The Lipka Tatars are a group of Tatars who settled in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania at the beginning of the 14th century. The first settlers tried to preserve their shamanistic religion and sought asylum amongst the non-Christian Lithuanians. Towards the end of the 14th century, another wave of Tatars – this time, were invited into the Grand Duchy by Vytautas the Great; these Tatars first settled in Lithuania proper around Vilnius, Trakai and Kaunas and spread to other parts of the Grand Duchy that became part of Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. These areas comprise present-day Lithuania and Poland. From the beginning of their settlement in Lithuania they were known as the Lipka Tatars. While maintaining their religion, they united their fate with that of the Christian Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. From the Battle of Grunwald onwards the Lipka Tatar light cavalry regiments participated in every significant military campaign of Lithuania and Poland; the Lipka Tatar origins can be traced back to the descendant states of the Mongol Empire of Genghis Khan – the White Horde, the Golden Horde, the Crimean Khanate and Kazan Khanate.
They served as a noble military caste but they became urban-dwellers known for their crafts and gardening skills. Throughout centuries they kept their traditional lifestyle. While they remained attached to their religion, over time however, they lost their original Tatar language, from the Kipchak languages group of the Turkic languages, for the most part adopted Belarusian and Polish. There are still small groups of Lipka Tatars living in today's Belarus and Poland, as well as their communities in United States; the name Lipka is derived from the old Crimean Tatar name of Lithuania. The record of the name Lipka in Oriental sources permits us to infer an original Libķa/Lipķa, from which the Polish derivative Lipka was formed, with possible contamination from contact with the Polish lipka "small lime-tree". A less frequent Polish form, Łubka, is corroborated in Łubka/Łupka, the Crimean Tatar name of the Lipkas up to the end of the 19th century; the Crimean Tatar term Lipka Tatarłar meaning Lithuanian Tatars started to be used by the Polish–Lithuanian Tatars to describe themselves.
In religion and culture the Lipka Tatars differed nominally from most other Islamic communities in respect of the treatment of their women, who always enjoyed a large degree of freedom during the years when the Lipkas were in the service of the Ottoman Empire. Co-education of male and female children was the norm, Lipka women did not wear the veil – except at the marriage ceremony. While traditionally Islamic, the customs and religious practices of the Lipka Tatars accommodated many Christian elements adopted during their 600 years residence in Belarus, Poland and Lithuania while still maintaining the traditions and superstitions from their nomadic Mongol past. Over time, the lower and middle Lipka Tatar nobles adopted the Ruthenian language later the Belarusian language as their native language. However, they used the Arabic alphabet to write in Belarusian until the 1930s; the upper nobility of Lipka Tatars spoke Polish. Diplomatic correspondence between the Crimean Khanate and Poland from the early 16th century refers to the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth as the "land of the Poles and the Lipkas".
By the 17th century the term Lipka Tatar began to appear in the official documents of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. The migration of Tatars into the lands of Lithuania and Poland from Golden Horde began during the 14th century and lasted until the end of the 17th. There was a subsequent wave of Tatar immigrants from Russia after the Bolshevik Revolution in 1917, although these consisted of political and national activists. According to some estimates, by 1590–1591 there were about 200,000 Lipka Tatars living in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and about 400 mosques serving them. According to the Risāle-yi Tatar-i Leh there were 100 Lipka Tatar settlements with mosques in Poland; the largest communities existed in the cities of Lida and Iwye. There was a Lipka Tatar settlement in Minsk, today's capital of Belarus, known as Tatarskaya Slabada. In the year 1672, the Tatar subjects rose up in open rebellion against the Commonwealth; this was the remembered Lipka Rebellion. Thanks to the efforts of King Jan III Sobieski, held in great esteem by the Tatar soldiers, many of the Lipkas seeking asylum and service in the Turkish army returned to his command and participated in the struggles with the Ottoman Empire up to the Treaty of Karlowitz in 1699, including the Battle of Vienna, to turn the tide of Islamic expansion into Europe and mark the beginning of the end for the Ottoman Empire.
