National Library of the Czech Republic
The National Library of the Czech Republic is the central library of the Czech Republic. It is directed by the Ministry of Culture; the library's main building is located in the historical Clementinum building in Prague, where half of its books are kept. The other half of the collection is stored in the district of Hostivař; the National Library is the biggest library in the Czech Republic, in its funds there are around 6 million documents. The library has around 60,000 registered readers; as well as Czech texts, the library stores older material from Turkey and India. The library houses books for Charles University in Prague; the library won international recognition in 2005 as it received the inaugural Jikji Prize from UNESCO via the Memory of the World Programme for its efforts in digitising old texts. The project, which commenced in 1992, involved the digitisation of 1,700 documents in its first 13 years; the most precious medieval manuscripts preserved in the National Library are the Codex Vyssegradensis and the Passional of Abbes Kunigunde.
In 2006 the Czech parliament approved funding for the construction of a new library building on Letna plain, between Hradčanská metro station and Sparta Prague's football ground, Letná stadium. In March 2007, following a request for tender, Czech architect Jan Kaplický was selected by a jury to undertake the project, with a projected completion date of 2011. In 2007 the project was delayed following objections regarding its proposed location from government officials including Prague Mayor Pavel Bém and President Václav Klaus. Plans for the building had still not been decided in February 2008, with the matter being referred to the Office for the Protection of Competition in order to determine if the tender had been won fairly. In 2008, Minister of Culture Václav Jehlička announced the end of the project, following a ruling from the European Commission that the tender process had not been carried out legally; the library was affected by the 2002 European floods, with some documents moved to upper levels to avoid the excess water.
Over 4,000 books were removed from the library in July 2011 following flooding in parts of the main building. There was a fire at the library in December 2012. List of national and state libraries Official website
BIBSYS is an administrative agency set up and organized by the Ministry of Education and Research in Norway. They are a service provider, focusing on the exchange and retrieval of data pertaining to research and learning – metadata related to library resources. BIBSYS are collaborating with all Norwegian universities and university colleges as well as research institutions and the National Library of Norway. Bibsys is formally organized as a unit at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology, located in Trondheim, Norway; the board of directors is appointed by Norwegian Ministry of Research. BIBSYS offer researchers and others an easy access to library resources by providing the unified search service Oria.no and other library services. They deliver integrated products for the internal operation for research and special libraries as well as open educational resources; as a DataCite member BIBSYS act as a national DataCite representative in Norway and thereby allow all of Norway's higher education and research institutions to use DOI on their research data.
All their products and services are developed in cooperation with their member institutions. BIBSYS began in 1972 as a collaborative project between the Royal Norwegian Society of Sciences and Letters Library, the Norwegian Institute of Technology Library and the Computer Centre at the Norwegian Institute of Technology; the purpose of the project was to automate internal library routines. Since 1972 Bibsys has evolved from a library system supplier for two libraries in Trondheim, to developing and operating a national library system for Norwegian research and special libraries; the target group has expanded to include the customers of research and special libraries, by providing them easy access to library resources. BIBSYS is a public administrative agency answerable to the Ministry of Education and Research, administratively organised as a unit at NTNU. In addition to BIBSYS Library System, the product portfolio consists of BISBYS Ask, BIBSYS Brage, BIBSYS Galleri and BIBSYS Tyr. All operation of applications and databases is performed centrally by BIBSYS.
BIBSYS offer a range of services, both in connection with their products and separate services independent of the products they supply. Open access in Norway Om Bibsys
University of Bonn
The University of Bonn is a public research university located in Bonn, Germany. It was founded in its present form as the Rhein University on 18 October 1818 by Frederick William III, as the linear successor of the Kurkölnische Akademie Bonn, founded in 1777; the University of Bonn offers a large number of undergraduate and graduate programs in a range of subjects and has 544 professors and 32,500 students. Its library holds more than five million volumes; as of August 2018, among its notable alumni and researchers are 10 Nobel Laureates, 4 Fields Medalists, twelve Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Prize winners as well as August Kekulé, Friedrich Nietzsche, Karl Marx, Heinrich Heine, Prince Albert, Pope Benedict XVI, Frederick III, Max Ernst, Konrad Adenauer, Joseph Schumpeter. The university's forerunner was the Kurkölnische Akademie Bonn, founded in 1777 by Maximilian Frederick of Königsegg-Rothenfels, the prince-elector of Cologne. In the spirit of the Enlightenment the new academy was nonsectarian.
