Magdalena del Mar
Magdalena del Mar known as Magdalena, is a seaside district of the Lima Province in Peru and one of the districts that comprise the city of Lima. Its current mayor is Francis James Allison Oyague. Magdalena was established as a district on May 10, 1920. With a total land area of 3.61 km², Magdalena borders the districts of San Miguel on the west, Pueblo Libre and Jesús María on the north, San Isidro on the east, the Pacific Ocean on the south. For more than fifty years, the eastern border of the district has been disputed with neighboring San Isidro. A judge ordered the councils of both districts to deposit the money of the affected areas' taxpayers in the National Bank of Peru until this long-standing conflict is resolved. According to a 2002 estimate by the INEI, the district has 52,976 inhabitants and a population density of 14,674.8 persons/km². Administrative divisions of Peru Municipalidad Distrital de Magdalena del Mar - Magdalena del Mar District council official website
Lima is a district of Lima Province in Peru. It is, not the Central business district of Lima, the country's capital city: this is San Isidro District. Lima district is the oldest in Lima and as such, vestiges of the city's colonial era remain today in the Historic centre of Lima, declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1988 and contains the foundational area known as Cercado de Lima; the mayor of the Lima District is Jorge Muñoz Wells. The district has a total land area of 21.98 km². Its administrative center is located at 154 meters above sea level. North: The Rímac River marks the district's border with the San Martín de Porres and Rímac districts. East: El Agustino South: La Victoria, Jesús María, Breña and Pueblo Libre. West: San Miguel District. According to a 2005 estimate by the INEI, the district has 278,804 inhabitants and a population density of 15,736.9 persons/km². In 1999, there were 75,595 households in the district; the high point of Lima's religious calendar for the masses is a month of festivities in October dedicated to the Lord of Miracles, during which take place several processions in the city.
Central Lima is limited by Avenida Alfonso Ugarte on Jirón Huánuco on the east. It is divided into West and East sides by Jirón de la Unión, from which cuadras are numbered beginning at 100 and changing the first numbers at the next block. Unlike New York's Fifth Avenue, Jirón de la Unión is not paved for cars, but entirely a shopping and pedestrian street. Both are separated from Jirón de la Unión by 4 blocks; the Plaza de Armas, the main square, is located on block 2 of Jirón de la Unión, facing the Peruvian government palace and the Metropolitan Municipality of Lima. It's known as Damero de Pizarro. East of the center is the Barrios Altos neighborhood. Here the oldest, though least stable, buildings in Central Lima are located. Two cemeteries, El Angel and Presbítero Maestro, form the eastern border with El Agustino. Parts of the long-demolished colonial city walls can be seen here. Abutting this to the southwest is the Barrio chino neighborhood, dating from the mid-1800s. South of the West Side is Santa Beatriz section, which contains residential buildings and the Parque de la Reserva.
Santa Beatriz is locally famous for containing the buildings for the state TV network TNP, the top two private TV networks, America Television and Panamericana Television. Its main thoroughfare is a narrow boulevard lined with trees of all sizes. Santa Beatriz is home to the city's main football stadium, the Estadio Nacional. West of the center is the Industrial Area, an industrial belt extending into neighboring Callao Region, home to the main industries in both city and country. Most of the area is covered by large blocks containing large factories. At its northern and southern edges, there are clusters of residential areas in the southern zone bordering Pueblo Libre, San Miguel and Callao Region's Bellavista District. Administrative divisions of Peru Municipalidad Metropolitana de Lima - Metropolitan Lima Municipal Council official website
Timeline of Lima
The following is a timeline of the history of the city of Lima, Peru. 1535 Ciudad de los Reyes founded by Francisco Pizarro. Cathedral of Lima construction begins. 1541 26 June: Francisco Pizarro assassinated. Catholic Diocese of Lima established. 1542 – Spanish Real Audiencia established. 1548 – Jerónimo de Loayza becomes Catholic Archbishop of Lima. 1549 – Municipal Palace of Lima built. 1551 – University of San Marcos founded. 1555 - Artisan guilds established. 1565 – Casa de Moneda de Lima established. 1581 – Antonio Ricardo sets up printing press. 1586 – 1586 Lima–Callao earthquake. 1613 - Consulado begins operating. 1625 – Cathedral of Lima consecrated. 1655 - 13 November: 1655 Peru earthquake. 1671 Iglesia de Nuestra Señora de los Desamparados built. Rose of Lima canonized as a religious saint. 1687 1687 Peru earthquake. Lima City Walls built. 1700 – Population: 37,234. 1746 – 1746 Lima–Callao earthquake. 1768 – Plaza de toros de Acho constructed. 1791 – Population: 52,627. 1799 – Callao-Lima highway constructed.
