The Cherokee syllabary is a syllabary invented by Sequoyah to write the Cherokee language in the late 1810s and early 1820s. His creation of the syllabary is noteworthy as he could not read any script, he first experimented with logograms, but his system developed into a syllabary. In his system, each symbol represents a syllable rather than a single phoneme. Although some symbols resemble Latin and Cyrillic letters, the relationship between symbols and sounds is different; each of the characters represents one syllable, as in the Japanese kana and the Bronze Age Greek Linear B writing systems. The first six characters represent isolated vowel syllables. Characters for combined consonant and vowel syllables follow; the charts below show the syllabary in recitation order, left to right, top to bottom as arranged by Samuel Worcester, along with his used transliterations. He played a key role in the development of Cherokee printing from 1828 until his death in 1859; the Latin letter'v' in the transcriptions, seen in the last column, represents a nasal vowel, /ə̃/.
The Cherokee character Ꮩ do has a different orientation in old documents, resembling a Greek Λ rather than a Latin V as in modern documents. Note that the 86th character is obsolete. There is a handwritten cursive form of the syllabary; the phonetic values of these characters do not equate directly to those represented by the letters of the Latin script. Some characters represent two distinct phonetic values, while others may represent multiple variations of the same syllable. Not all phonemic distinctions of the spoken language are represented. For example, while /d/ + vowel syllables are differentiated from /t/ + vowel by use of different graphs, syllables beginning with /ɡ/ are all conflated with those beginning with /k/, so that in most cases, /k/ is written with a glyph in the g row. Long vowels are not ordinarily distinguished from short vowels, tones are not marked, there is no regular rule for representing consonant clusters. However, in more recent technical literature, length of vowels can be indicated using a colon.
Six distinctive vowel qualities are represented in the Cherokee syllabary based on where they are pronounced in the mouth, including the high vowels i and u, mid vowels e, v, o, low vowel a. The syllabary does not distinguish among syllables that end in vowels, h, or glottal stop. For example, the single symbol, Ꮡ, is used to represent su in su: dali; this same symbol Ꮡ represents suh as in suhdi, meaning'fishhook'. Therefore, there is no differentiation among the symbols used for syllables ending in a single vowel versus that vowel plus "h." When consonants other than s, h, or glottal stop arise with other consonants in clusters, the appropriate consonant plus a "dummy vowel" is used. This dummy vowel is either chosen arbitrarily or for etymological reasons. For example, ᏧᎾᏍᏗ represents the word ju:nsdi, meaning'small.' Ns in this case is the consonant cluster that requires the following dummy vowel, a. Ns is written as ᎾᏍ /nas/; the vowel is included in the transliteration, but is not pronounced in the word..
Adult speakers can distinguish words by context. If a labial consonant such as p or b appears in a borrowed word or name, it is written using the qu row; this /kw/ ~ /p/ correspondence is a known linguistic phenomenon that exists elsewhere. Some Cherokee words pose a problem for transliteration software because they contain adjacent pairs of single letter symbols that would be combined when doing the back-conversion from Latin script to Cherokee. Here are a few examples: ᎢᏣᎵᏍᎠᏁᏗ = itsalisanedi = i-tsa-li-s-a-ne-di ᎤᎵᎩᏳᏍᎠᏅᏁ = uligiyusanvne = u-li-gi-yu-s-a-nv-ne ᎤᏂᏰᏍᎢᏱ = uniyesiyi = u-ni-ye-s-i-yi ᎾᏍᎢᏯ = nasiya = na-s-i-yaFor these examples, the back conversion is to join s-a as sa or s-i as si. One solution is to use an apostrophe to separate the two: itsalis ` anedi. Other Cherokee words contain character pairs. Examples: ᏀᎾ transliterates as nahna, yet so does ᎾᎿ; the former is nah-na, the latter is na-hna. If the Latin script is parsed from left to right, longest match first without special provisions, the back conversion would be wrong for the latter.
