Éditions Albin Michel
Éditions Albin Michel is a French publisher. It was founded in 1900 by Albin Michel. Ramona Badescu Irène Némirovsky Amélie Nothomb Philip K. Dick Maxence Van Der Meersch Jean-Pierre Willem Bernard Werber, Exit Books in France Official Website
Margaret Munnerlyn Mitchell was an American novelist and journalist. Mitchell wrote only one novel, published during her lifetime, the American Civil War-era novel Gone with the Wind, for which she won the National Book Award for Most Distinguished Novel of 1936 and the Pulitzer Prize for Fiction in 1937. In more recent years, a collection of Mitchell's girlhood writings and a novella she wrote as a teenager, Lost Laysen, have been published. A collection of articles written by Mitchell for The Atlanta Journal was republished in book form. Margaret Mitchell was native of Atlanta, Georgia, she was born in 1900 into a politically prominent family. Her father, Eugene Muse Mitchell, was an attorney, her mother, Mary Isabel "May Belle" Stephens, was a suffragist, she had two brothers, Russell Stephens Mitchell, who died in infancy in 1894, Alexander Stephens Mitchell, born in 1896. Mitchell's family on her father's side were descendants of Thomas Mitchell of Aberdeenshire, who settled in Wilkes County, Georgia in 1777, served in the American Revolutionary War.
Her grandfather, Russell Crawford Mitchell, of Atlanta, enlisted in the Confederate States Army on June 24, 1861, served in Hood's Texas Brigade. He was wounded at the Battle of Sharpsburg, demoted for "inefficiency," and detailed as a nurse in Atlanta. After the Civil War, he made a large fortune supplying lumber for the rapid rebuilding of Atlanta. Russell Mitchell had thirteen children from two wives. Mitchell's maternal great-grandfather, Philip Fitzgerald, emigrated from Ireland and settled on a slaveholding plantation near Jonesboro, where he had one son and seven daughters with his wife, Elenor. Mitchell's grandparents, married in 1863, were John Stephens. John Stephens was a prosperous real estate developer after the Civil War and one of the founders of the Gate City Street Railroad, a mule-drawn Atlanta trolley system. John and Annie Stephens had twelve children together. May Belle Stephens had studied at the Bellevue Convent in Quebec and completed her education at the Atlanta Female Institute.
The Atlanta Constitution reported that May Belle Stephens and Eugene Mitchell were married at the Jackson Street mansion of the bride's parents on November 8, 1892:...the maid of honor, Miss Annie Stephens, was as pretty as a French pastel, in a directoire costume of yellow satin with a long coat of green velvet sleeves, a vest of gold brocade... The bride was a fair vision of youthful loveliness in her robe of exquisite ivory white and satin...her slippers were white satin wrought with pearls...an elegant supper was served. The dining room was decked in white and green, illuminated with numberless candles in silver candlelabras... The bride's gift from her father was an elegant house and lot... At 11 o'clock Mrs. Mitchell donned a pretty going-away gown of green English cloth with its jaunty velvet hat to match and bid goodbye to her friends. Margaret Mitchell spent her early childhood on Jackson Hill, east of downtown Atlanta, her family lived near her maternal grandmother, Annie Stephens, in a Victorian house painted bright red with yellow trim.
Mrs. Stephens had been a widow for several years prior to Margaret's birth. After his death, she inherited property on Jackson Street. Grandmother Annie Stephens was both vulgar and a tyrant. After gaining control of her father Philip Fitzgerald's money after he died, she splurged on her younger daughters, including Margaret's mother, sent them to finishing school in the north. There they learned that Irish Americans were not treated as equal to other immigrants, that it was shameful to be a daughter of an Irishman. Margaret's relationship with her grandmother would become quarrelsome in years as she entered adulthood. However, for Margaret, her grandmother was a great source of "eye-witness information" about the Civil War and Reconstruction in Atlanta prior to her death in 1934. In an accident, traumatic for her mother although she was unharmed, when little Margaret was about three years old, her dress caught fire on an iron grate. Fearing it would happen again, her mother began dressing her in boys' pants, she was nicknamed "Jimmy", the name of a character in the comic strip, Little Jimmy.