1808 – Public cemetery established. 1812 – Population: 63,900. 1820 – Treasure of Lima reputedly removed from city. 1821 - Lima taken by forces of José de San Martín. 1822 - National Library of Peru founded. 1828 – Earthquake. 1838 – July: Political unrest. 1839 – El Comercio newspaper begins publication. 1854 Medical Society founded. Yellow fever epidemic. 1856 – Saint Cecilia Philharmonic Society formed. 1860 April: Earthquake. Lima Stock Exchange and Artisan Mutual Aid Society founded. 1861 – Peru National Archive established. 1865 - November: City taken by anti-Spanish forces during the Chincha Islands War. 1867 - Fabrica de Chocolate Cavenago y Cortazar established. 1868 – Club de la Union founded. 1870 – Lima City Walls dismantled. 1872 – Palacio de la Exposición built. 1876 Escuela Especial de Construcciones Civiles y Minas established. Population: 101,488. 1881 – Occupation of Lima by Chilean forces begins. 1883 – Occupation of Lima by Chilean forces ends. 1886 Ateneo de Lima established. Teatro Olimpo inaugurated.
1888 – Sociedad Geografica de Lima founded. 1897 – Estadio Guadalupe opens. 1898 – Instituto Tecnico e Industrial del Peru inaugurated. 1903 – Sociedad Empleados de Comercio organized. 1906 Museo de Historia Nacional opens. Lima Cricket and Football Club active. 1907 – Lima Philharmonic Society founded. 1908 - Population: 140,884. 1914 – Teatro Colón inaugurated. 1918 - Museum of Natural History, Lima established. 1923 – Museum of Italian Art inaugurated. 1924 – Archbishop's Palace of Lima built. 1928 - 21 July: Asociación Nacional de Periodistas del Perú founded in Lima. 1929 – Teatro Municipal established. 1933 - Jardín botánico Octavio Velarde Núñez established. 1935 – Lima Municipal Library established. 1936 – Cine Metro opens. 1938 Government Palace built. National Symphony Orchestra founded. 1939 – Legislative Palace built on Paseo Colón. 1940 – Avenida Abancay constructed. 1944 – Municipal Palace of Lima rebuilt. 1958 – Cine El Pacifico in Miraflores built. 1959 Cementerio El Ángel established. Pastelería San Antonio in business.
1961 - Population: 1,436,231 urban agglomeration. 1962 – University of Lima founded. 1964 - 24 May: Estadio Nacional disaster. 1966 – 17 October: 1966 Peru earthquake. 1969 - Perú Negro formed. 1972 - Population: 2,833,609 city. 1980 - Colegio de Periodistas del Perú founded. 1981 - City partnered with Austin, Texas, USA. 1984 - Túpac Amaru Revolutionary Movement active. 1988 – Historic Centre of Lima designated an UNESCO World Heritage Site. 1990 - Population: 6,414,500. 1991 – November 3: Barrios Altos massacre. 1992 16 July: Tarata bombing. La Cantuta massacre. 1996 17 December: Japanese embassy hostage crisis begins. Alberto Andrade Carmona becomes mayor. 1997 – Jockey Plaza shopping centre in Surco in business. 1998 - Orchestra of the University of Lima founded. 1999 – Juan Luis Cipriani Thorne becomes Catholic Archbishop of Lima. 2001 – Chocavento Tower built. 2002 – 21 March: Bombing near U. S. embassy. 2003 – Luis Castañeda Lossio becomes mayor. 2004 25 July: 2004 Copa América Final football tournament held.