There are several similar examples involving these character combinations: naha nahe nahi naho nahu nahv. A further problem encountered in transliterating Cherokee is that there are some pairs of different Cherokee words that transliterate to the same word in the Latin script. Here are some examples: ᎠᏍᎡᏃ and ᎠᏎᏃ both transliterate to aseno ᎨᏍᎥᎢ and ᎨᏒᎢ both transliterate to gesviWithout special provision, a round trip conversion may change ᎠᏍᎡᏃ to ᎠᏎᏃ and change ᎨᏍᎥᎢ to ᎨᏒᎢ; the usual alphabetical order for Cherokee runs across the rows of the syllabary chart from left to right, top to bottom—this is the one used in the Unicode block: Ꭰ, Ꭱ, Ꭲ, Ꭳ, Ꭴ, Ꭵ, Ꭶ, Ꭷ, Ꭸ, Ꭹ, Ꭺ, Ꭻ, Ꭼ, Ꭽ, Ꭾ, Ꭿ, Ꮀ, Ꮁ, Ꮂ, Ꮃ, Ꮄ, Ꮅ, Ꮆ, Ꮇ, Ꮈ, Ꮉ, Ꮊ, Ꮋ, Ꮌ, Ꮍ, Ꮎ, Ꮏ, Ꮐ, Ꮑ, Ꮒ, Ꮓ, Ꮔ, Ꮕ, Ꮖ, Ꮗ, Ꮘ, Ꮙ, Ꮚ, Ꮛ, Ꮜ, Ꮝ, Ꮞ, Ꮟ, Ꮠ, Ꮡ, Ꮢ, Ꮣ, Ꮤ, Ꮥ, Ꮦ, Ꮧ, Ꮨ, Ꮩ, Ꮪ, Ꮫ, Ꮬ (dla
International Phonetic Alphabet
The International Phonetic Alphabet is an alphabetic system of phonetic notation based on the Latin alphabet. It was devised by the International Phonetic Association in the late 19th century as a standardized representation of the sounds of spoken language; the IPA is used by lexicographers, foreign language students and teachers, speech-language pathologists, actors, constructed language creators and translators. The IPA is designed to represent only those qualities of speech that are part of oral language: phones, phonemes and the separation of words and syllables. To represent additional qualities of speech, such as tooth gnashing and sounds made with a cleft lip and cleft palate, an extended set of symbols, the extensions to the International Phonetic Alphabet, may be used. IPA symbols are composed of one or more elements of two basic types and diacritics. For example, the sound of the English letter ⟨t⟩ may be transcribed in IPA with a single letter, or with a letter plus diacritics, depending on how precise one wishes to be.
Slashes are used to signal broad or phonemic transcription. Letters or diacritics are added, removed or modified by the International Phonetic Association; as of the most recent change in 2005, there are 107 letters, 52 diacritics and four prosodic marks in the IPA. These are shown in the current IPA chart, posted below in this article and at the website of the IPA. In 1886, a group of French and British language teachers, led by the French linguist Paul Passy, formed what would come to be known from 1897 onwards as the International Phonetic Association, their original alphabet was based on a spelling reform for English known as the Romic alphabet, but in order to make it usable for other languages, the values of the symbols were allowed to vary from language to language. For example, the sound was represented with the letter ⟨c⟩ in English, but with the digraph ⟨ch⟩ in French. However, in 1888, the alphabet was revised so as to be uniform across languages, thus providing the base for all future revisions.
The idea of making the IPA was first suggested by Otto Jespersen in a letter to Paul Passy. It was developed by Alexander John Ellis, Henry Sweet, Daniel Jones, Passy. Since its creation, the IPA has undergone a number of revisions. After revisions and expansions from the 1890s to the 1940s, the IPA remained unchanged until the Kiel Convention in 1989. A minor revision took place in 1993 with the addition of four letters for mid central vowels and the removal of letters for voiceless implosives; the alphabet was last revised in May 2005 with the addition of a letter for a labiodental flap. Apart from the addition and removal of symbols, changes to the IPA have consisted of renaming symbols and categories and in modifying typefaces. Extensions to the International Phonetic Alphabet for speech pathology were created in 1990 and adopted by the International Clinical Phonetics and Linguistics Association in 1994; the general principle of the IPA is to provide one letter for each distinctive sound, although this practice is not followed if the sound itself is complex.
