Quebec is one of the thirteen provinces and territories of Canada. It is bordered to the west by the province of Ontario and the bodies of water James Bay and Hudson Bay. S. states of Maine, New Hampshire and New York. It shares maritime borders with Nunavut, Prince Edward Island, Nova Scotia. Quebec is Canada's largest province by its second-largest administrative division, it is and politically considered to be part of Central Canada. Quebec is the second-most populous province of Canada, after Ontario, it is the only one to have a predominantly French-speaking population, with French as the sole provincial official language. Most inhabitants live in urban areas near the Saint Lawrence River between Montreal and Quebec City, the capital. Half of Quebec residents live in the Greater Montreal Area, including the Island of Montreal. English-speaking communities and English-language institutions are concentrated in the west of the island of Montreal but are significantly present in the Outaouais, Eastern Townships, Gaspé regions.
The Nord-du-Québec region, occupying the northern half of the province, is sparsely populated and inhabited by Aboriginal peoples. The climate around the major cities is four-seasons continental with cold and snowy winters combined with warm to hot humid summers, but farther north long winter seasons dominate and as a result the northern areas of the province are marked by tundra conditions. In central Quebec, at comparatively southerly latitudes, winters are severe in inland areas. Quebec independence debates have played a large role in the politics of the province. Parti Québécois governments held referendums on sovereignty in 1980 and 1995. Although neither passed, the 1995 referendum saw the highest voter turnout in Quebec history, at over 93%, only failed by less than 1%. In 2006, the House of Commons of Canada passed a symbolic motion recognizing the "Québécois as a nation within a united Canada". While the province's substantial natural resources have long been the mainstay of its economy, sectors of the knowledge economy such as aerospace and communication technologies and the pharmaceutical industry play leading roles.
These many industries have all contributed to helping Quebec become an economically influential province within Canada, second only to Ontario in economic output. The name "Québec", which comes from the Algonquin word kébec meaning "where the river narrows" referred to the area around Quebec City where the Saint Lawrence River narrows to a cliff-lined gap. Early variations in the spelling of the name included Kébec. French explorer Samuel de Champlain chose the name Québec in 1608 for the colonial outpost he would use as the administrative seat for the French colony of New France; the province is sometimes referred to as "La belle province". The Province of Quebec was founded in the Royal Proclamation of 1763 after the Treaty of Paris formally transferred the French colony of Canada to Britain after the Seven Years' War; the proclamation restricted the province to an area along the banks of the Saint Lawrence River. The Quebec Act of 1774 expanded the territory of the province to include the Great Lakes and the Ohio River Valley and south of Rupert's Land, more or less restoring the borders existing under French rule before the Conquest of 1760.
The Treaty of Paris ceded territories south of the Great Lakes to the United States. After the Constitutional Act of 1791, the territory was divided between Lower Canada and Upper Canada, with each being granted an elected legislative assembly. In 1840, these become Canada East and Canada West after the British Parliament unified Upper and Lower Canada into the Province of Canada; this territory was redivided into the Provinces of Quebec and Ontario at Confederation in 1867. Each became one of the first four provinces. In 1870, Canada purchased Rupert's Land from the Hudson's Bay Company and over the next few decades the Parliament of Canada transferred to Quebec portions of this territory that would more than triple the size of the province. In 1898, the Canadian Parliament passed the first Quebec Boundary Extension Act that expanded the provincial boundaries northward to include the lands of the local aboriginal peoples; this was followed by the addition of the District of Ungava through the Quebec Boundaries Extension Act of 1912 that added the northernmost lands of the Inuit to create the modern Province of Quebec.
In 1927, the border between Quebec and Newfoundland and Labrador was established by the British Judicial Committee of the Privy Council. Quebec disputes this boundary. Located in the eastern part of Canada, part of Central Canada, Quebec occupies a territory nearly three times the size of France or Texas, most of, sparsely populated, its topography is different from one region to another due to the varying composition of the ground, the climate, the proximity to water. The Saint Lawrence Lowland and the Appalachians are the two main topographic regions in southern Quebec, while the Canadian Shield occupies most of central and northern Quebec. Quebec has one of the world's largest reserves of fresh water, occupying 12% of its surface, it has 3 % of the world's renewable fresh water. Mor
Canadian Open (tennis)
The Canadian Open is an annual tennis tournament held in Canada. The third-oldest tournament in all of tennis, the Canadian Open's men's competition is a Masters 1000 event on the Association of Tennis Professionals tour; the women's competition is a Premier 5 tournament on the Women's Tennis Association tour. The competition is played on hard courts; the events alternate from year to year between the cities of Toronto. Since 1980 in odd-numbered years the men's tournament is held in Montreal, while the women's tournament is held in Toronto, vice versa in even-numbered years. Before 2011, they were held during separate weeks in the July–August period, now the two competitions are held during the same week in August; the Toronto tournament is held at the Aviva Centre and the Montreal tournament is held at the IGA Stadium. The current singles champions as of the 2018 tournament are Simona Halep; the men's tournament began in 1881, was held at the Toronto Lawn Tennis Club, while the women's competition was first held in 1892.