Beginning in the late 18th and throughout the 19th century the Lipkas became successively more and more Polonized. The upper and middle classes in particular adopted Polish language and customs, while the lower ranks became Ruthenized. At the same time, the Tatars held the Lithuanian Grand Duke Vytautas, who encouraged and supported their settlement during the 15th century, in great esteem, including him in many legends and their folklore. Throughout the 20th and since the 21st centuries, most Tatars no long
Baron Count Sándor Károlyi de Nagykároly was a Hungarian aristocrat and Imperial Feldmarschall. He was one of the generals of Francis II Rákóczi during the War of Independence, he negotiated the Treaty of Szatmár, which guaranteed autonomy to the Hungarian nobles. He was born in Nagykároly, Kingdom of Hungary on 20 March 1668, as a son of László Károlyi and his second wife, Erzsébet Sennyey; the Károly family is one of the oldest and most famous noble families of Hungary. The Károly castle with market towns and parishes is located in Upper Hungary beyond the Tisza, in Szatmár County. After the Battle of Vienna, the subsequent ejection of the Ottoman armies from Principality of Transylvania in the Second Battle of Mohács in 1687, the disintegration of the Ottoman army while it crossed the Tisza river at the Battle of Zenta, allowed Imperial Habsburg armies to conquer large areas, including most of present-day Slavonia and Transylvania came under Imperial rule. On 9 December 1687 there was organized a Diet of Pressburg and Archduke Joseph was crowned as the first hereditary king of Hungary.
In 1691 Louis, Margrave of Baden-Baden called Türkenlouis, was returning from his Transylvanian victories and Károlyi rode to meet him, to pay his respects. Together they inspected a fortress at Szatmár in which the Margrave found fault with the fortifications, its commander, General Loeffelholz, claimed that the fortifications were in disrepair because Karolyi had not furnished the requisite quota of labor. Károlyi told the Margrave, his speech was interpreted as signs of disrespect and rebelliousness, traits the Habsburg notables deplored in Hungarian nobles. Károlyi traveled to Vienna to negotiate with Imperial ministers over what he and other nobles deemed excessive taxation and extraction of war contributions. Imperial commanders threatened her with county-wide devastation unless she provided war contributions. Károlyi's wife and daughter were evicted from their home. On his return trip to his home, town after town controlled by Imperial War office refused him lodging. After a series of attempts to recover his property, locate his family, complete negotiations for fairer extractions, he was pushed into rebellion with several other Hungarian nobles, notably Sigismund Rákóczi and Gabriel Báthory.
The Habsburg forces engaged in the lengthy War of Spanish Succession, did not have the additional military power to engage the nobles, but the Hungarian leadership had neither the financial resources nor the military ones, to defeat the Habsburg forces in Hungary. Throughout 1703 -- 1706, the former Habsburg general wrought havoc in Bohemia; the ongoing insurrection, in which Sándor Károlyi played a significant part, led to the deposition of the Habsburg king in Hungary in 1707. However, after victories at Blenheim and Turin, the Habsburgs were able to devote more resources against recalcitrant Hungarians; the uprising took a dramatic turn at the Battle of Trencsén, on 4 August 1708. Rákóczi was knocked off his horse. Rákóczi fled to Poland. On 30 April 1711, with the Treaty of Szatmár, a group of Hungarian nobles led by Károlyi deserted its leader Rákóczi and recognized Habsburg rule. In turn, the Habsburgs recognized privileges of Hungary. Although the Hungarian claim over Transylvania was not confirmed, at least not positively, Vienna recognized the rights of Protestants, Hungarian autonomy, the Hungarian Diet was considered sacrosanct.