This means that: It does not use combinations of letters to represent single sounds, the way English does with ⟨sh⟩, ⟨th⟩ and ⟨ng⟩, or single letters to represent multiple sounds the way ⟨x⟩ represents /ks/ or /ɡz/ in English. There are no letters that have context-dependent sound values, as do "hard" and "soft" ⟨c⟩ or ⟨g⟩ in several European languages; the IPA does not have separate letters for two sounds if no known language makes a distinction between them, a property known as "selectiveness". Among the symbols of the IPA, 107 letters represent consonants and vowels, 31 diacritics are used to modify these, 19 additional signs indicate suprasegmental qualities such as length, tone and intonation; these are organized into a chart. The letters chosen for the IPA are meant to harmonize with the Latin alphabet. For this reason, most letters modifications thereof; some letters are neither: for example, the letter denoting the glottal stop, ⟨ʔ⟩, has the form of a dotless question mark, derives from an apostrophe.
A few letters, such as that of the voiced pharyngeal fricative, ⟨ʕ⟩, were inspired by other writing systems. Despite its preference for harmonizing with the Latin script, the International Phonetic Association has admitted other letters. For example, before 1989, the IPA letters for click consonants were ⟨ʘ⟩, ⟨ʇ⟩, ⟨ʗ⟩, ⟨ʖ⟩, all of which were derived either from existing IPA letters, or from Latin and Greek letters. However, except for ⟨ʘ⟩, none of these letters were used among Khoisanists or Bantuists, as a result they were replaced by the more widespread symbols ⟨ʘ⟩, ⟨ǀ⟩, ⟨ǃ⟩, ⟨ǂ⟩, ⟨ǁ⟩ at the IPA Kiel Convention in 1989. Although the IPA diacritics are featural, there is little systemicity in the letter forms. A retroflex articulation is indicated with a right-swinging tail, as in ⟨ɖ ʂ ɳ⟩, implosion by a top hook, ⟨ɓ ɗ ɠ⟩, but other pseudo-featural elements are due to haphazard derivation and coincidence. For example, all nasal consonants but uvular ⟨ɴ⟩ are based on the form ⟨n⟩: ⟨m ɱ n ɳ ɲ ŋ⟩.
However, the similarity between ⟨m⟩ and ⟨n⟩ is a historical accident. Some of the new letters were ordinary Latin letters tu
The Ugaritic script is a cuneiform abjad used from around either the fifteenth century BCE or 1300 BCE for Ugaritic, an extinct Northwest Semitic language, discovered in Ugarit, Syria, in 1928. It has 30 letters. Other languages were written in the Ugaritic script in the area around Ugarit, although not elsewhere. Clay tablets written in Ugaritic provide the earliest evidence of both the North Semitic and South Semitic orders of the alphabet, which gave rise to the alphabetic orders of the reduced Phoenician alphabet and its descendants on the one hand, of the Ge'ez alphabet on the other. Arabic and Old South Arabian are the only other Semitic alphabets which have letters for all or all of the 29 reconstructed proto-Semitic consonant phonemes. According to Manfried Dietrich and Oswald Loretz in Handbook of Ugaritic Studies: "The language they represented could be described as an idiom which in terms of content seemed to be comparable to Canaanite texts, but from a phonological perspective, was more like Arabic".
