A keystone is the wedge-shaped stone piece at the apex of a masonry arch, or the round one at the apex of a vault. In both cases it is the final piece placed during construction and locks all the stones into position, allowing the arch or vault to bear weight. In both arches and vaults, keystones are enlarged beyond the structural requirements, decorated in some way. Keystones are placed in the centre of the flat top of openings such as doors and windows for decorative effect. Although a masonry arch or vault cannot be self-supporting until the keystone is placed, the keystone experiences the least stress of any of the voussoirs, due to its position at the apex. Old keystones can decay due to a condition known as bald arch. In a rib-vaulted ceiling, keystones may mark the intersections of two or more arched ribs. For aesthetic purposes, the keystone is sometimes larger than the other voussoirs, or embellished with a boss. Mannerist architects of the 16th century designed arches with enlarged and dropped keystones, as in the "church house" entrance portal at Colditz Castle.
Numerous examples are found in the work of Sebastiano Serlio, a 16th-century Italian Mannerist architect. Architectural sculpture Coping List of classical architecture terms Oculus compression ring Media related to keystones at Wikimedia Commons
The New Testament is the second part of the Christian biblical canon, the first part being the Old Testament, based on the Hebrew Bible. The New Testament discusses the teachings and person of Jesus, as well as events in first-century Christianity. Christians regard both the New Testaments together as sacred scripture; the New Testament has accompanied the spread of Christianity around the world. It serves as a source for Christian theology and morality. Extended readings and phrases directly from the New Testament are incorporated into the various Christian liturgies; the New Testament has influenced religious and political movements in Christendom and left an indelible mark on literature and music. The New Testament is a collection of Christian works written in the common Greek language of the 1st century AD, at different times by various writers, the modern consensus is that it provides important evidence regarding Judaism in the 1st century. In all Christian traditions today, the New Testament consists of 27 books: the four gospels, The Acts of the Apostles, twenty-one epistles, Revelation.
The united Catholic Church defined the 27-book canon. The earliest known complete list of the 27 books is by the 4th-century eastern Catholic bishop Athanasius; the first time that church councils approved this list was with the councils of Hippo and Carthage in North Africa and Pope Innocent I ratified the same canon in 405, but it is probable that a Council in Rome in 382 under pope Damasus gave the same list first. These councils provided the canon of the Old Testament, which included the apocryphal books; the original texts were written in the first century of the Christian Era, in Greek, the common language of the Eastern Mediterranean from the conquests of Alexander the Great until the Muslim conquests in the 7th century AD. All the works that became incorporated into the New Testament are believed to have been written no than around 120 AD. John A. T. Robinson, Dan Wallace, William F. Albright dated all the books of the New Testament before 70 AD. Others give a final date of 80 AD or of 96 AD.
Collections of related texts such as letters of the Apostle Paul and the Canonical Gospels of Matthew, Mark and John were joined to other collections and single works in different combinations to form various Christian canons of Scripture. Over time, some disputed books, such as the Book of Revelation and the Minor Catholic Epistles were introduced into canons in which they were absent. Other works earlier held to be Scripture, such as 1 Clement, the Shepherd of Hermas, the Diatessaron, were excluded from the New Testament; the Old Testament canon is not uniform among all major Christian groups including Roman Catholics, the Greek Orthodox Church, the Slavic Orthodox Churches, the Armenian Orthodox Church. However, the twenty-seven-book canon of the New Testament, at least since Late Antiquity, has been universally recognized within Christianity; the phrase new testament, or new covenant first occurs in Jeremiah 31:31. The same Greek phrase for'new covenant' is found elsewhere in the New Testament.