Camisea Gas Project begins operating. 2005 - Consejo Consultivo de Radio y Televisión headquartered in Lima. 2007 – Population: 7,605,742. 2010 – El Metropolitano bus transit system begins operating. 2011 Lima Metro begins operating. Universidad de Ingeniería y Tecnología founded. Susana Villarán becomes mayor. 2013 - Air pollution in Lima reaches annual mean of 48 PM2.5 and 88 PM10, more than recommended. 2015 - Luis Castañeda Lossio becomes mayor again. 2016 - Population: 10,039,455. History of Lima List of mayors of Lima Years in Peru This article incorporates information from the Spanish Wikipedia. Items related to Lima, various dates Items related to Lima, various dates
La Molina District
La Molina is a district of the Lima Province in Peru, one of the upscale districts that comprise the city of Lima. Established as a district on February 6, 1962, the current mayor of La Molina is Álvaro Paz de la Barra; the district has a total land area of 65.75 km². Its administrative centre is located 241 metres above sea level. La Molina is located between 12° 00' 07" S, 76° 57' 00" and 76° 51' 00" W. North: Ate East: Cieneguilla and Pachacamac South: Villa María del Triunfo and San Juan de Miraflores West: Santiago de Surco According to the 2005 census by the INEI, the district has 124,468 inhabitants, a population density of 1,893 persons/km² and 33,646 households. Annual median income varies greatly. There are two possible origins, both referring to the owners of the estates located in the area in the Peruvian Republican era. Captain Nicolás Flores de Molina, owner of La Molina estate. Melchor Malo de Molina, Marquis de Monterrico, owner of Monterrico Grande estate. In the years before its creation, the estates located in the geographic area of the district had been sold and divided, giving origin to smaller yet large properties.
Soon, due to the quiet and beautiful surroundings, owning country houses in La Molina became a trend for high class people. This resulted in the populating of individuals with high incomes. On February 6, 1962, La Molina district was created by Act No. 13981 during the Manuel Prado Ugarteche government. Some members of the community are active members in "Un techo para mi pais" which helps people in need build houses. TECHO La Molina district is divided into middle-high and upper class suburbs. La Molina is best known for the large and luxurious houses that give shape to expensive properties located in suburbs like La Planicie, Las Lagunas, Residential Monterrico, La Molina Vieja, Alameda de la Molina Vieja, Los Sirius, Corregidor, El Remanso and Huertos de La Molina. Numerous Peruvian celebrities, leading business people and political figures live in these suburbs. Due to their relative safety and low population density, these suburbs are valued real estate. Furthermore, some of the most exclusive Peruvian social clubs are located in the area: Rinconada Country Club, La Planicie Country Club and Hebraica Club.
Santa Felicia, Santa Raquel, Santa Patricia, La Ensenada, La Capilla, Las Acacias, Los Ingenieros, Pablo Bonner, Pablo Cánepa, La Fontana and Farwest compose the middle and middle-high class area in the district. They compose the largest part of the district; some suburbs used to belong to the neighbouring district of Ate, but they were won over by La Molina. The process was led by the desire of the residents. MUSA is a special case, it started as a human settlement, but after a great effort and the help of La Molina Government, they achieved the awarding of their properties. La Molina faces an accessibility problem because the Javier Prado and Raúl Ferrero avenues serve as the only roads that connect this district with the rest of the city of Lima, thus become overloaded during peak hours. Modern enterprise buildings, shopping malls and private universities are found in La Molina. An intense urbanizing process has turned La Molina into an example of development and progress for the country. On Av.
Raul Ferrero is located the principal mall of the district, called "Molina Plaza", one of the most important commercial centres of Lima. It belongs to the Brescia Group; this mall helped the commercial evolution of this important avenue where nowadays are found premium restaurants and boutiques. In education, many of the upper class private schools in Lima are located in La Molina, including Newton College, Colegio Waldorf-Lima, Frankin D. Roosevelt School, Peruvian North American Abraham Lincoln School, Colegio Villa María, Colegio La Recoleta, Colegio Alpamayo, Colegio Antonio Raimondi, Reina de los Ángeles School, Villa Caritas, San Pedro School, Peruvian-German School Reina del Mundo, Colegio Domingo Faustino Sarmiento, Lord Byron School, Colegio Altair, La Molina Christian Schools, etc. Several universities are located in La Molina as well, including Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina, Universidad San Ignacio de Loyola, Universidad Femenina del Sagrado Corazón and Universidad de San Martín de Porres.