The script was written from left to right. Although cuneiform and pressed into clay, its symbols were unrelated to those of Akkadian cuneiform. Ugaritic was an augmented abjad. In most syllables only consonants were written, including the /w/ and /j/ of diphthongs. However, Ugaritic was unusual among early abjads in writing vowels after the glottal stop, it is thought that the letter for the syllable /ʔa/ represented the consonant /ʔ/, as aleph does in other Semitic abjads, that it was restricted to /ʔa/ with the addition, at the end of the alphabet, of /ʔi/ and /ʔu/. The final consonantal letter of the alphabet, s2, has a disputed origin along with both "appended" glottals, but "The patent similarity of form between the Ugaritic symbol transliterated, the s-character of the Northwest Semitic script makes a common origin but the reason for the addition of this sign to the Ugaritic alphabet is unclear. In function, is like Ugaritic s, but only in certain words – other s-words are never written with."
The words that show s2 are predominantly borrowings, thus it is thought to be a late addition to the alphabet representing a foreign sound that could be approximated by native /s/. Segert instead theorizes that it may have been syllabic /su/, for this reason grouped with the other syllabic signs /ʔi/ and /ʔu/; the last three letters of the alphabet were developed for transcribing non-Ugaritic languages, were applied to write the Ugaritic language. The three letters denoting glottal stop plus vowel combinations were used as simple vowel letters when writing other languages; the only punctuation is a word divider. At the time the Ugaritic script was in use, Ugarit was at the centre of the literate world, among Egypt, Cyprus and Mesopotamia. Ugaritic combined the system of the Semitic abjad with cuneiform writing methods. However, scholars have searched in vain for graphic prototypes of the Ugaritic letters in Mesopotamian cuneiform; some have suggested that Ugaritic represents some form of the Proto-Sinaitic alphabet, the letter forms distorted as an adaptation to writing on clay with a stylus.
It has been proposed in this regard that the two basic shapes in cuneiform, a linear wedge, as in, a corner wedge, as in, may correspond to lines and circles in the linear Semitic alphabets: the three Semitic letters with circles, preserved in the Greek Θ, O and Latin Q, are all made with corner wedges in Ugaritic: ṭ, ʕ, q. Other letters look similar as well: h resembles its assumed Greek cognate E, while w, p, θ are similar to Greek Y, Π, Σ turned on their sides. Jared Diamond believes the alphabet was consciously designed, citing as evidence the possibility that the letters with the fewest strokes may have been the most frequent. Lists of Ugaritic letters have been found in two alphabetic orders: the "Northern Semitic order" more similar to the one found in Arabic and Phoenician, more distantly, the Greek and Latin alphabets; the letters are given in their Arabic and Hebrew cognates. North Semitic South Semitic * Indicate vocalizations that became phased out/absorbed by other letters Ugaritic script was added to the Unicode Standard in April, 2003 with the release of version 4.0.
The Unicode block for Ugaritic is U+10380–U+1039F: Six letters for transliteration were added to the Latin Extended-D block in March 2019 with the release of Unicode 12.0: U+A7BA Ꞻ LATIN CAPITAL LETTER GLOTTAL A U+A7BB ꞻ LATIN SMALL LETTER GLOTTAL A U+A7BC Ꞽ LATIN CAPITAL LETTER GLOTTAL I U+A7BD ꞽ LATIN SMALL LETTER GLOTTAL I U+A7BE Ꞿ LATIN CAPITAL LETTER GLOTTAL U U+A7BF ꞿ LATIN SMALL LETTER GLOTTAL U Old Persian cuneiform – a much unrelated attempt at a cuneiform semi-alphabet. Download a Ugaritic font Ugaritic cuneiform characters from the Unicode Ugaritic cuneiform script Ugaritic cuneiform Omniglot entry on the subje
An alphabet is a standard set of letters that represent the phonemes of any spoken language it is used to write. This is in contrast to other types such as syllabaries and logographic systems; the first phonemic script, the Proto-Canaanite script known as the Phoenician alphabet, is considered to be the first alphabet, is the ancestor of most modern alphabets, including Arabic, Latin, Cyrillic and Brahmic. Peter T. Daniels, distinguishes an abugida or alphasyllabary, a set of graphemes that represent consonantal base letters which diacritics modify to represent vowels, an abjad, in which letters predominantly or represent consonants, an "alphabet", a set of graphemes that represent both vowels and consonants. In this narrow sense of the word the first "true" alphabet was the Greek alphabet, developed on the basis of the earlier Phoenician alphabet. Of the dozens of alphabets in use today, the most popular is the Latin alphabet, derived from the Greek, which many languages modify by adding letters formed using diacritical marks.