In early Bible translations into Latin, the phrase was rendered foedus,'federation', in Jeremiah 31:31, was rendered testamentum in Hebrews 8:8 and other instances, from which comes the English term New Testament. Modern English, like Latin, distinguishes testament and covenant as alternative translations, the treatment of the term Διαθήκη diathḗkē varies in Bible translations into English. John Wycliffe's 1395 version is a translation of the Latin Vulgate and so follows different terms in Jeremiah and Hebrews: Lo! Days shall come, saith the Lord, I shall make a new covenant with the house of Israel, with the house of Judah. For he reproving him saith, Lo! Days come, saith the Lord, when I shall establish a new testament on the house of Israel, on the house of Judah. Use of the term New Testament to describe a collection of first and second-century Christian Greek scriptures can be traced back to Tertullian. In Against Marcion, written c. 208 AD, he writes of: the Divine Word, doubly edged with the two testaments of the law and the gospel.
And Tertullian continues in the book, writing: it is certain that the whole aim at which he has strenuously laboured in the drawing up of his Antitheses, centres in this, that he may establish a diversity between the Old and the New Testaments, so that his own Christ may be separate from the Creator, as belonging to this rival god, as alien from the law and the prophets. By the 4th century, the existence—even if not the exact contents—of both an Old and New Testament had been established. Lactantius, a 3rd–4th century Christian author wrote in his early-4th-century Latin Institutiones Divinae: But all scripture is divided into two Testaments; that which preceded the advent and passion of Christ—that is, the law and the prophets—is called the Old.
Chapters and verses of the Bible
The Bible is a compilation of many shorter books written at different times by a variety of authors, assembled into the biblical canon. Since the early 13th century, most copies and editions of the Bible present all but the shortest of these books with divisions into chapters a page or so in length. Since the mid-16th century editors have further subdivided each chapter into verses - each consisting of a few short lines or sentences. Sometimes a sentence spans more than one verse, as in the case of Ephesians 2:8–9, sometimes there is more than one sentence in a single verse, as in the case of Genesis 1:2; as the chapter and verse divisions did not appear in the original texts, they form part of the paratext of the Bible. The Jewish divisions of the Hebrew text differ at various points from those used by Christians. For instance, in Jewish tradition, the ascriptions to many Psalms are regarded as independent verses or parts of the subsequent verses, making 116 more verses, whereas established Christian practice treats each Psalm ascription as independent and unnumbered.
Some chapter divisions occur in different places, e.g. Hebrew Bibles have 1 Chronicles 5:27–41 where Christian translations have 1 Chronicles 6:1–15. Early manuscripts of the biblical texts did not contain the chapter and verse divisions in the numbered form familiar to modern readers. In antiquity Hebrew texts were divided into paragraphs that were identified by two letters of the Hebrew alphabet. Peh פ indicated an "open" paragraph that began on a new line, while Samekh ס indicated a "closed" paragraph that began on the same line after a small space; these two letters begin the Hebrew words open and closed, are, open פ and closed ס. The earliest known copies of the Book of Isaiah from the Dead Sea Scrolls used parashot divisions, although they differ from the Masoretic divisions; the Hebrew Bible was divided into some larger sections. In Israel the Torah were divided into 154 sections so that they could be read through aloud in weekly worship over the course of three years. In Babylonia it was divided into 54 sections so it could be read through in one year.
The New Testament was divided into topical sections known as kephalaia by the fourth century. Eusebius of Caesarea divided the gospels into parts that he listed in canons. Neither of these systems corresponds with modern chapter divisions. Chapter divisions, with titles, are found in the 9th century Tours manuscript, Paris Bibliothèque Nationale MS Lat. 3, the so-called Bible of Rorigo. Archbishop Stephen Langton and Cardinal Hugo de Sancto Caro developed different schemas for systematic division of the Bible in the early 13th century, it is the system of Archbishop Langton. While chapter divisions have become nearly universal, editions of the Bible have sometimes been published without them; such editions, which use thematic or literary criteria to divide the biblical books instead, include John Locke's Paraphrase and Notes on the Epistles of St. Paul, Alexander Campbell's The Sacred Writings, Daniel Berkeley Updike's fourteen-volume The Holy Bible Containing the Old and New Testaments and the Apocrypha, Richard Moulton's The Modern Reader's Bible, Ernest Sutherland Bates's The Bible Designed to Be Read as Living Literature, The Books of the Bible from the International Bible Society, Adam Lewis Greene's five-volume Bibliotheca, the six-volume ESV Reader's Bible from Crossway Books.