Of the major tennis tournaments in the world today, only Wimbledon and the US Open have been around longer. Prior to 1968 the tournament was known as the Canadian National Championships. Between 1970 and 1989 it was a major event of the Grand Prix Tennis Tour as part of the Grand Prix Super Series; the tournament was sponsored for a number of years by tobacco brands. In the 1970s, Rothmans International was the chief sponsor, followed by Player's Limited in the 1980s, Du Maurier from 1997 to 2000. Federal legislation, however came into effect that banned tobacco advertising. Rogers Communications, a Canadian communications and media company, took over as the new presenting sponsor; the event was played on clay until 1979. Both the men's and women's tournaments were played as a single combined tournament at the National Tennis Centre in Toronto until 1981, when the men's tournament was played at the Jarry Park Stadium in Montreal for the first time. 1982 was the first year in which the women's tournament was played in Montreal.
In 1989, two Canadian male tennis players, Grant Connell and Andrew Sznajder, reached the quarterfinals of the event. They were eliminated by Andre Agassi during that round. Lendl went on to defeat Agassi in the semi-finals and John McEnroe in the finals of that edition. Lendl has been the tournament's most successful singles player, reaching the final nine times and winning the title in 1980, 1981, 1983, 1987, 1988, 1989. In 1995, Andre Agassi and Pete Sampras met in the final, the third of the four times that the two top-ranked men's players would meet that year, after the Australian Open and Indian Wells Masters. Agassi's tournament win helped him regain the number-one ranking, which he lost to Sampras after they played each other again at the US Open. In 2004, the tournament became part of the US Open Series, in the build-up to the US Open grand slam tournament; the women's tournament was moved to just before the US Open grand slam tournament. Top players such as Venus and Serena Williams and Maria Sharapova withdrew from the tournament at the last minute to rest for the upcoming US Open.
In 2009, WTA CEO Stacey Allaster implemented rules reclassifying the women's event as a Premier 5 and the WTA's rules require each year-end top-10 player from 2008 to participate in at least four Premier 5 tournaments in the 2009 season, or face the threat of fines or docked ranking points. 19 of the top 20 female players took part in the 2009 Rogers Cup draw. The ATP mandates participation for the men's tournament, as a "1000-level" series event. Beginning in 2011, the men's and women's Rogers Cup tournaments were held during the same week, doing away with the tournament, said to be too close to the US Open; the corresponding rounds of the men's and women's matches are held on the same day, though a couple hours apart to avoid broadcast conflicts. Source: The Tennis Base Most titles: Ivan Lendl Most finals: Ivan Lendl Most consecutive titles: Charles Smith Hyman Most consecutive finals: Beals Wright Most matches played: Ivan Lendl Most matches won: Ivan Lendl Most consecutive matches won: Ivan Lendl Most editions played: Robert Bédard Best winning %: Frank Parker Longest final: Willard Crocker v Scott Wallace, result: 4–6 7–5 18–16 6–2 Shortest final: Jeff Borowiak v Jaime Fillol, result: 6–0 6–1 Oldest Champion: James F. Foulkes, 38y, 3m, 23d Youngest Champion: Frank Parker, 16y, 5m, 25d Official website Official Rogers Cup live streaming
Geoff Masters is an Australian former tennis player. He was part of doubles winning pairs in the US Open, Australian Open and Wimbledon tournaments during the 1970s. Born in Brisbane, Masters with Pam Teeguarden won the mixed doubles at the US Open in 1974; that year he won the Australian Open's men's doubles with Ross Case. With the same partner Masters won the gentleman's doubles at Wimbledon in 1977. Masters can be heard calling Australian Wimbledon matches for the Seven Network. Geoff Masters at the Association of Tennis Professionals Geoff Masters at the International Tennis Federation Geoff Masters at the Davis Cup
Quebec City Québec, is the capital city of the Canadian province of Quebec. The city had a population estimate of 531,902 in July 2016, the metropolitan area had a population of 800,296 in July 2016, making it the second largest city in Quebec after Montreal, the seventh largest metropolitan area and eleventh largest city in the country; the Algonquian people had named the area Kébec, an Algonquin word meaning "where the river narrows", because the Saint Lawrence River narrows proximate to the promontory of Quebec and its Cape Diamant. Explorer Samuel de Champlain founded a French settlement here in 1608, adopted the Algonquin name. Quebec City is one of the oldest European cities in North America; the ramparts surrounding Old Quebec are the only fortified city walls remaining in the Americas north of Mexico. This area was declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1985 as the "Historic District of Old Québec"; the city's landmarks include the Château Frontenac hotel that dominates the skyline and the Citadelle of Quebec, an intact fortress that forms the centrepiece of the ramparts surrounding the old city and includes a secondary royal residence.