Administrative divisions of Peru Portal de la Municipalidad de La Molina - La Molina Municipal Council official portalhttps://larepublica.pe/politica/1333369-molina-alvaro-paz-barra-virtual-alcalde-boca-urna-ipsos-elecciones-municipales-2018 Catholic Churches - Mass Services http://www.arzobispadodelima.org/horarios-de-misa-en-lima/horarios-de-misa-en-parroquias/la-molina/
Jesús María District, Lima
Jesús María is one of the most centrally located districts of Lima, Peru. It is a middle-class, high density district and it ranks in the top districts with the best quality of life in Lima with an HDI of 0.770, only behind the districts of San Isidro and Miraflores. Jesús María is located 103 meters above sea level and bordered by the districts of Pueblo Libre and Breña District on the west, downtown Lima on the north and east, Lince District on the east, San Isidro and Magdalena del Mar on the south; until 1963, when it was made into a separate district, Jesús María was attached to Lima District. In the pre-Conquest period, the area, now Jesús María was part of the Curacazgo of Guatca; the lower end of the Rimac valley was divided among several districts ruled by a lord, each charged with administering the lands and water along a pre-Inca irrigation network. The Curacazgo of Guatca followed the course of the canal known as the Huatica river. After passing through what is today La Victoria, the Huatica's main subsidiary canal coursed down what is today Salaverry Avenue in Jesús María and reached the sea at Marbella in Magdalena del Mar district.
In the Spanish colonial period the area's lands were transferred to Spanish and criollo landlords, becoming haciendas, such as Jesús María, Matalechucitas. In the 20th Century, as urbanization spread. In 1930 its inhabitants decided to formally organize themselves into the Jesús María neighborhood association; the following year they established the Pro-Jesús María District Civic Commission, with Mr. Enrique Mafuelo Caceres presiding. On December 27, 1955, Congress approved Law 14763, establishing the District of Jesús María, but it was not put into effect. Eight years on December 17, 1963, President Fernando Belaúnde Terry ratified the law and Jesús María District came into existence, although it did not have its own administration until the elections of November 1966, when José Benavides Muñoz was elected its first mayor. Today, Jesús María is a lower-middle to upper-middle class residential district, home to 66,000 people; the district ranks in the top four districts with the best quality of life in Lima.
The district's central location and proximity to San Isidro and Miraflores, have contributed to it becoming an popular residential option. Jesús María is experiencing a housing and construction boom, many casonas are being replaced with high-rise apartments and condominiums; some of the best preserved are those that have been adapted as businesses or government installations, such as the Jesús María City Hall. Between Salaverry and Gregorio Escobedo avenues can be found the Residencial San Felipe on the site of what was once the San Felipe horse track. Commissioned by President Fernando Belaúnde Terry, designed by a team headed in part by architects Enrique Ciriani, Jorge Páez, Jorge Bernuy, Nikita Smirnoff Bracamonte, San Felipe was designed to combine a high residential density with ample green space, shopping and schooling opportunities for residents, is considered the cornerstone of Jesús María's middle-class identity. Commercial activity in Jesús María has centered on the area surrounding the Plaza San José and the nearby old San José market, on the commercial sector contained within the Residencial San Felipe.
To this, there has been added the Real Plaza Salaverry shopping mall, opened in May 2014, on the 23rd block of Avenida Salaverry, on land that held the last remnants of the old San Felipe race track. Important avenues which demarcate the boundaries of the district are 28 de Julio. Arenales, General Salaverry, Faustino Sánchez Carrión. Main avenues within Jesús María are San Felipe, Gregorio Escobedo, Francisco Javier Mariàtegui. San José Park -which serves a de facto main square for the district- marks the district's original "downtown", its San José Church, with its twin neo-Gothic spires, has been a landmark of the district since its inauguration by the Carmelite Order in 1949. One of the largest parks in the city of Lima, El Campo de Marte, is located in Jesús María, it contains a monument to the War of 1942 fought between Peru and Ecuador, the monument to a century of Japanese immigration, the Eye that Cries, commemorating those killed and disappeared during Peru's internal conflict between 1980 and 1992.