The compromise was confirmed in the Pragmatic Sanction, although the rights of Protestants continued to be a contested issue well through the remainder of the century. In 1719, he suppressed anti-Habsburg riots in the lands beyond the Tisz river. In 1741, the Hungarian nobility instigated unrest in the same region, the Empress Maria Theresia appointed him as Field Marshal, he quelled the unrest there. The Károlyi family dates from the thirteenth century, belonged to the clan Kaplon, with roots in the old families of Becsky, Komahidy and Kaplyon. Mihály and Erzsébet Perényi had several surviving children: Péter and Bertalan, who died young, Mihály and Zsuzsanna). Zsuzsanna married Baron Pál Esterházy. Mihály's son, László married first Judit Csapy, second Erzsébet Sennyey. Sándor Károlyi was one of twenty siblings, he and his wife, Countess Krisztina Barkóczy de Szala, had three children, a general of cavalry, Klára, László, who died in 1702. His son Ferenc or Franz commanded the Károlyi Hussar regiment on the Rhine in 1741.
Additional descendants through Franz include: Antal Károlyi Also called Feren Antal. Served in the Seven Years' War und Marshal Daun József Károlyi. General of Hussars. Led an insurrection of Hungarian nobles in 1797. Lajos Károlyi jurist. László Károlyi KuK Marine officer Alajos Károlyi, diplomatGyörgy Károlyi economist and politicianGyula Hungarian politician Viktor (19 Februarr 1839–1
Burgenland Croats is the name for ethnic Croats in the Austrian state of Burgenland, along with Croats in neighboring Hungary and Slovakia. There are around 320,000 Croats. 87,000 to 130,000 of them are Burgenland Croats. Another 56,785 have Croatian citizenship. Since 1993, Croatian organizations are appointing their representatives to the Council for National Minorities of the Austrian government. Burgenland Croats began to emigrate from Lika, Kordun, Banovina and Western Bosnia; these areas were occupied by the Turks in the 16th century during the Turkish wars. The refugee Croats were given land and independent ecclesiastical rights by the Austrian King Ferdinand I, because many of their villages had been pillaged by the Turks; this gave the Croats a safe place to live while providing Austria with a buffer zone between Vienna and the Ottoman Empire to the south and east. The first wave of emigration came in the 1530s, after the Turks destroyed all the settlements between the river Una and the mountain Velebit, along with the land between the river Kupa and the mountain range Kapela.
In the second wave of emigration in the 1540s, many Croats left Slavonia. The third and last wave of emigration, came in the 1760s. Burgenland Croats emigrated not only because of the fear of Turkish attacks, but because they were searching for jobs and better life opportunities; the emigration went to the north, but across the Adriatic Sea to Italy, where Molise Croats can be found today. The Burgenland Croats developed their own orthography during the counter-reformation, assimilation soon followed with the language being banned from use in churches and schools. After falling under Hungarian rule in the Dual Monarchy, liberal laws regarding ethnicity enabled them to rekindle their language and heritage. However, when a 1900 census revealed that only 18.8% of the population of Burgenland spoke Hungarian, severe policies of Magyarization were implemented, revoking many individual and community rights. The Burgenland Croats were persecuted by Austro-German nationalists after World War I, by the Nazis during World War II.
During this time, they tried to assimilate the Burgenland Croats. The Croats gained minority status in the Austrian Treaty of Independence of 1955. Since they and their culture have undergone something of a renaissance, with the language being taught at schools and spoken in Church, wherever there is a large enough minority. Despite many languages that surround them Burgenland Croats, preserved their Croatian language and its dialects from all the Croatian regions that they originated from; the Burgenland Croatian language, as well as the general Croatian standard language, combines the Chakavian and Kajkavian dialect. But unlike the Croatian standard language, based on the most widespread Shtokavian dialect, the Burgenland variant of the Croatian language is based on the Chakavian dialect. Burgenland Croatian includes phrases no longer used in standard Croatian, as well as certain phrases and words taken from German and Hungarian. Names are written according to Hungarian orthography, due to the Magyarisation policies during the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
All Burgenland Croats are fluent in German. After the dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian monarchy in 1918, the area in which the Burgenland Croats lived was divided between Austria and Hungary. After 1921, most of these areas became part of Austria, which established a new province of Burgenland, which gave the Burgenland identifier to these Croats. In 1922, Austria founded the Apostolic administration of Burgenland, began to abolish bilingual schools, by introducing the German language to all primary schools; this process was temporarily stopped after The National Education Act, that allowed the work of the Croatian elementary schools, was adopted. After Hitler annexed Austria in 1938, this law was abolished. In 1955, the Austrian State Treaty was signed, it gave permission to the Burgenland Croats to use the Croatian language in education and public administration. With the adoption of the Law on National Minorities in 1976, use of the Croatian language in public life become limited. After a constitutional complaint was heeded in 1987, parts of the law were changed and the Croatian language was introduced as an official in 6 out of 7 districts of Burgenland.