The National Assembly of Quebec, the Musée national des beaux-arts du Québec, the Musée de la civilisation are found within or near Vieux-Québec. According to the Government of Canada, the Government of Quebec and the Geographical Names Board of Canada, the names of Canadian cities and towns have only one official form. Thus, Québec is spelled with an accented é in both Canadian English and French. In English, the city and the province are distinguished by the fact that the province does not have an accented é and the city does. Informally, the accent is omitted in common usage, so the unofficial form "Quebec City" is used to distinguish the city from the province. In French, the names of provinces are gendered nouns and the names of cities are not, so the city and the province are distinguished by the presence or absence of a definite article in front of the name. For example, the concept of "in Quebec" is expressed as "à Québec" for the city and "au Québec" for the province. Quebec City is one of the oldest European settlements in North America and the only fortified city north of Mexico whose walls still exist.
While many of the major cities in Latin America date from the 16th century, among cities in Canada and the U. S. few were created earlier than Quebec City. It is home to the earliest known French settlement in North America, Fort Charlesbourg-Royal, established in 1541 by explorer Jacques Cartier with some 400 persons but abandoned less than a year due to the hostility of the natives and the harsh winter; the fort was in the suburban former town of Cap-Rouge. Quebec was founded by Samuel de Champlain, a French explorer and diplomat, on 3 July 1608, at the site of a long abandoned St. Lawrence Iroquoian settlement called Stadacona. Champlain called "The Father of New France", served as its administrator for the rest of his life; the name "Canada" refers to this settlement. Although the Acadian settlement at Port-Royal was established three years earlier, Quebec came to be known as the cradle of North America's Francophone population; the place seemed favourable to the establishment of a permanent colony.
The population of the settlement remained small for decades. In 1629 it was captured by English privateers, led during the Anglo-French War. Samuel de Champlain argued that the English seizing of the lands was illegal as the war had ended, worked to have the lands returned to France; as part of the ongoing negotiations of their exit from the Anglo-French War, in 1632 the English king Charles agreed to return the lands in exchange for Louis XIII paying his wife's dowry. These terms were signed into law with the Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye; the lands in Quebec and Acadia were returned to the French Company of One Hundred Associates. In 1665, there were 550 people in 70 houses living in the city. One-quarter of the people were members of religious orders: secular priests, Ursulines nuns and the order running the local hospital, Hotel-Dieu. Quebec City was the headquarters of many raids against New England during the four French and Indian Wars. In the last war, the French and Indian War, Quebec City was captured by the British in 1759 and held until the end of the war in 1763.
It was the site of three battles during Seven Years' War: a French victory. France ceded New France, including the city, to Britain in 1763. At the end of French rule in 1763, villages and pastures surrounded the town of 8,000 inhabitants; the town distinguished itself by its monumental architecture and affluent homes of masonry and shacks in the suburbs of Saint-Jean and Saint-Roch. Despite its urbanity and its status as capital, Quebec City remained a small colonial city with close ties to its rural surroundings. Nearby inhabitants traded their farm surpluses and firewood for imported goods from France at the two city m
Guillermo Vilas is an Argentine former professional tennis player, No. 1 of the Grand Prix tennis circuit's Season in 1974, 1975 and 1977, who won four Grand Slam tournaments, one year-end Masters, nine Grand Prix Super Series titles and 62 total ATP titles. World Tennis, Agence France-Presse and Livre D'or Du Tennis 1977, among others rankings and publications, rated him as world No. 1 in 1977. In the ATP computer rankings, he peaked at No. 2 in April 1975, a position that he held for a total of 83 weeks. He was inducted into the International Tennis Hall of Fame in 1991, two years after his first retirement. Known for his prolific match play on clay, he became the second man to win more than 900 matches in the Open Era, his number of match wins on clay are by far the most of the Era, his peak was the 1977 season during which he won two major titles, had two long match win streaks of 46 all-surface and 53 on clay, finished with an Open Era record of match wins. In 2016, The Daily Telegraph ranked him as the 3rd best male clay-court player of all time, behind Rafael Nadal and Björn Borg.