The academy had schools for theology, law and general studies. In 1784 Emperor Joseph II granted the academy the right to award academic degrees, turning the academy into a university; the academy was closed in 1798 after the left bank of the Rhine was occupied by France during the French Revolutionary Wars. The Rhineland became a part of Prussia in 1815 as a result of the Congress of Vienna. King Frederick William III of Prussia thereafter decreed the establishment of a new university in the new province on 18 October 1818. At this time there was no university in the Rhineland, as all three universities that existed until the end of the 18th century were closed as a result of the French occupation; the Kurkölnische Akademie Bonn was one of these three universities. The other two were the Roman Catholic University of Cologne and the Protestant University of Duisburg; the new Rhein University was founded on 18 October 1818 by Frederick William III. It was the sixth Prussian University, founded after the universities in Greifswald, Berlin, Königsberg and Breslau.
The new university was shared between the two Christian denominations. This was one of the reasons why Bonn, with its tradition of a nonsectarian university, was chosen over Cologne and Duisburg. Apart from a school of Roman Catholic theology and a school of Protestant theology, the university had schools for medicine and philosophy. 35 professors and eight adjunct professors were teaching in Bonn. The university constitution was adopted in 1827. In the spirit of Wilhelm von Humboldt the constitution emphasized the autonomy of the university and the unity of teaching and research. Similar to the University of Berlin, founded in 1810, the new constitution made the University of Bonn a modern research university. Only one year after the inception of the Rhein University the dramatist August von Kotzebue was murdered by Karl Ludwig Sand, a student at the University of Jena; the Carlsbad Decrees, introduced on 20 September 1819 led to a general crackdown on universities, the dissolution of the Burschenschaften and the introduction of censorship laws.
One victim was the author and poet Ernst Moritz Arndt, freshly appointed university professor in Bonn, was banned from teaching. Only after the death of Frederick William III in 1840 was he reinstated in his professorship. Another consequence of the Carlsbad Decrees was the refusal by Frederick William III to confer the chain of office, the official seal and an official name to the new university; the Rhein University was thus nameless until 1840, when the new King of Prussia, Frederick William IV gave it the official name Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität. Despite these problems, the university attracted famous scholars and students. At the end of the 19th century the university was known as the Prinzenuniversität, as many of the sons of the king of Prussia studied here. In 1900, the university had 68 chairs, 23 adjunct chairs, two honorary professors, 57 Privatdozenten and six lecturers. Since 1896, women were allowed to attend classes as guest auditors at universities in Prussia. In 1908 the University of Bonn became coeducational.
The growth of the university came to a halt with World War I. Financial and economic problems in Germany in the aftermath of the war resulted in reduced government funding for the university; the University of Bonn responded by trying to find industrial sponsors. In 1930 the university adopted a new constitution. For the first time students were allowed to participate in the self-governing university administration. To that effect the student council Astag was founded in the same year. Members of the student council were elected in a secret ballot. After the Nazi takeover of power in 1933, the Gleichschaltung transformed the university into a Nazi educational institution. According to the Führerprinzip the autonomous and self-governening administration of the university was replaced by a hierarchy of leaders resembling the military, with the university president being subordinate to the ministry of education. Jewish professors and students and political opponents were ostracized and expelled from the university
Université du Québec à Montréal
The Université du Québec à Montréal is a public university based in Montreal, Canada. It is a French-language university and is the largest constituent element of the Université du Québec system. UQAM was founded on April 9, 1969 by the government of Quebec, through the merger of the École des Beaux-Arts de Montréal, a fine arts school. Although part of the UQ network, UQAM possesses a relative independence which allows it to print its own diplomas and choose its rector. In 2015, UQAM had a student population of 43,314 in one school, it offers Bachelors and Doctoral degrees. It is one of Montreal's two Francophone universities, along with the Université de Montréal, only 1% of its student population is of Anglophone origin. UQAM was created on April 9, 1969 by the Government of Quebec, following the merger of the École des beaux-arts de Montréal, the collège Sainte-Marie and three colleges. In mid 1970, construction on UQAM's campus began in the Saint-Jacques neighbourhood; the old St. Jacques Cathedral was condemned and the worshipers were moved to the Chapel of Notre-Dame-de-Lourdes.