Newspapers of the Burgenland Croats are: Crikveni glasnik, 1946. The beginnings of literacy are linked to: Klimpuški misal, S. Consul Histrianus and Anton Dalmatin's Postila, Duševne pesne, Grgur Mekinić Pythiraeus's Druge knjige duševnih pesan. By the mid-19th century, Burgenland Croatian literature had a predominantly religious character and was intended for peasants; the main writers were nuns. In the second half of the 19th century, teachers begin to write, thanks to that many school textbooks and calendars were written. Most popular Burgeland Croat writer are: J. Mulih, Godefrid Palković, L. Bogović, E. M. Kragel, M. Laáb, J. Ficko, M. Drobilić, T. Jordan, G. Glavanić, M. Naković, I. Mušković, M. Borenić, Ivan Čuković, P. Jandrišević, I. Blažević, Mate Meršić Miloradić, I
Prince Eugene of Savoy
Prince Eugene of Savoy was a general of the Imperial Army and statesman of the Holy Roman Empire and the Archduchy of Austria and one of the most successful military commanders in modern European history, rising to the highest offices of state at the Imperial court in Vienna. Born in Paris, Eugene grew up around the court of King Louis XIV of France. Based on his poor physique and bearing, the Prince was prepared for a clerical career, but by the age of 19 he had determined on a military career. Following a scandal involving his mother Olympe, he was rejected by Louis XIV for service in the French army. Eugene transferred his loyalty to the Habsburg Monarchy. Spanning six decades, Eugene served three Holy Roman Emperors: Leopold I, Joseph I, Charles VI, he first saw action against the Ottoman Turks at the Siege of Vienna in 1683 and the subsequent War of the Holy League, before serving in the Nine Years' War, fighting alongside his cousin, the Duke of Savoy. However, the Prince's fame was secured with his decisive victory against the Ottomans at the Battle of Zenta in 1697, earning him Europe-wide fame.
Eugene enhanced his standing during the War of the Spanish Succession, where his partnership with the Duke of Marlborough secured victories against the French on the fields of Blenheim and Malplaquet. Renewed hostilities against the Ottomans in the Austro-Turkish War consolidated his reputation, with victories at the battles of Petrovaradin, the decisive encounter at Belgrade. Throughout the late 1720s, Eugene's influence and skillful diplomacy managed to secure the Emperor powerful allies in his dynastic struggles with the Bourbon powers, but physically and mentally fragile in his years, Eugene enjoyed less success as commander-in-chief of the army during his final conflict, the War of the Polish Succession. In Austria, Eugene's reputation remains unrivalled. Although opinions differ as to his character, there is no dispute over his great achievements: he helped to save the Habsburg Empire from French conquest. Eugene died in his sleep at his home on 21 April 1736, aged 72. Prince Eugene was born in the Hôtel de Soissons in Paris on 18 October 1663.