Since at least 916 the Tanakh has contained an extensive system of multiple levels of section and phrasal divisions that were indicated in Masoretic vocalization and cantillation markings. One of the most frequent of these was a special type of punctuation, the sof passuq, symbol for a full stop or sentence break, resembling the colon of English and Latin orthography. With the advent of the printing press and the translation of the Bible into English, Old Testament versifications were made that correspond predominantly with the existing Hebrew full stops, with a few isolated exceptions. Most attribute these to Rabbi Isaac Nathan ben Kalonymus's work for the first Hebrew Bible concordance around 1440; the first person to divide New Testament chapters into verses was Italian Dominican biblical scholar Santi Pagnini, but his system was never adopted. His verse divisions in the New Testament were far longer than those known today. Robert Estienne created an alternate numbering in his 1551 edition of the Greek New Testament, used in his 1553 publication of the Bible in French.
Estienne's system of division was adopted, it is this system, found in all modern Bibles. Estienne produced a 1555 Vulgate, the first Bible to include the verse numbers integrated into the text. Before this work, they were printed in the margins; the first English New Testament to use the verse divisions was a 1557 translation by William Whittingham. The first Bible in English to use both chapters and verses was the Geneva Bible published shortly afterwards in 1560; these verse divisions soon gained acceptance as a standard way to notate verses, have since been used in nearly all English Bibles and the vast majority of those in other languages. (Nevertheless, some Bibles have removed the verse numbering, including the ones noted above that removed chapter numbers.
Brooke Foss Westcott
Brooke Foss Westcott was a British bishop, biblical scholar and theologian, serving as Bishop of Durham from 1890 until his death. He is most known for co-editing The New Testament in the Original Greek in 1881, he was born in Birmingham. His father, Frederick Brooke Westcott, was a botanist. Westcott was educated at King Edward VI School, under James Prince Lee, where he became friends with Joseph Barber Lightfoot Bishop of Durham; the period of Westcott's childhood was one of political ferment in Birmingham and amongst his earliest recollections was one of Thomas Attwood leading a large procession of men to a meeting of the Birmingham Political Union in 1831. A few years after this Chartism led to serious disturbances in Birmingham and many years Westcott would refer to the deep impression the experiences of that time had made upon him. In 1844, Westcott entered Trinity College, where he was invited to join the Cambridge Apostles, he became a scholar in 1846, won a Browne medal for a Greek ode in 1846 and 1847, the Members' Prize for a Latin essay in 1847 and 1849.
He took his BA degree in January 1848. In mathematics, he was Isaac Todhunter being senior. In classics, he was senior, being bracketed with Charles Broderick Scott, afterwards headmaster of Westminster School. After obtaining his degree, Westcott remained in residence at Trinity. In 1849, he obtained his fellowship. In 1851 he became an assistant master at Harrow School; as well as studying, Westcott took pupils at Cambridge. The friendship with Lightfoot and Hort influenced his future work, he devoted much attention to philosophical and historical studies, but his main interest was in New Testament work. In 1851, he published his Norrisian prize essay with the title Elements of the Gospel Harmony; the Cambridge University Norrisian Prize for theology was established in 1781 by the will of John Norris Esq of Whitton, Norfolk for the best essay by a candidate between the ages of twenty and thirty on a theological subject. He combined his school duties with literary writings, he worked at Harrow for nearly twenty years under C. J. Vaughan and Montagu Butler, but he was never good at maintaining discipline among large numbers.