Her brother insisted. Having no sisters to play with, Margaret said. Stephens Mitchell said his sister was a tomboy who would play with dolls and she liked to ride her Texas plains pony; as a little girl, Margaret went riding every afternoon with a Confederate veteran and a young lady of "beau-age". Margaret was raised in an era when children were "seen and not heard", she was not allowed to express her personality by running and screaming on Sunday afternoons while her family was visiting relatives. Margaret learned the gritty details of specific battles from these visits with aging Confederate soldiers, but she didn't learn that the South had lost the war until she was 10 years of age: "I heard everything in the world except that the Confederates lost the war. When I was ten years old, it was a violent shock to learn. I didn't believe it when I first heard I was indignant. I still find it hard to believe, so strong are childhood impressions." Her mother would swat her with a hairbru
Régine Deforges was a French author, editor and playwright. Born in Montmorillon, Deforges is sometimes called the High Priestess of French erotic literature. Deforges was the first woman to operate a publishing house in France. Over the years, she has been censored and fined for publishing "offensive" literature. One of her novels, La Bicyclette bleue, published in 1981, was France's biggest bestseller. In 2000, it was made into a television series. A story of love and survival set during the turmoil of World War II, it developed into a successful series of seven books. La Bicyclette bleue would go on to cause a major international intellectual property court case. In the initial ruling, Deforges was found guilty of plagiarizing Margaret Mitchell's famous novel Gone with the Wind, she won her case on appeal, the ruling ordering her to pay damages was reversed. She was president of the Société des Gens de Lettres de France and a member of the Prix Femina jury, she lived in Paris. O m'a dit, conversations with the author of Story of O Blanche et Lucie, short story about her two grandmothers Le Cahier volé, short story inspired by a childhood spent at the École Saint-Martial de Montmorillon Les Contes pervers, her first erotic work adapted for cinema La Révolte des nonnes, adapted for television as L'Enfant des Loups in 1991 Les Enfants de Blanche, a sequel to Blanche et Lucie Sur les bords de la Gartempe, comprising Blanche et Lucie, Les Enfants de Blanche and Le Cahier volé Lola et quelques autres, short story collection L'Orage, Pour l'amour de Marie Salat Sous le ciel de Novgorod Troubles de femmes, short story Journal d'un éditeur Rencontres ferroviaires La petite fille au manteau rose, short story in Chemin faisant, a collection of stories set on public transport La Hire, ou la colère de Jeanne, historical novel about Joan of Arc Le collier de perles ISBN 2-226-15510-4 / 2006: Le Livre de Poche ISBN 2-253-11767-6 / 2004 1981: La Bicyclette bleue / 1987: Le Livre de Poche 1983: 101, avenue Henri Martin / 1987: Le Livre de Poche 1985: Le Diable en rit encore / 1988: Le Livre de Poche 1991: Noir tango / 1993: Le Livre de Poche 1994: Rue de la Soie / 1996: Le Livre de Poche 1996: La Dernière colline / 1999: Le Livre de Poche 1999: Cuba libre! / 2001: Le Livre de Poche 2001: Alger, ville blanche / 2003: Le Livre de Poche 2003: Les Généraux du crépuscule / 2005: Le Livre de Poche 2007: Et quand viendra la fin du voyage Entre femmes Fragments Les Non-dits de Régine Deforges Roger Stéphane ou la passion d’admirer Camilo Les Cent plus beaux cris de femmes La Chanson d’amour, petite anthologie Poèmes de femmes Léa au pays des dragons, L’Apocalypse de saint Jean L’Arche de Noé de grand-mère Léa au pays des dragons Léa et les diables Léa et les fantômes Le Couvent de sœur Isabelle Les Chiffons de Lucie Les Poupées de grand-mère Les Filles de madame Claude Régine Deforges on IMDb
Gone with the Wind (novel)
Gone with the Wind is a novel by American writer Margaret Mitchell, first published in 1936. The story is set in Clayton County and Atlanta, both in Georgia, during the American Civil War and Reconstruction Era, it depicts the struggles of young Scarlett O'Hara, the spoiled daughter of a well-to-do plantation owner, who must use every means at her disposal to claw her way out of poverty following Sherman's destructive "March to the Sea". This historical novel features a Bildungsroman or coming-of-age story, with the title taken from a poem written by Ernest Dowson. Gone with the Wind was popular with American readers from the outset and was the top American fiction bestseller in 1936 and 1937; as of 2014, a Harris poll found it to be the second favorite book of American readers, just behind the Bible. More than 30 million copies have been printed worldwide. Written from the perspective of the slaveholder, Gone with the Wind is Southern plantation fiction, its portrayal of slavery and African Americans has been considered controversial by succeeding generations, as well as its use of a racial epithet and ethnic slurs common to the period.