While most alphabets have letters composed of lines, there are exceptions such as the alphabets used in Braille. The Khmer alphabet is the longest, with 74 letters. Alphabets are associated with a standard ordering of letters; this makes them useful for purposes of collation by allowing words to be sorted in alphabetical order. It means that their letters can be used as an alternative method of "numbering" ordered items, in such contexts as numbered lists and number placements; the English word alphabet came into Middle English from the Late Latin word alphabetum, which in turn originated in the Greek ἀλφάβητος. The Greek word was made from the first two letters and beta; the names for the Greek letters came from the first two letters of the Phoenician alphabet. Sometimes, like in the alphabet song in English, the term "ABCs" is used instead of the word "alphabet". "Knowing one's ABCs", in general, can be used as a metaphor for knowing the basics about anything. The history of the alphabet started in ancient Egypt.
Egyptian writing had a set of some 24 hieroglyphs that are called uniliterals, to represent syllables that begin with a single consonant of their language, plus a vowel to be supplied by the native speaker. These glyphs were used as pronunciation guides for logograms, to write grammatical inflections, to transcribe loan words and foreign names. In the Middle Bronze Age, an "alphabetic" system known as the Proto-Sinaitic script appears in Egyptian turquoise mines in the Sinai peninsula dated to circa the 15th century BC left by Canaanite workers. In 1999, John and Deborah Darnell discovered an earlier version of this first alphabet at Wadi el-Hol dated to circa 1800 BC and showing evidence of having been adapted from specific forms of Egyptian hieroglyphs that could be dated to circa 2000 BC suggesting that the first alphabet had been developed about that time. Based on letter appearances and names, it is believed to be based on Egyptian hieroglyphs; this script had no characters representing vowels, although it was a syllabary, but unneeded symbols were discarded.
An alphabetic cuneiform script with 30 signs including three that indicate the following vowel was invented in Ugarit before the 15th century BC. This script was not used after the destruction of Ugarit; the Proto-Sinaitic script developed into the Phoenician alphabet, conventionally called "Proto-Canaanite" before ca. 1050 BC. The oldest text in Phoenician script is an inscription on the sarcophagus of King Ahiram; this script is the parent script of all western alphabets. By the tenth century, two other forms can be distinguished, namely Aramaic; the Aramaic gave rise to the Hebrew script. The South Arabian alphabet, a sister script to the Phoenician alphabet, is the script from which the Ge'ez alphabet is descended. Vowelless alphabets, which are not true alphabets, are called abjads exemplified in scripts including Arabic and Syriac; the omission of vowels was not always a satisfactory solution and some "weak" consonants are sometimes used to indicate the vowel quality of a syllable. These letters have a dual function since they are used as pure consonants.