In 2018, Steve Tignor for Tennis Magazine ranked him as the 16th greatest tennis player of the Open Era. Raised in the seaside resort of Mar del Plata, Vilas was a southpaw and played his first tour event in 1968, he was in the year-ending top ten from 1974 through 1982. He was a clay-court specialist but played well on hard and carpet surfaces, he won four Grand Slam titles: the 1977 French Open and the 1977 US Open and the 1978 and 1979 Australian Open. He was the runner-up at the French Open three times and at the Australian Open once. In 1974 he won the year end Masters Grand Prix title. In addition he won seven Grand Prix Super Series titles the precursors to the current Masters 1000. A left-handed baseliner, Vilas's best year on tour was 1977 when he won two of the four Grand Slam singles tournaments and 16 of the 31 Association of Tennis Professionals tournaments he entered, his playing record for 1977 was 130 wins against 15 losses. Not including the Masters year-end championship, he won 72 of his last 73 ATP matches in 1977.
The highest point during this phenomenal run was winning the last US Open played at Forest Hills against Jimmy Connors 2–6, 6–3, 7–6, 6–0 in a match where Vilas surprised his American rival by attacking the net. In 1977 he won seven consecutive titles after Wimbledon—Kitzbühel, Louisville, South Orange, Columbus, US Open and Paris —and set up a 46-match all-surface winning streak, third all-time behind Björn Borg's records of 49 and 48 consecutive matches won, he had a record 53-match winning streak on clay courts, which stood until the record was broken by Rafael Nadal in 2006. Both his winning streaks were terminated in October 1977 by Ilie Năstase in the final of the Aix-en-Provence tournament. In that best of five-set final, Vilas dropped the first two sets by 6–1, 7–5 and retired in protest of Năstase's use of a spaghetti strung racquet. After that he won a further 28 matches in a row with titles at Tehran, Bogotá, Buenos Aires and Johannesburg; that run was ended in the Masters semi-finals by Björn Borg.
Though he won 16 ATP singles titles, including the French Open and the US Open and was the runner-up at the January edition of the Australian Open in 1977, Vilas was never ranked by the ATP as world No. 1 during 1977, due to the fact that the rankings at the time were based on the average of a player's results. He was instead year-end world No. 2, behind Jimmy Connors. "World Tennis" magazine listed Vilas as 1977 year-end world No. 1 and Borg, No. 2. Argentine journalist Eduardo Puppo and Romanian mathematician Marian Ciulpan investigated the 1973–78 period records, delivered a detailed report with more than 1,200 pages in which they came to the conclusion that Vilas should have been ranked No. 1 for five weeks in 1975 as well as during the first two weeks of 1976 and handed over their research to the ATP at the end of 2014. Although the study was not refuted to this day, in May 2015 the ATP announced it had decided not to make official the No. 1 position for Vilas because it happened in the interval between the publications of the official rankings.