In 1855, he published the first edition of his History of the New Testament Canon, which revised and expanded, became the standard English work on the subject. In 1859, there appeared his Characteristics of the Gospel Miracles. In 1860, he expanded his Elements of the Gospel Harmony essay into an Introduction to the Study of the Gospels. Westcott's work for Smith's Dictionary of the Bible, notably his articles on "Canon," "Maccabees", "Vulgate," led to the composition of his subsequent popular books, The Bible in the Church and a History of the English Bible. To the same period belongs The Gospel of the Resurrection, it recognised the claims of pure reason. At the time when the book appeared, his method of apologetic showed originality, but was impaired by the difficulty of the style. In 1865, he took his B. D. and in 1870, his D. D, he received honorary degrees of DC. L. from Oxford and of D. D. from Edinburgh. In 1868, Westcott was appointed examining chaplain by Bishop Connor Magee. For a time he was enthusiastic about a cathedral life, devoted to the pursuit of learning and to the development of opportunities for the religious and intellectual benefit of the diocese.
But the Regius Professorship of Divinity at Cambridge fell vacant, J. B. Lightfoot, Hulsean Professor, refused it in favour of Westcott, it was due to Lightfoot's support as much as to his own great merits that Westcott was elected to the chair on 1 November 1870. Westcott now occupied a position, he played a leading part in raising the standard of theological study in the University. Supported by his friends Lightfoot and Hort, he reformed the regulations for degrees in divinity and was responsible for the formation and first revision of the new theology tripos, he planned organised the new Divinity School and Library. He set up the Cambridge mission to Delhi, he worked hard and forewent many of the privileges of a university career so that his studies might be more continuous and that he might see more his students. His lectures were on Biblical subjects, his Commentaries on St John's Gospel, on the Epistle to the Hebrews, the Epistles of St John, resulted from his public lectures. One of his most valuable works, The Gospel of Life, a study of Christian doctrine, incorporated the materials upon which he delivered a series of more private and esoteric lectures on week-day evenings.
Lecturing was an intense strain to him, but his influence was immense: to attend one of Westcott's lectures was an experience which encouraged those to whom the references to Origen or Rupert of Deutz were unintelligible. Between 1870 and 1881, Westcott was continually engaged in text critical work for an edition of the New Testament and in the preparation of a new text in conjunction with Hort; the years in which Westcott and Hort could thus meet and for the discussion of the work in which they were all three so engrossed formed a happy and p
The public domain consists of all the creative works to which no exclusive intellectual property rights apply. Those rights may have been forfeited, expressly waived, or may be inapplicable; the works of William Shakespeare and Beethoven, most early silent films, are in the public domain either by virtue of their having been created before copyright existed, or by their copyright term having expired. Some works are not covered by copyright, are therefore in the public domain—among them the formulae of Newtonian physics, cooking recipes, all computer software created prior to 1974. Other works are dedicated by their authors to the public domain; the term public domain is not applied to situations where the creator of a work retains residual rights, in which case use of the work is referred to as "under license" or "with permission". As rights vary by country and jurisdiction, a work may be subject to rights in one country and be in the public domain in another; some rights depend on registrations on a country-by-country basis, the absence of registration in a particular country, if required, gives rise to public-domain status for a work in that country.
The term public domain may be interchangeably used with other imprecise or undefined terms such as the "public sphere" or "commons", including concepts such as the "commons of the mind", the "intellectual commons", the "information commons". Although the term "domain" did not come into use until the mid-18th century, the concept "can be traced back to the ancient Roman Law, as a preset system included in the property right system." The Romans had a large proprietary rights system where they defined "many things that cannot be owned" as res nullius, res communes, res publicae and res universitatis. The term res nullius was defined as things not yet appropriated; the term res communes was defined as "things that could be enjoyed by mankind, such as air and ocean." The term res publicae referred to things that were shared by all citizens, the term res universitatis meant things that were owned by the municipalities of Rome. When looking at it from a historical perspective, one could say the construction of the idea of "public domain" sprouted from the concepts of res communes, res publicae, res universitatis in early Roman law.