The Proto-Sinaitic or Proto-Canaanite script and the Ugaritic script were the first scripts with a limited number of signs, in contrast to the other used writing systems at the time, Egyptian hieroglyphs, Linear B. The Phoenician script was the first phonemic script and it contained only about two dozen distinct letters, making it a script simple enough for common traders to learn. Another advantage of Phoenician was that it could be used to write down many different languages, since it recorded words phonemically; the script was spread by the Phoenicians across the Mediterranean. In Greece, the script was modified to add vowels, giving rise to the ancestor of all alphabets in the West; the vowels have independent letter forms separate from those of consonants. The Greeks chose letters representing sounds. Vowels are significant in the Greek language, the syllabical Linear B scri
Old Italic script
Old Italic is one of several now-extinct alphabet systems used on the Italian Peninsula in ancient times for various Indo-European languages and non-Indo-European languages. The alphabets derive from the Euboean Greek Cumaean alphabet, used at Ischia and Cumae in the Bay of Naples in the eighth century BC. Various Indo-European languages belonging to the Italic branch used the alphabet. Faliscan, Umbrian, North Picene, South Picene all derive from an Etruscan form of the alphabet; the Germanic runic alphabet may have been derived from one of these alphabets by the 2nd century AD. The Etruscan alphabet originated as an adaptation of the Western Greek alphabet used by the Euboean Greeks in their first colonies in Italy, the island of Pithekoussai and the city of Cumae in Campania. In the alphabets of the West, X had the sound value, Ψ stood for; the earliest Etruscan abecedarium, the Marsiliana tablet which dates to c. 700 BC, lists 26 letters corresponding to contemporary forms of the Greek alphabet which retained digamma and qoppa but which had not yet developed omega.
Until about 600 BC, the archaic form of the Etruscan alphabet remained unchanged, the direction of writing was free. From the 6th century, the alphabet evolved, adjusting to the phonology of the Etruscan language, letters representing phonemes nonexistent in Etruscan were dropped. By 400 BC, it appears that all of Etruria was using the classical Etruscan alphabet of 20 letters written from left to right: An additional sign, in shape similar to the numeral 8, transcribed as F, was present in both Lydian and Etruscan, its origin is disputed. Its sound value was /f/ and it replaced the Etruscan digraph FH, used to express that sound; some letters were, on the other hand, falling out of use. Etruscan did not have any voiced stops, for which B, C, D were intended; the B and D therefore fell out of use, the C, simpler and easier to write than K, was adopted to write /k/ displacing K itself. Since Etruscan had no /o/ vowel sound, O disappeared and was replaced by U. In the course of its simplification, the redundant letters showed some tendency towards a semi-syllabary: C, K and Q were predominantly used in the contexts CE, KA, QU.
This classical alphabet remained in use until the 2nd century BC when it began to be influenced by the rise of the Latin alphabet. The Romans, who did have voiced stops in their language, revived B and D for /b/ and /d/, used C for both /k/ and /g/, until they invented a separate letter G to distinguish the two sounds. Soon after, the Etruscan language itself became extinct; the Osci adopted the archaic Etruscan alphabet during the 7th century BC, but a recognizably Oscan variant of the alphabet is attested only from the 5th century BC. Ú came to be used to represent Oscan /o/, while U was used for /u/ as well as historical long */oː/, which had undergone a sound shift in Oscan to become ~. The Nucerian alphabet is based on inscriptions found in southern Italy, it is attested only between the 6th and the 5th century BC. The most important sign is the /S/, shaped like a fir tree, a derivation from the Phoenician alphabet; the Alphabet of Lugano, based on inscriptions found in northern Italy and Canton Ticino, was used to record Lepontic inscriptions, among the oldest testimonies of any Celtic language, in use from the 7th to the 5th centuries BC.
The alphabet has 18 letters, derived from the archaic Etruscan alphabet: The alphabet does not distinguish voiced and unvoiced occlusives, i.e. P represents /b/ or /p/, T is for /t/ or /d/, K for /g/ or /k/. Z is for /ts/. U /u/ and V /w/ are distinguished. Θ is for /t/ and X for /g/. There are claims of a related script discovered in Glozel; the alphabet of Sanzeno, about 100 Raetic inscriptions. The alphabet of Magrè, east Raetian inscriptions. Alphabet of Este: Similar but not identical to that of Magrè, Venetic inscriptions. Inscribed abecedarium on rock drawings in Valcamonica. 21 of the 26 archaic Etruscan letters were adopted for Old Latin from the 7th century BC, either directly from the Cumae alphabet, or via archaic Etruscan forms, compared to the classical Etruscan alphabet retaining B, D, K, O, Q, X but dropping Θ, Ś, Φ, Ψ, F. The South Picene alphabet, known from the 6th century BC, is most like the southern Etruscan alphabet in that it uses Q for /k/ and K for /g/, it is: ⟨.⟩ is a reduced ⟨o⟩ and ⟨:⟩ is a reduced ⟨8⟩, used for /f/.