However, the novel has become a reference point for subsequent writers of the South, both black and white. Scholars at American universities refer to, study it in their writings; the novel has been absorbed into American popular culture. Mitchell received the Pulitzer Prize for Fiction for the book in 1937, it was adapted into a 1939 American film. Gone with the Wind is the only novel by Mitchell published during her lifetime. Mitchell used color symbolism the colors red and green, which are associated with Scarlett O'Hara. Mitchell identified the primary theme as survival, she left the ending speculative for the reader. She was asked what became of her lovers and Scarlett, she replied, "For all I know, Rhett may have found someone else, less difficult." Two sequels authorized by Mitchell's estate were published more than a half century later. A parody was produced. Born in 1900 in Atlanta, Margaret Mitchell was a Southerner and writer throughout her life, she grew up hearing stories about the American Civil War and the Reconstruction from her tyrannical Irish-American grandmother, who had endured its suffering.
Her forceful and intellectual mother was a suffragist. As a young woman, Mitchell found love with an army lieutenant, he was killed in World War I, she would carry his memory for the remainder of her life. After studying at Smith College for a year, during which time her mother died from the Spanish flu, Mitchell returned to Atlanta, she married. Mitchell took a job writing feature articles for the Atlanta Journal at a time when Atlanta debutantes of her class did not work. After divorcing her first husband, she married again, this time to a man who shared her interest in writing and literature, he had been best man at her first wedding. Margaret Mitchell began writing Gone with the Wind in 1926 to pass the time while recovering from a slow-healing auto-crash injury. In April 1935, Harold Latham of Macmillan, an editor looking for new fiction, read her manuscript and saw that it could be a best-seller. After Latham agreed to publish the book, Mitchell worked for another six months checking the historical references and rewriting the opening chapter several times.
Mitchell and her husband John Marsh, a copy editor by trade, edited the final version of the novel. Mitchell wrote the book's final moments first and wrote the events that led up to them. Gone with the Wind was published in June 1936; the author tentatively titled. Other proposed titles included Bugles Sang True, Not in Our Stars, Tote the Weary Load; the title Mitchell chose is from the first line of the third stanza of the poem "Non Sum Qualis Eram Bonae sub Regno Cynarae" by Ernest Dowson: Scarlett O'Hara uses the title phrase when she wonders to herself if her home on a plantation called "Tara" is still standing, or if it had "gone with the wind which had swept through Georgia." In a general sense, the title is a metaphor for the demise of a way of life in the South prior to the Civil War. When taken in the context of Dowson's poem about "Cynara," the phrase "gone with the wind" alludes to erotic loss; the poem expresses the regrets of someone who has lost his passionate feelings for his "old passion," Cynara.