Vilas retired from the ATP tour in 1989 but still played ATP Challenger Series until 1992. He was inducted into the International Tennis Hall of Fame in 1991. Vilas was in the stands at Flushing Meadows to cheer on his countryman, Juan Martín del Potro, who beat Roger Federer in an upset in the 2009 US Open final. Won the Grand Prix circuit in 1974, 1975, 1977. World Tennis Magazine, France Presse, Michel Sutter and Christian Quidet, among others, ranked him as No. 1 Tennis Player of the Year in 1977. Held the open era male record for the longest winning streak on clay courts at 53 matches, set in 1977, until it was bettered by Rafael Nadal in 2006. Nadal extended this to 81 matches. Won 62 was the runner-up in 40 singles tournaments. Won 16 doubles, he took Argentina to its first-ever Davis Cup final in 1981, together with José Luis Clerc, a top-ten player. The Argentine press referred to the tensions between the two of them, which reverberated to the 2004 French Open awards ceremony, in whi
Florida State University
Florida State University is a public space-grant and sea-grant research university in Tallahassee, Florida. It is a senior member of the State University System of Florida. Founded in 1851, it is located on the oldest continuous site of higher education in the state of Florida; the university is classified as a Research University with Very High Research by the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching. The university comprises 16 separate colleges and more than 110 centers, facilities and institutes that offer more than 360 programs of study, including professional school programs; the university has an annual budget of over $1.7 billion and an annual economic impact of over $10 billion. Florida State is home to Florida's only National Laboratory, the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, is the birthplace of the commercially viable anti-cancer drug Taxol. Florida State University operates The John & Mable Ringling Museum of Art, the State Art Museum of Florida and one of the largest museum/university complexes in the nation.
The university is accredited by the Southern Association of Schools. For 2019, U. S. News & World Report ranked Florida State as the 26th best public university in the United States in the national university category. Florida State University is one of Florida's three state-designated "preeminent universities." FSU's intercollegiate sports teams known by their "Florida State Seminoles" nickname, compete in National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I and the Atlantic Coast Conference. In their 113-year history, Florida State's varsity sports teams have won 20 national athletic championships and Seminole athletes have won 78 individual NCAA national championships. In 1819 the Florida Territory was ceded to the United States by Spain as an element of the Adams–Onís Treaty; the Territory was conventionally split by the Appalachicola or the Suwannee rivers into East and West areas. Florida State University is traceable to a plan set by the 1823 U. S. Congress to create a system of higher education.
The 1838 Florida Constitution codified the basic system by providing for land allocated for the schools. In 1845 Florida became the 27th State of the United States, which permitted the resources and intent of the 1823 Congress regarding education in Florida to be implemented; the Legislature of the State of Florida, in a Legislative Act of January 24, 1851, provided for the establishment of the two institutions of learning on opposite sides of the Suwannee River. The Legislature declared the purpose of these institutions to be "the instruction of persons, both male and female, in the art of teaching all the various branches that pertain to a good common school education. By 1854 the City of Tallahassee had established a school for boys called the Florida Institute, with the hope that the State could be induced to take it over as one of the seminaries. In 1856, Tallahassee Mayor Francis W. Eppes again offered the Institute's land and building to the Legislature; the bill to locate the Seminary in Tallahassee passed both houses and was signed by the Governor on January 1, 1857.
On February 7, 1857, the first meeting of the Board of Education of the State Seminary West of the Suwannee River was held, the institution began offering post-secondary instruction to male students. Francis Eppes served as President of the Seminary's Board of Education for eight years. In 1858 the seminary absorbed the Tallahassee Female Academy, established in 1843, became coeducational; the West Florida Seminary was located on the former Florida Institute property, a hill where the historic Westcott Building now stands. The location is the oldest continuously used site of higher education in Florida; the area west of the state Capitol and ominously known as Gallows Hill, a place for public executions in early Tallahassee. In 1860–61 the legislature started formal military training at the school with a law amending the original 1851 statute. During the Civil War, the seminary became The Florida Collegiate Institute. Enrollment at the school increased to around 250 students with the school establishing itself as the largest and most respected educational institution in the state.
Cadets from the school defeated Union forces at the Battle of Natural Bridge in 1865, leaving Tallahassee as the only Confederate capital east of the Mississippi River not to fall to Union forces. The students were trained by Valentine Mason Johnson, a graduate of Virginia Military Institute, a professor of mathematics and the chief administrator of the college. After the fall of the Confederacy, campus buildings were occupied by Union military forces for four months and the West Florida Seminary reverted to its former academic purpose. In recognition of the cadets, their pivotal role in the battle, the Florida State University Army ROTC cadet corps displays a battle streamer bearing the words "NATURAL BRIDGE 1865" with its flag; the FSU Army ROTC is one of only four collegiate military units in the United States with permission to display such a pennant. In 1883 the institution, now long known as the West Florida Seminary, was organized by the Board of Education as The Literary College of the University of Florida.
The legislative act passed in 1885, bestowing upon the institution the title of the University of Florida, has never been repealed. Under the new university charter, the seminary became the institution's Literary College, was to contain several "schools" or departments in different disciplines. However, in the new university association the seminary'