The Old Italic alphabets were unified and added to the Unicode Standard in March, 2001 with the release of version 3.1. The Unicode block for Old Italic is U+10300–U+1032F without specification of a particular alphabet. Writing direction varies based on the language and the time period. For simplicity most scholars use left-to-right and this is the Unicode default direction for the Old Italic block. For this reason, the glyphs in the code chart are shown with left-to-right orientation. Euboean alphabet Negau he
The Gothic alphabet is an alphabet for writing the Gothic language, created in the 4th century by Ulfilas for the purpose of translating the Bible. The alphabet is an uncial form of the Greek alphabet, with a few additional letters to account for Gothic phonology: Latin F and G, a questionably Runic letter to distinguish the /w/ glide from vocalic /u/, the letter ƕair to express the Gothic labiovelar. Ulfilas is thought to have consciously chosen to avoid the use of the older Runic alphabet for this purpose, as it was connected with heathen beliefs and customs; the Greek-based script helped to integrate the Gothic nation into the dominant Greco-Roman culture around the Black Sea. Below is a table of the Gothic alphabet. Two letters used in its transliteration are not used in current English: thorn þ, hwair ƕ; as with the Greek alphabet, Gothic letters were assigned numerical values. When used as numerals, letters were written either with an overline. Two letters, have no phonetic value; the letter names are recorded in a 9th-century manuscript of Alcuin.
Most of them seem to be Gothic forms of names appearing in the rune poems. The names are given in their attested forms followed by the reconstructed Gothic forms and their meanings. Most of the letters have been taken over directly from the Greek alphabet, though a few have been created or modified from Latin and Runic letters to express unique phonological features of Gothic; these are:, appear to be derived from their Latin equivalents rather than from the Greek, although the equivalent Runic letters, assumed to have been part of the Gothic futhark played some role in this choice. However, Snædal notes that "Wulfila's knowledge of runes was questionable to say the least", as the extreme paucity of inscriptions attests that knowledge and use of runes was rare among the East Germanic peoples. No indisputably Gothic Runic inscriptions are known to exist; some variants of are shaped like a sigma and more derive from the Greek Σ. is only used in proper names and loanwords containing Greek Χ. Regarding the letters' numeric values, most correspond to those of the Greek numerals.
Gothic takes the place of Ϝ, takes the place of ξ, that of Ο, that of ψ. Diacritics and punctuation used in the Codex Argenteus include a trema placed on i, transliterated as ï, in general applied to express diaeresis, the interpunct and colon as well as overlines to indicate sigla and numerals; the Gothic alphabet was added to the Unicode Standard in March 2001 with the release of version 3.1. The Unicode block for Gothic is U+10330– U+1034F in the Supplementary Multilingual Plane; as older software that uses UCS-2 assumes that all Unicode codepoints can be expressed as 16 bit numbers, problems may be encountered using the Gothic alphabet Unicode range and others outside of the Basic Multilingual Plane. Ring of Pietroassa Help:Gothic Unicode Fonts Braune, Wilhelm. Gotische Grammatik. Halle: Max Niemeyer. Cercignani, The Elaboration of the Gothic Alphabet and Orthography, in "Indogermanische Forschungen", 93, 1988, pp. 168–185. Dietrich, Franz. Über die Aussprache des Gotischen Wärend der Zeit seines Bestehens.