Dowson's Cynara, a name that comes from the Greek word for artichoke, represents a lost love. Gone with the Wind takes place in the southern United States in the state of Georgia during the American Civil War and the Reconstruction Era; the novel unfolds against the backdrop of rebellion wherein seven southern states including Georgia, have declared their secession from the United States and formed the Confederate States of America, after Abraham Lincoln was elected president. The Union refuses to accept secession and no compromise is found as war approaches; the novel opens April 15, 1861, at "Tara," a plantation owned by Gerald O'Hara, an Irish immigrant who has become a successful planter, his wife, Ellen Robillard O'Hara, from a coastal aristocratic family of French descent. Their 16-year-old daughter, Scarlett, is not beautiful, but men realized it once they were caught up in her charm. All the talk is of the coming Civil War. There are brief but vivid descriptions of the South as it began and grew, with backgrounds of the main characters: the stylish and highbrow French, the gentlemanly English, the forced-to-flee and looked-down-upon Irish.
Scarlett learns that one of her many beaux, Ashley Wilkes, will soon be engaged to his cousin, Melanie Hamilt
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012
World War II
World War II known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries; the major participants threw their entire economic and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China, it included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, the only use of nuclear weapons in war. Japan, which aimed to dominate Asia and the Pacific, was at war with China by 1937, though neither side had declared war on the other. World War II is said to have begun on 1 September 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Germany and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and the United Kingdom.
From late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. Following the onset of campaigns in North Africa and East Africa, the fall of France in mid 1940, the war continued between the European Axis powers and the British Empire. War in the Balkans, the aerial Battle of Britain, the Blitz, the long Battle of the Atlantic followed. On 22 June 1941, the European Axis powers launched an invasion of the Soviet Union, opening the largest land theatre of war in history; this Eastern Front trapped most crucially the German Wehrmacht, into a war of attrition. In December 1941, Japan launched a surprise attack on the United States as well as European colonies in the Pacific. Following an immediate U. S. declaration of war against Japan, supported by one from Great Britain, the European Axis powers declared war on the U.
S. in solidarity with their Japanese ally. Rapid Japanese conquests over much of the Western Pacific ensued, perceived by many in Asia as liberation from Western dominance and resulting in the support of several armies from defeated territories; the Axis advance in the Pacific halted in 1942. Key setbacks in 1943, which included a series of German defeats on the Eastern Front, the Allied invasions of Sicily and Italy, Allied victories in the Pacific, cost the Axis its initiative and forced it into strategic retreat on all fronts. In 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained its territorial losses and turned toward Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in Central China, South China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy and captured key Western Pacific islands; the war in Europe concluded with an invasion of Germany by the Western Allies and the Soviet Union, culminating in the capture of Berlin by Soviet troops, the suicide of Adolf Hitler and the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945.
Following the Potsdam Declaration by the Allies on 26 July 1945 and the refusal of Japan to surrender under its terms, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August respectively. With an invasion of the Japanese archipelago imminent, the possibility of additional atomic bombings, the Soviet entry into the war against Japan and its invasion of Manchuria, Japan announced its intention to surrender on 15 August 1945, cementing total victory in Asia for the Allies. Tribunals were set up by fiat by the Allies and war crimes trials were conducted in the wake of the war both against the Germans and the Japanese. World War II changed the political social structure of the globe; the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The Soviet Union and United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the nearly half-century long Cold War. In the wake of European devastation, the influence of its great powers waned, triggering the decolonisation of Africa and Asia.
Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic expansion. Political integration in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities and create a common identity; the start of the war in Europe is held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred and the two wars merged in 1941; this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935; the British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the fo
Veliky Novgorod known as Novgorod the Great, or Novgorod Veliky, or just Novgorod, is one of the oldest and most important historic cities in Russia, which serves as the administrative center of Novgorod Oblast. It is situated on the M10 federal highway connecting Saint Petersburg; the city lies along the Volkhov River just downstream from its outflow from Lake Ilmen. UNESCO recognized Novgorod as a World Heritage Site in 1992. Population: 218,717 . At its peak during the 14th century, the city was the capital of the Novgorod Republic and one of Europe's largest cities; the Sofia First Chronicle makes initial mention of it in 859, while the Novgorod First Chronicle first mentions it in 862, when it was purportedly a major Baltics-to-Byzantium station on the trade route from the Varangians to the Greeks. The Charter of Veliky Novgorod recognizes 859 as the year. Novgorod is traditionally considered to be the cradle of Russian statehood. Archaeological excavations in the middle to late 20th century, have found cultural layers dating back only to the late 10th century, the time of the Christianization of Rus' and a century after it was founded, suggesting that the chronicle entries mentioning Novgorod in the 850s or 860s are interpolations.
Archaeological dating is easy and accurate to within 15–25 years, as the streets were paved with wood, most of the houses made of wood, allowing tree ring dating. The Varangian name of the city Holmgård or Holmgard is mentioned in Norse Sagas as existing at a yet earlier stage, but the correlation of this reference with the actual city is uncertain. Holmgård referred to the stronghold, now only 2 km to the south of the center of the present-day city, Rurikovo Gorodische. Archaeological data suggests that the Gorodishche, the residence of the Knyaz, dates from the mid-9th century, whereas the town itself dates only from the end of the 10th century. First mention of this Nordic or Germanic etymology to the name of the city of Novgorod occurs in the 10th-century policy manual De Administrando Imperio by Byzantine emperor Constantine VII. Predating the chronology of the legend of Rurik, an earlier record for the Scandinavian settlement of the region is found in the Annales Bertiniani where a Rus' delegation is mentioned as having visited Constantinople in 838 and, intending to return to the Rus' Khaganate via the Baltic Sea, were questioned by Frankish Emperor Louis the Pious at Ingelheim am Rhein, where they said that although their origin was Swedish, they had settled in Northern Rus' under a leader whom they designated as chacanus.
In 882, Rurik's successor, Oleg of Novgorod, conquered Kiev and founded the state of Kievan Rus'. Novgorod's size as well as its political and cultural influence made it the second most important city in Kievan Rus'. According to a custom, the elder son and heir of the ruling Kievan monarch was sent to rule Novgorod as a minor; when the ruling monarch had no such son, Novgorod was governed by posadniks, such as the legendary Gostomysl, Dobrynya and Ostromir. Of all their princes, Novgorodians most cherished the memory of Yaroslav the Wise, who sat as Prince of Novgorod from 1010 to 1019, while his father, Vladimir the Great, was a prince in Kiev. Yaroslav promulgated the first written code of laws among the Eastern Slavs and is said to have granted the city a number of freedoms or privileges, which they referred to in centuries as precedents in their relations with other princes, his son, sponsored construction of the great St. Sophia Cathedral, more translated as the Cathedral of Holy Wisdom, which stands to this day.
In Norse sagas the city is mentioned as the capital of Gardariki. Four Viking kings—Olaf I of Norway, Olaf II of Norway, Magnus I of Norway, Harald Hardrada—sought refuge in Novgorod from enemies at home. No more than a few decades after the 1030 death and subsequent canonization of Olaf II of Norway, the city's community had erected in his memory Saint Olaf's Church in Novgorod; the Gotland town of Visby functioned as the leading trading center in the Baltic before the Hansa League. At Novgorod in 1080, Visby merchants established a trading post. In the first half of the 13th century, merchants from northern Germany established their own trading station in Novgorod, known as Peterhof. At about the same time, in 1229, German merchants at Novgorod were granted certain privileges, which made their position more secure. In 1136, the Novgorodians dismissed their prince Vsevolod Mstislavich; the year is seen as the traditional beginning of the Novgorod Republic. The city was able to invite and dismiss a number of princes over the next two centuries, but the princely office was never abolished and powerful princes, such as Alexander Nevsky, could assert their will in the city regardless of what Novgorodians said.
The city state controlled most of Europe's northeast, from lands east of today's Est