Native Police spent two days clearing the area around Cardwell of Aboriginal presence by "burning camps and dispersing the natives."In the late 1860s and early 1870s, Cardwell became a transport hub for prospectors heading to the Etheridge Shire goldfields 200 km inland from the town. Captain John Moresby visited Cardwell in 1871 and wrote that "various tribes of aborigines roam about the vicinity, not unnaturally regard the white men, who are dispossessing them of their homes, as mortal enemies. They..suffer terrible retaliation at the hands of our countrymen, who employ native troopers, commanded by white men to hunt down and destroy the offenders when the opportunity offers".
In January 1872, two British dugong fishermen named Henry Smith and Charles Clements were killed at nearby Goold Island by resident Aboriginals. Wet weather prevented an immediate punitive expedition of four boats of armed local white men who were eager that "the blacks" be "taught that what they do is punishable by death". However, within the same month the Native Police forces of Sub-Inspectors Crompton and Johnstone completed a punitive mission and returned to Cardwell with three young Aboriginal children from the island; the eldest of the children was ten and "they were given away in Cardwell to domesticate them."The Cardwell Library opened in 2008. Cardwell has a number of heritage-listed sites, including: Valley of Lagoons Road, Damper Creek: Stone Bridge, Dalrymple Gap Track 51 Victoria Street: Cardwell Divisional Board Hall 53 Victoria Street: Cardwell Post Office Cardwell has a granite monument erected in memory of Walter Jervoise Scott, a pioneer of the Valley of Lagoons; the monument was sent from Great Britain by his brothers intended for his grave at Valley of Lagoons.
On arrival at Cardwell, it was found to b