It is home to the district's municipal sports complex. Nearby can be found the Ministry of Labor and Ministry of Health, as well as the Edgardo Rebagliati Martins Hospital, one of the largest and busiest health centers in the country. Other important medical centers within the district are the private Clĺnica San Felipe, the national Police and Military Hospitals; the Universidad del Pacífico, one of the most prestigious universities in the country, is located in Jesús María, on Avenida Salaverry. Several renowned research institutions have their offices in Jesus Maria, including the Instituto de Estudios Peruanos and the Centro Peruano de Estudios Sociales; the Derrama Magisterial -the public school teachers' social security administration-, the Lima Chamber of Commerce, the Frecuencia Latina TV studios, the Embassy of Japan, the Embassy of Guatemala, the consulates of Belgium and Italy, the Papal Nunciature, are all located within district. The district is home to San Marcos University's Museum of Natural History, established in 1918 and houses important Peruvian fossils and the specimen collection of early Peruvian geographer and explorer, Antonio Raimondi.
Jesus Maria is host to the yearly Lima International Book Fair. Summer (Ja
Transport in Lima
Public transport in Lima is handled by buses, micros and the so-called mototaxis. Micros are the most common means of many other cities in Peru. There are more than 100 km of cycle paths in the city; the word micro is used in common-day Peruvian Spanish as an abbreviation for microbus. While the bigger vehicles are known as micros, the smaller ones are known as either combis or micros; these owned vehicles are not only known for being cheap and convenient but for being rather risky. Micros race from one street corner to another along all the major arterial city roads. Stickers saying, for example, "Todo Angamos" or "Todo Benavides" can be seen on their windscreens, which indicates that the micro runs the whole length of Avenida Angamos or Avenida Benavides; these microbuses dash dangerously fast crashing and speeding off before their passengers have got both feet into the vehicle. There being few bus stops and combis pick and drop passengers anywhere along their route. Tickets became compulsory in the late-80s.
No transfer tickets are issued, so double fares are used by people when a micro passing through downtown does not go to the destination needed, although with the lack of control of routes nowadays there are many routes that go just about everywhere within the city limits. The only places where micros are no longer allowed to circulate is in the crosstown streets within downtown Lima: if you need to go from the West Side to the East Side you must walk or take a taxi, micros go north-south only through either the West or East sides' main arteries, Tacna Ave. and Abancay Ave. respectively. Nowadays, the new Metropolitano bus rapid transit system and the first line of the Lima Metro attempt to modernize the way Limeños commute; the Lima Metro is the electric mass transit system of the Lima Metropolitan Area in Peru. It consists of one 35 km line and 26 stations, joining the southern area of the metropolis with the center and the north east of the city. Five additional lines are planned. In 2010 the government of Alan García resumed the project of Lima Metro starting with the construction of Line 1.
The construction and implementation of 11.7 kilometres of viaduct elevated of double ramp from the Atocongo Bridge to downtown Lima. The Lima Metro Line 1 was built by a consortium made up by two engineering and construction companies; the line began commercial operations in early 2012. Nineteen new Alstom trains have arrived since November 2012, adding to the current fleet of five AnsaldoBreda trains, this is major impulse of the service. An extension of 12.4 kilometers is in service since July 2014 to the northern district of San Juan de Lurigancho. The line 2 is an East-West underground Metro line, under construction, this contract includes the construction of a segment of line 4, this last line will link the system with the Jorge Chavez International Airport, it is expected to begin partial operation in 2016. and full operation for both lines in 2019. The Metropolitan Transportation System is a transportation system which integrates the Independent Corridor of Mass-Transit Buses known by its Spanish initials as COSAC 1.
This system links the principal points of the Lima Metropolitan Area and the first phase of this project has thirty three kilometer long line from the north of the city to Chorrillos in the south of the city. It has 38 stations along 33 km. of busway. This system is similar to the TransMilenio of Colombia; the Sistema Integrado de Transporte, is a bus system developed by the local government to reorganize the current system of routes that has become chaotic. One of the main goals of the SIT is to reduce the number of urban routes, renew the bus fleet operating by many private companies and to reduce most "combis" from the city; as of January 2016, SIT operates two regular lines: Javier Prado - La Marina and TGA. The combi operates within the districts of Lima, mainly; the term was used to designate Volkswagen Type 2 pickup introduced in the 1950s, they now come in several brands. In the 1990s, during the government of the president Alberto Fujimori, it was established that the number of buses were not enough to transport people around the city, the use of secondhand automobiles from others countries was permitted.