When the first early copyright law was first established in Britain with the Statute of Anne in 1710, public domain did not appear. However, similar concepts were developed by French jurists in the 18th century. Instead of "public domain", they used terms such as publici juris or propriété publique to describe works that were not covered by copyright law; the phrase "fall in the public domain" can be traced to mid-19th century France to describe the end of copyright term. The French poet Alfred de Vigny equated the expiration of copyright with a work falling "into the sink hole of public domain" and if the public domain receives any attention from intellectual property lawyers it is still treated as little more than that, left when intellectual property rights, such as copyright and trademarks, expire or are abandoned. In this historical context Paul Torremans describes copyright as a, "little coral reef of private right jutting up from the ocean of the public domain." Copyright law differs by country, the American legal scholar Pamela Samuelson has described the public domain as being "different sizes at different times in different countries".
Definitions of the boundaries of the public domain in relation to copyright, or intellectual property more regard the public domain as a negative space. According to James Boyle this definition underlines common usage of the term public domain and equates the public domain to public property and works in copyright to private property. However, the usage of the term public domain can be more granular, including for example uses of works in copyright permitted by copyright exceptions; such a definition regards work in copyright as private property subject to fair-use rights and limitation on ownership. A conceptual definition comes from Lange, who focused on what the public domain should be: "it should be a place of sanctuary for individual creative expression, a sanctuary conferring affirmative protection against the forces of private appropriation that threatened such expression". Patterson and Lindberg described the public domain not as a "territory", but rather as a concept: "here are certain materials – the air we breathe, rain, life, thoughts, ideas, numbers – not subject to private ownership.
The materials that compose our cultural heritage must be free for all living to use no less than matter necessary for biological survival." The term public domain may be interchangeably used with other imprecise or undefined terms such as the "public sphere" or "commons", including concepts such as the "commons of the mind", the "intellectual commons", the "information commons". A public-domain book is a book with no copyright, a book, created without a license, or a book where its copyrights expired or have been forfeited. In most countries the term of protection of copyright lasts until January first, 70 years after the death of the latest living author; the longest copyright term is in Mexico, which has life plus 100 years for all deaths since July 1928. A notable exception is the United States, where every book and tale published prior to 1924 is in the public domain.
The burning bush is an object described by the Book of Exodus as being located on Mount Horeb. According to the narrative, the bush was on fire, but was not consumed by the flames, hence the name. In the biblical narrative, the burning bush is the location at which Moses was appointed by Yahweh to lead the Israelites out of Egypt and into Canaan; the Hebrew word in the narrative, translated into English as bush is seneh, which refers in particular to brambles. It is possible that the reference to a burning bush is based on a mistaken interpretation of Sinai, a mountain described in Exodus 19:18 as being on fire. Another possibility is that the use of seneh may be a deliberate pun on Sinai, a feature common in Hebrew texts. In the narrative, an angel of the Lord is described as appearing in the bush, God is subsequently described as calling out from it to Moses, grazing Jethro's flocks there; when Moses starts to approach, God tells Moses to take off his sandals first, due to the place being holy ground, Moses hides his face.
Some Old Testament scholars regard the account of the burning bush as being spliced together from the Yahwist and Elohist texts, with the Angel of Yahweh and the removal of sandals being part of the Yahwist version, the Elohist's parallels to these being God and the turning away of Moses's face, respectively. When challenged on his identity, Yahweh replies that he is the God of the Patriarchs – Abraham and Jacob – and that he is Yahweh; the text derives Yahweh from the Hebrew word hayah in the phrase ehyeh ašer ehyeh, meaning "he, he", or "I am that I am". The text portrays Yahweh as telling Moses that he is sending him to the Pharaoh in order to bring the Israelites out of Egypt, an action that Yahweh is described as having decided upon as a result of noticing that the Israelites were being oppressed by the Egyptians. Yahweh tells Moses to tell the elders of the Israelites that Yahweh would lead them into the land of the Canaanites, Amorites and Jebusites, a region referred to as a whole by the term Canaan.