His mother, Olympia Mancini, was one of Cardinal Mazarin's nieces whom he had brought to Paris from Rome in 1647 to further his, and, to a lesser extent, their ambitions. The Mancinis were raised at the Palais-Royal along with the young Louis XIV, with whom Olympia formed an intimate relationship, yet to her great disappointment, her chance to become queen passed by, in 1657, Olympia married Eugene Maurice, Count of Soissons, Count of Dreux and Prince of Savoy. Together they had had five sons and three daughters, but neither parent spent much time with the children: his father, a brave, unglamorous French soldier, spent much of his time away campaigning, while Olympia's passion for court intrigue meant the children received little attention from her; the King remained attached to Olympia, so much so that many believed them to be lovers. After falling out of favour at court, Olympia turned to Catherine Deshayes, the arts of black magic and astrology, it was a fatal relationship. Embroiled in the affaire des poisons, suspicions now abounded of her involvement in her husband's premature death in 1673, implicated her in a plot to kill the King himself.
Whatever the truth, rather than face trial, subsequently fled France for Brussels in January 1680, leaving Eugene in the care of his father's mother, Marie de Bourbon, her daughter, Hereditary Princess of Baden, mother of Prince Louis of Baden. From the age of ten, Eugene had been brought up for a career in the church. Eugene's appearance was not impressive — "He was never good-looking …" wrote the Duchess of Orléans, "It is true that his eyes are not ugly, but his nose ruins his face. Now 19 years old, Eugene applied directly to Louis XIV for command of a company in French service, but the King—who had shown no compassion for Olympia's children since her disgrace—refused him out of hand. "The request was modest, not so the petitioner," he remarked. "No one else presumed to stare me out so insolently." Whatever the case, Louis XIV's choice would cost him dearly twenty years for it would be Eugene, in collaboration with the Duke of Marlborough, who would defeat the French army at Blenheim, a decisive battle which checked French military supremacy and political power.
Denied a military career in France, Eugene decided to seek service abroad. One of Eugene's brothers, Louis Julius, had entered Imperial service the previous year, but he had been killed fighting the Ottoman Turks in 1683; when news of his death reached Paris, Eugene decided to travel to Austria in the hope of taking over his brother's command. It was not an unnatural decision: his cousin, Louis of Baden, was a leading general in the Imperial army, as was a more distant cousin, Maximilian II Emanuel, Elector of Bavaria. On the night of July 26, 1683, Eugene left
The Poles referred to as the Polish people, are a nation and West Slavic ethnic group native to Poland in Central Europe who share a common ancestry, culture and are native speakers of the Polish language. The population of self-declared Poles in Poland is estimated at 37,394,000 out of an overall population of 38,538,000, of whom 36,522,000 declared Polish alone. A wide-ranging Polish diaspora exists throughout Europe, the Americas, in Australasia. Today the largest urban concentrations of Poles are within the Warsaw and Silesian metropolitan areas. Poland's history dates back over a thousand years, to c. 930–960 AD, when the Polans – an influential West Slavic tribe in the Greater Poland region, now home to such cities as Poznań, Kalisz and Września – united various Lechitic tribes under what became the Piast dynasty, thus creating the Polish state. The subsequent Christianization of Poland, in 966 CE, marked Poland's advent to the community of Western Christendom. Poles have made important contributions to the world in every major field of human endeavor.
Notable Polish émigrés – many of them forced from their homeland by historic vicissitudes – have included physicists Marie Skłodowska Curie and Joseph Rotblat, mathematician Stanisław Ulam, pianists Fryderyk Chopin and Arthur Rubinstein, actresses Helena Modjeska and Pola Negri, novelist Joseph Conrad, military leaders Tadeusz Kościuszko and Casimir Pulaski, U. S. National Security Advisor Zbigniew Brzezinski, politician Rosa Luxemburg, filmmakers Samuel Goldwyn and the Warner Brothers, cartoonist Max Fleischer, cosmeticians Helena Rubinstein and Max Factor. Slavs have been in the territory of modern Poland for over 1500 years, they organized into tribal units, of which the larger ones were known as the Polish tribes. In the 9th and 10th centuries the tribes gave rise to developed regions along the upper Vistula, the Baltic Sea coast and in Greater Poland; the last tribal undertaking resulted in the 10th century in a lasting political structure and state, one of the West Slavic nations. The concept which has become known as the Piast Idea, the chief proponent of, Jan Ludwik Popławski, is based on the statement that the Piast homeland was inhabited by so-called "native" aboriginal Slavs and Slavonic Poles since time immemorial and only was "infiltrated" by "alien" Celts, Baltic peoples and others.