Kombi accidents in metropolitan Lima account for 45% of all accidents. The most popular vehicle types used by the small micros are Toyota HiAce and Nissan Urvan microbuses, while the bigger micros are Toyota Coaster or Mitsubishi Fuso Rosa vehicles. A few older bus lines from the pre-combi era use large forty-odd year old buses; each transport company has its own routes, which pass through many districts. Some of the routes in the Lima and Callao Metropolitan Area are: Ate - Callao Carabayllo - Miraflores Carabayllo - Pachacámac Chorrillos - Ventanilla La Punta - Pachacámac San Bartolo - San Miguel San Juan de Miraflores - Carabayllo San Juan de Miraflores - Downtown Lima San Juan de Miraflores - San Juan de Lurigancho Santa Anita - La Molina Santiago de Surco - Ancón Santiago de Surco - San Isidro Santiago de Surco - Downtown Lima
South America is a continent in the Western Hemisphere in the Southern Hemisphere, with a small portion in the Northern Hemisphere. It may be considered a subcontinent of the Americas, how it is viewed in the Spanish and Portuguese-speaking regions of the Americas; the reference to South America instead of other regions has increased in the last decades due to changing geopolitical dynamics. It is bordered on the west on the north and east by the Atlantic Ocean, it includes twelve sovereign states, a part of France, a non-sovereign area. In addition to this, the ABC islands of the Kingdom of the Netherlands and Tobago, Panama may be considered part of South America. South America has an area of 17,840,000 square kilometers, its population as of 2016 has been estimated at more than 420 million. South America ranks fourth in fifth in population. Brazil is by far the most populous South American country, with more than half of the continent's population, followed by Colombia, Argentina and Peru. In recent decades Brazil has concentrated half of the region's GDP and has become a first regional power.
Most of the population lives near the continent's western or eastern coasts while the interior and the far south are sparsely populated. The geography of western South America is dominated by the Andes mountains. Most of the continent lies in the tropics; the continent's cultural and ethnic outlook has its origin with the interaction of indigenous peoples with European conquerors and immigrants and, more locally, with African slaves. Given a long history of colonialism, the overwhelming majority of South Americans speak Portuguese or Spanish, societies and states reflect Western traditions. South America occupies the southern portion of the Americas; the continent is delimited on the northwest by the Darién watershed along the Colombia–Panama border, although some may consider the border instead to be the Panama Canal. Geopolitically and geographically all of Panama – including the segment east of the Panama Canal in the isthmus – is included in North America alone and among the countries of Central America.
All of mainland South America sits on the South American Plate. South America is home to Angel Falls in Venezuela. South America's major mineral resources are gold, copper, iron ore and petroleum; these resources found in South America have brought high income to its countries in times of war or of rapid economic growth by industrialized countries elsewhere. However, the concentration in producing one major export commodity has hindered the development of diversified economies; the fluctuation in the price of commodities in the international markets has led to major highs and lows in the economies of South American states causing extreme political instability. This is leading to efforts to diversify production to drive away from staying as economies dedicated to one major export. South America is one of the most biodiverse continents on earth. South America is home to many interesting and unique species of animals including the llama, piranha, vicuña, tapir; the Amazon rainforests possess high biodiversity, containing a major proportion of the Earth's species.
Brazil is the largest country in South America, encompassing around half of the continent's land area and population. The remaining countries and territories are divided among three regions: The Andean States, the Guianas and the Southern Cone. Traditionally, South America includes some of the nearby islands. Aruba, Curaçao, Trinidad and the federal dependencies of Venezuela sit on the northerly South American continental shelf and are considered part of the continent. Geo-politically, the island states and overseas territories of the Caribbean are grouped as a part or subregion of North America, since they are more distant on the Caribbean Plate though San Andres and Providencia are politically part of Colombia and Aves Island is controlled by Venezuela. Other islands that are included with South America are the Galápagos Islands that belong to Ecuador and Easter Island, Robinson Crusoe Island, Chiloé and Tierra del Fuego. In the Atlantic, Brazil owns Fernando de Noronha and Martim Vaz, the Saint Peter and Saint Paul Archipelago, while the Falkland Islands are governed by the United Kingdom, whose sovereignty over the islands is disputed by Argentina.
South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands may be associate