According to the narrative Yahweh instructs Moses to confront the Egyptians and Israelites and briefs the prophet on what is to take place. Yahweh performs various demonstrative miracles in order to bolster Moses's credibility. Among other things, his staff was transmuted into a snake, Moses's hand was temporarily made leprous, water was transmuted into blood, In the text, Yahweh instructs Moses to take "this staff" in his hands, in order to perform miracles with it, as if it is a staff given to him, rather than his own. Despite the signs, Moses is described as being reluctant to take on the role, arguing that he lacked eloquence, that someone else should be sent instead, yet Yahweh concedes and allows Aaron to be sent to assist Moses, since Aaron is eloquent and was on his way to meet Moses. This is the first time in the Torah that Aaron is mentioned, here he is described as being Moses's mouthpiece. Alexander and Zhenia Fleisher relate the Biblical story of the burning bush to the plant Dictamnus.
They write: Intermittently, under yet unclear conditions, the plant excretes such a vast amount of volatiles that lighting a match near the flowers and seedpods causes the plant to be enveloped by flame. This flame extinguishes without injury to the plant, they conclude, that Dictamnus spp. is not found in the Sinai peninsula, adding: "It is, therefore improbable that any Dictamnus spp. was a true'Burning Bush' despite such an attractive rational foundation." Colin Humphreys replies that "the book of Exodus suggests a long-lasting fire that Moses went to investigate, not a fire that flares up and rapidly goes out." Christian hermits gathered at Mount Serbal, believing it to be the biblical Mount Sinai. However, in the 4th century, under the Byzantine Empire, the monastery built there was abandoned in favour of the newer belief that Mount Saint Catherine was the Biblical Mount Sinai; the bush growing at the spot, was transplanted several yards away to a courtyard of the monastery, its original spot was covered by a chapel dedicated to the Annunciation, with a silver star marking where the roots of the bush had come out of the ground.
The Monks at Saint Catherine's Monastery, following church tradition, believe that this bush is, in fact, the original bush seen by Moses, rather than a replacement, anyone entering the chapel is required to remove their shoes, just as Moses was said to have done so in the biblical account. However, in modern times, it is not Mount Saint Catherine, but the adjacent Jebel Musa, identified as Mount Sinai by popular tradition and guidebooks. Mount Serbal, Mount Sinai, Mount Saint Catherine, all lie at the southern tip of the Sinai peninsula, but the peninsula's name is a comparatively modern invention, it was not known by that name at the time of Josephus or earlier; some modern scholars and theologians, favor locations in the Hijaz (at the north w
Easton's Bible Dictionary
The Illustrated Bible Dictionary, better known as Easton's Bible Dictionary, is a reference work on topics related to the Christian Bible compiled by Matthew George Easton. The first edition was published in 1893, a revised edition was published the following year; the most popular edition, was the third, published by Thomas Nelson in 1897, three years after Easton's death. The last contains nearly 4,000 entries relating to the Bible. Many of the entries in Easton's are encyclopedic in nature, although there are short dictionary-type entries; because of its age, it is now a public domain resource. Bauer lexicon Smith's Bible Dictionary, another popular 19th century Bible dictionary Easton, Matthew George, ed. Illustrated Bible Dictionary... New York: Harper & Bros. Easton, M. G. ed. Illustrated Bible Dictionary... London: T. Nelson & Sons Easton, M. G. ed. Illustrated Bible Dictionary... London: T. Nelson & Sons Easton, Matthew George. "Table of contents". Easton's Bible Dictionary. T. Nelson and Sons.
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