After 1945 the so-called "autochthonous" or "aboriginal" school of Polish prehistory received official backing in Poland and a considerable degree of popular support. According to this view, the Lusatian Culture which archaeologists have identified between the Oder and the Vistula in the early Iron Age, is said to be Slavonic. In contrast, the critics of this theory, such as Marija Gimbutas, regard it as an unproved hypothesis and for them the date and origin of the westward migration of the Slavs is uncharted. Polish people are the sixth largest national group in the European Union. Estimates vary depending on source, though available data suggest a total number of around 60 million people worldwide. There are 38 million Poles in Poland alone. There are Polish minorities in the surrounding countries including, indigenous minorities in the Czech Republic, Slovakia and eastern Lithuania, western Ukraine, western Belarus. There are some smaller indigenous minorities in nearby countries such as Moldova.
There is a Polish minority in Russia which includes indigenous Poles as well as those forcibly deported during and after World War II. The term "Polonia" is used in Poland to refer to people of Polish origin who live outside Polish borders estimated at around 10 to 20 million. There is a notable Polish diaspora in the United States and Canada. France has a historic relationship with Poland and has a large Polish-descendant population. Poles have lived in France since the 18th century. In the early 20th century, over a million Polish people settled in France during world wars, among them Polish émigrés fleeing either Nazi occupation or Soviet rule. In the United States, a significant number of Polish immigrants settled in Chicago, Detroit, New Jersey, New York City, Pittsburgh and New England; the highest concentration of Polish Americans in a single New England municipality is in New Britain, Connecticut. The majority of Polish Canadians have arrived in Canada since World War II; the number of Polish immigrants increased between 1945 and 1970, again after the end of Communism in Poland in 1989.
In Brazil the majority of Polish immigrants settled in Paraná State. Smaller, but significant numbers settled in the states of Rio Grande do Sul, Espírito Santo and São Paulo; the city of Curitiba has the second largest Polish diaspora in the world and Polish music and culture are quite common in the region. A recent large migration of Poles took place followi
Kingdom of Croatia (Habsburg)
The Kingdom of Croatia was part of the Habsburg Monarchy that existed between 1527 and 1868, as well as a part of the Lands of the Hungarian Crown, but was subject to direct Imperial Austrian rule for significant periods of time, including its final years. Its capital was Zagreb; until the 18th century, the Habsburg Kingdom of Croatia included only a small north-western part of present-day Croatia around Zagreb, a small strip of coastland around Rijeka, not part of the Ottoman Empire or part of the Habsburg Military Frontier. Between 1744 and 1868 the Kingdom of Croatia included a subordinate autonomous kingdom, the Kingdom of Slavonia; the territory of the Slavonian kingdom was recovered from the Ottoman Empire, was subsequently part of the Habsburg Military Frontier for a period. In 1744 these territories were organized as the Kingdom of Slavonia and included within the Kingdom of Croatia as an autonomous part. In 1868 both were merged again into the newly formed Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia.
Following the Battle of Mohács, in 1527 the Croatian and Hungarian nobles needed to decide on a new king. The bulk of the Croatian nobility convened the Croatian Parliament in Cetin and chose to join the Habsburg monarchy under the Austrian king Ferdinand I von Habsburg; some nobles dissented and supported John Zápolya, but the Habsburg option still prevailed in 1540, when John Zápolya died. Territory recovered by the Austrians from the Ottoman Empire was formed in 1745 as the Kingdom of Slavonia, subordinate to the Croatian Kingdom. In 1804 the Habsburg Monarchy became the Austrian Empire which annexed the Venetian Republic in 1814 and established the Kingdom of Dalmatia. After the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 and the Croatian-Hungarian Settlement of 1868, the Kingdom of Croatia and Kingdom of Slavonia were joined to create the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia within the Lands of the Crown of St. Stephen in the Hungarian part of the Empire, while the Kingdom of Dalmatia became a crown land in the Austrian part of the Empire.