In written language, a logogram or logograph is a written character that represents a word or phrase. Chinese characters are logograms; the use of logograms in writing is called logography, a writing system, based on logograms is called a logographic system. In alphabets and syllabaries, individual written characters represent sounds only, rather than entire concepts; these characters are called phonograms in linguistics. Unlike logograms, phonograms do not have word or phrase meanings singularly until the phonograms are combined with additional phonograms thus creating words and phrases that have meaning. Writing language in this way, is called phonetic writing as well as orthographical writing. Logographic systems include the earliest writing systems. A purely logographic script would be impractical for most languages, none is known, apart from one devised for the artificial language Toki Pona, a purposely limited language with only 120 morphemes. All logographic scripts used for natural languages rely on the rebus principle to extend a limited set of logograms: A subset of characters is used for their phonetic values, either consonantal or syllabic.
The term logosyllabary is used to emphasize the phonetic nature of these scripts when the phonetic domain is the syllable. In both Ancient Egyptian hieroglyphs and in Chinese, there has been the additional development of fusing such phonetic elements with determinatives. Logographic writing systems include: Logoconsonantal scripts These are scripts in which the graphemes may be extended phonetically according to the consonants of the words they represent, ignoring the vowels. For example, Egyptian was used to write both sȝ'duck' and sȝ'son', though it is that these words were not pronounced the same apart from their consonants; the primary examples of logoconsonantal scripts are:Hieroglyphs and demotic: Ancient Egyptian Logosyllabic scripts These are scripts in which the graphemes represent morphemes polysyllabic morphemes, but when extended phonetically represent single syllables. They include:Anatolian hieroglyphs: Luwian Cuneiform: Sumerian, other Semitic languages, Hittite, Luwian and Urartian Maya glyphs: Chorti and other Classic Maya languages Han characters: Chinese, Japanese, Zhuang Derivatives of Han characters: Chữ nôm: Vietnam Dongba script written with Geba script: Naxi language Jurchen script: Jurchen Khitan large script: Khitan Sawndip: Zhuang languages Shui script: Shui language Tangut script: Tangut language Yi: various Yi languagesNone of these systems is purely logographic.
This can be illustrated with Chinese. Not all Chinese characters represent morphemes: some morphemes are composed of more than one character. For example, the Chinese word for spider, 蜘蛛 zhīzhū, was created by fusing the rebus 知朱 zhīzhū with the "bug" determinative 虫. Neither *蜘 zhī nor *蛛 zhū can be used separately; this is incorrect. In Archaic Chinese, one can find the reverse: a single character representing more than one morpheme. An example is Archaic Chinese 王 hjwangs, a combination of a morpheme hjwang meaning king and a suffix pronounced /s/. In modern Mandarin, bimorphemic syllables are always written with two characters, for example 花儿 huār'flower'. A peculiar system of logograms developed within the Pahlavi scripts used to write Middle Persian during much of the Sassanid period; these logograms, called hozwārishn, were dispensed with altogether after the Arab conquest of Persia and the adoption of a variant of the Arabic alphabet. Logograms are used in modern shorthand to represent common words.
In addition, the numerals and mathematical symbols are logograms – 1'one', 2'two', +'plus', ='equals', so on. In English, the ampersand & is used for'and' and for Latin et, % for'percent', # for'number', § for'section', $ for'dollar', € for'euro', £ for'pound', ° for'degree', @ for'at', so on. All historical logographic systems include a phonetic dimension, as it is impractical to have a separate basic character for every word or morpheme in a language. In some cases, such as cuneiform as it was used for Akkadian, the vast majority of glyphs are used for their sound values rather than logographically. Many logographic systems have a semantic/ideographic component, called "determinatives" in the case of Egyptian and "radicals" in the case of Chinese. Typical Egyptian usage was to augment a logogram, which may represent several words with different pronunciations, with a determinate to narrow down the meaning, a phonetic component to specify the pronunciation. In the case of Chinese, the vast majority of characters are a fixed combination of a radical that indicates its nominal category, plus a phonetic to give an idea of the pronunciation.
The Mayan system used logograms