The architect of the university, Dimitri Dimakopoulos, chose to respect the plans of John Ostell and Victor Bourgeau by deciding to graft the new construction around the wall of the nave of the church overlooking Saint Catherine Street and highlighting the bell tower and its gateway. These remains are classified as historic monuments by the Quebec government; the new campus of UQAM was inaugurated in September 1979. In November 2006, UQAM underwent a major financial crisis, it was revealed that the former president, Roch Denis, was responsible for the financial mismanagement of the Science Complex and the Ilot Voyageur real estate projects. A recovery plan, required by the Ministry of Education and Leisure, is still in progress, raising significant challenges from groups of employees, students and professors. With the addition of the Télé-université in June 2005, UQAM, with a student population of close to 60,000, was the largest French-speaking university in the world. On 13 January 2012, it was announced that the TELUQ would again become a separate university from UQAM, but would remain in the Université du Québec system.
UQAM's campus was designed by Dimitri Dimakopoulos and is located in downtown Montreal, with most of its buildings in the Quartier Latin neighbourhood near the Berri-UQAM Metro station and the newer Complexe des sciences Pierre-Dansereau near Place des Arts. The University is involved in the troubled Îlot Voyageur project, a 13-storey student residence and intercity bus terminal, but has had to scale back its involvement due to financial problems. In September 2013, the university announced that it had acquired the National Film Board of Canada's former CineRobotheque facility for its communications faculty; the University provides training on its campus in Montreal and its four regional centers: UQAM Lanaudière, UQAM Laval, UQAM Montérégie and UQAM Ouest-de-l'île. A three part virtual exhibition was made to showcase the university's history. Faculté des arts Faculté des sciences de l'éducation Faculté de communication Faculté de science politique et de droit Faculté des sciences École des sciences de la gestion Faculté des sciences humaines École supérieure de mode de Montréal Institut de recherches et d'études féministes Institut des sciences cognitives Institut des sciences de l'environnement Institut d'études internationales de Montréal Institut Santé et société École supérieure de théâtre École des langues École de travail social École des arts visuels et médiatiques Institut du patrimoine International Research Group on Animal LawThe University is represented in Canadian Interuniversity Sport by the UQAM Citadins.
UQAM is part of the Université du Québec network, which has a distance learning component called Télé-université. It offers courses and degrees in computer science, communication, environmental science, management. University of Québec has improved geographical accessibility through multiple campuses spread throughout the province and by offering distance education by Télé-Université. Daniel Langlois, Founder of Softimage, Ex-Centris Francis Beaulac, computer engineering Louise Beaudoin, former Quebec minister of international relations Pierre Bourgault, former leader of the RIN party and Quebec independence activist Pierre Dansereau, pioneer of ecology Anne Fortin, Professor of Accounting Pierre Fortin, Economist Alexandre Gauthier, Software Engineer, co founder of Crusader Technologies and DecisionPoint Software Stevan Harnad, Open Access activist Bernard Landry, former Quebec Prime Minister Léo-Paul Lauzon, left-wing activist and former NDP candidate Gérald Larose, union leader André Éric Létourneau, artist Gilbert Paquette, former Quebec minister of science and technology Régine Robin, well-known novelist Yves Séguin, former Quebec minister of finance Léa Pool, filmmaker Jean-Marc Vallée, filmmaker Jovette Marchessault, writer Marc Parent, Director of the Montreal Police Department Denis Villeneuve, filmmaker Joseph Facal, academic and j
Système universitaire de documentation
The système universitaire de documentation or SUDOC is a system used by the libraries of French universities and higher education establishments to identify and manage the documents in their possession. The catalog, which contains more than 10 million references, allows students and researcher to search for bibliographical and location information in over 3,400 documentation centers, it is maintained by the Bibliographic Agency for Higher Education. Official website
Mordecai Richler, CC was a Canadian writer. His best known works are The Apprenticeship of Barney's Version, his 1970 novel St Urbain's Horseman and 1989 novel Solomon Gursky Was Here were shortlisted for the Man Booker Prize. He is well known for the Jacob Two-Two children's fantasy series. In addition to his fiction, Richler wrote numerous essays about the Jewish community in Canada, about Canadian and Quebec nationalism. Richler's Oh Canada! Oh Quebec!, a collection of essays about nationalism and anti-Semitism, generated considerable controversy. The son of Lily and Moses Isaac Richler, a scrap yard dealer, Richler was born on January 27, 1931, raised on St. Urbain Street in the Mile End area of Montreal, Quebec, he learned English and Yiddish, graduated from Baron Byng High School. Richler did not complete his degree there. Years Richler's mother published an autobiography, The Errand Runner: Memoirs of a Rabbi's Daughter, which discusses Mordecai's birth and upbringing, the sometimes difficult relationship between them.