The new Kingdom claimed the Kingdom of Dalmatia, as the remaining Croatian land in the Empire, referred to itself as the "Triune Kingdom of Croatia and Dalmatia". The change of leadership was far from a solution to the war with the Ottomans, in fact, the Ottoman Empire expanded in the 16th century to include most of Slavonia, western Bosnia and Lika. Croatian territory under Habsburg rule was 25 years reduced to about 20,000 km². In 1558, the parliaments of Croatia and Slavonia were united after many centuries into one; the centre of the Croatian state moved northward from coastal Dalmatia, as these lands were conquered by the Ottomans. The town of Zagreb gained importance. Taking advantage of the growing conflict between King Sigismund II of Poland and Emperor Maximilian II, Suleiman the Magnificent started his sixth raid of Hungary in 1565 with 100,000 troops, they progressed northwards until 1566 when they took a small detour to capture the outpost of Siget which they failed to capture ten years previously.
The small fort was defended by 2,300 -- 3,000 men. They were able to hold their ground for a month, decimated the Ottoman army before being wiped out themselves; this siege, now known as the Battle of Szigetvár, bought enough time to allow Austrian troops to regroup before the Ottomans could reach Vienna. By orders of the king in 1553 and 1578, large areas of Croatia and Slavonia adjacent to the Ottoman Empire were carved out into the Military Frontier and ruled directly from Vienna's military headquarters. Due to the dangerous proximity to the Ottoman armies, the area became rather deserted, so Austria encouraged the settlement of Serbs, Hungarians, Czechs and Rusyns/Ukrainians and other Slavs in the Military Frontier, creating an ethnic patchwork; the negative effects of feudalism escalated in 1573 when the peasants in northern Croatia and Slovenia rebelled against their feudal lords over various injustices such as unreasonable taxation or abuse of women in the Croatian and Slovenian peasant revolt.
Ambroz Matija Gubec and other leaders of the mutiny raised peasants to arms in over sixty fiefs throughout the country in January 1573, but their uprising was crushed by early February. Matija Gubec and thousands of others were publicly executed shortly thereafter, in a rather brutal manner in order to set an example for others. After the Bihać fort fell to the army of the Bosnian vizier Hasan Pasha Predojević in 1592, only small parts of Croatia remained unconquered; the remaining 16,800 km² where around 400,000 inhabitants lived were referred to as the "remnants of remnants of the once great and renowned Kingdom of Croatia". By the 18th century, the Ottoman Empire was driven out of Ottoman Hungary and Croatia, Austria brought the empire under central control; the Austrian imperial army was victorious against the Turks in 1664 but Emperor Leopold failed to capitalize on the success when he signed the Peace of Vasvár in which Hungary and Croatia were prevented from regaining territory lost to the Ottoman Empire.
This caused unrest among the Hungarian and Croatian nobility which plotted against the emperor in what became known as the Zrinski–Frankopan Conspiracy in Croatia, but they weren't powerful enough to do something about it though they negotiated with both the French and the Ottomans. Imperial spies uncovered the conspiracy and on Apr
War of the Spanish Succession
The War of the Spanish Succession was a European conflict of the early 18th century, triggered by the death of the childless Charles II of Spain in November 1700. His closest heirs were members of the Austrian Habsburg and French Bourbon families. Charles left an undivided Monarchy of Spain to Louis XIV's grandson Philip, proclaimed King of Spain on 16 November 1700. Disputes over separation of the Spanish and French crowns and commercial rights led to war in 1701 between the Bourbons of France and Spain and the Grand Alliance, whose candidate was Archduke Charles, younger son of Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor. By the end of 1706, Allied victories in Italy and the Low Countries forced the French back within their borders but they were unable to make a decisive breakthrough. Control of the sea allowed the Allies to conduct successful offensives in Spain, but lack of popular support for Archduke Charles meant they could not hold territory outside the coastal areas. Conflict extended to European colonies in North America, where it is known as Queen Anne's War, the West Indies as well as minor struggles in Colonial India.