Richler moved to Paris at age nineteen, intent on following in the footsteps of a previous generation of literary exiles, the so-called Lost Generation of the 1920s, many of whom were from the United States. Richler returned to Montreal in 1952, working at the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation moved to London in 1954, he published seven of his ten novels, as well as considerable journalism. Worrying "about being so long away from the roots of my discontent", Richler returned to Montreal in 1972, he wrote about the Anglophone community of Montreal and about his former neighbourhood, portraying it in multiple novels. In England, in 1954, Richler married Catherine Boudreau, a non Jewish French-Canadian divorcee nine years his senior. On the eve of their wedding, he met and was smitten by Florence Mann, another non Jewish young woman married to Richler's close friend, screenwriter Stanley Mann; some years Richler and Mann both divorced their prior spouses and married each other, Richler adopted her son Daniel.
The couple had four other children together: Jacob, Noah and Emma. These events inspired his novel Barney's Version. Richler died of cancer on July 3, 2001 at the age of 70, he was a second cousin of novelist Nancy Richler. Throughout his career, Mordecai wrote journalistic commentary, contributed to The Atlantic Monthly, The New Yorker, The American Spectator, other magazines. In his years, Richler was a newspaper columnist for The National Post and Montreal's The Gazette. In the late 1980s and early 1990s, he wrote a monthly book review for Gentlemen's Quarterly, he was critical of Quebec but Canadian Federalism as well. Another favourite Richler target was the government-subsidized Canadian literary movement of the 1970s and 1980s. Journalism constituted an important part of his career, bringing him income between novels and films. Richler published his fourth novel, The Apprenticeship of Duddy Kravitz, in 1959; the book featured a frequent Richler theme: Jewish life in the 1930s and 40s in the neighbourhood of Montreal east of Mount Royal Park on and about St. Urbain Street and Saint Laurent Boulevard.
Richler wrote of the neighbourhood and its people, chronicling the hardships and disabilities they faced as a Jewish minority. To a middle-class stranger, it is true, one street would have seemed as squalid as the next. On each corner a cigar store, a grocery, a fruit man. Outside staircases everywhere. Winding ones, wooden ones and risky ones. Here a prized lot of grass splendidly barbered, there a spitefully weedy patch. An endless repetition of precious peeling balconies and waste lots making the occasional gap here and there. Following the publication of Duddy Kravitz, according to The Oxford Companion to Canadian Literature, Richler became "one of the foremost writers of his generation". Many critics distinguished Richler the author from Richler the polemicist. Richler said his goal was to be an honest witness to his time and place, to write at least one book that would be read after his death, his work was championed among others. Admirers praised Richler for daring to tell uncomfortable truths.
Critics cited his repeated themes, including incorporating elements of his journalism into novels. Richler's ambivalent attitude toward Montreal's Jewish community was captured in Mordecai and Me, a book by Joel Yanofsky; the Apprenticeship of Duddy Kravitz has been performed on film and in several live theater productions in Canada and the United States. Richler's most frequent conflicts were with members of the Quebec nationalist movement. In articles published between the late 1970s and the mid-1990s, Richler criticized Quebec's restrictive language laws and the rise of sovereigntism. Critics took particular exception to Richler's allegations of a long history of anti-Semitism in Quebec. Soon after the first election of the Parti Québécois in 1976, Richler published "Oh Canada! Lament for a divided country" in the Atlantic Monthly to considerable controversy. In it, he claimed the PQ had borrowed the Hitler Youth song "Tomorrow belongs to me..." for their anthem "À partir d'aujourd'hui, demain nous apartient", though he acknowledged his error o