Related conflicts include Rákóczi's War of Independence in Hungary, funded by France and the 1704–1710 Camisard rebellion in South-East France, funded by Britain. When his elder brother Joseph died in 1711, Charles succeeded him as Emperor, undermining the primary driver behind the war, to prevent Spain being united with either France or Austria; the 1710 British election returned a new government committed to ending it and with the Allied war effort now dependent on British financing, this forced the others to make peace. The war ended with the 1713 Treaty of Utrecht, followed in 1714 by the treaties of Rastatt and Baden. In return for confirmation as King of Spain, Philip V renounced his place in the line of succession to the French throne, both for himself and his descendants; the Dutch Republic was granted its Barrier Fortresses, while France acknowledged the Protestant succession in Britain and agreed to end support for the Stuart exiles. In the longer term, the commercial provisions of Utrecht confirmed Britain's status as the leading European maritime and commercial power, while the Dutch lost their position as the pre-eminent economic power in Asia and the war marked their decline as a first-rank power.
Other long-term impacts include the creation of a centralised Spanish state and the acceleration of the break-up of the Holy Roman Empire into larger and more powerful German principalities. In 1665 Charles II became the last male Habsburg King of Spain. In 1670, England agreed to support the rights of Louis XIV to the Spanish throne in the Treaty of Dover, while the terms of the 1688 Grand Alliance committed England and the Dutch Republic to back Leopold. In 1700, the Spanish Empire included possessions in Italy, the Spanish Netherlands, the Philippines and the Americas and though no longer the dominant great power, it remained intact. Since acquisition of the Empire by either the Austrian Habsburgs or French Bourbons would change the balance of power in Europe, its inheritance led to a war that involved most of the European powers; the 1700-1721 Great Northern War is considered a connected conflict, since it impacted the involvement of states such as Sweden, Denmark–Norway and Russia. During the 1688–1697 Nine Years War, armies had increased in size from an average of 25,000 in 1648 to over 100,000 by 1697, a level unsustainable for pre-industrial economies.
The 1690s marked the lowest point of the Little Ice Age, a period of colder and wetter weather that drastically reduced crop yields. The Great Famine of 1695-1697 killed between 15-25% of the population in present-day Scotland, Finland, Latvia and Sweden, with an estimated two million deaths in France and Northern Italy; the 1697 Treaty of Ryswick was therefore the result of mutual exhaustion and Louis XIV's acceptance that France could not achieve its objectives without allies. Leopold refused to sign and did so with extreme reluctance in October 1697. Unlike France or Austria, the Crown of Spain could be inherited through the female line; this allowed Charles' sisters Maria Theresa and Margaret Theresa to pass their rights as rulers onto the children of their respective marriages with Louis XIV and Emperor Leopold. Despite being opponents in the recent Nine Years War, Louis XIV and William III of England now attempted to resolve the Succession by diplomacy. In 1685, Maria Antonia, daughter of Leopold and Margaret, married Maximillian Emanuel of Bavaria and they had a son, Joseph Ferdinand.
The 1698 Treaty of the Hague or First Partition Treaty between France and the Dutch Republic made the six year old heir to the bulk of the Spanish Monarchy and divided its European territories between France and Austria. The Spanish refused to accept the division of their Empire and on 14 November 1698, Charles published his Will, making Joseph Ferdinand heir to an independent and undivided Spanish monarchy; when he died of smallpox in February 1699, a new solution was required. This was of doubtful legality but France and the Nethe