Saint Anselm College
Saint Anselm College is a Benedictine, liberal arts college in Goffstown, New Hampshire. Founded in 1889 by Abbot Hilary Pfrängle of Saint Mary's Abbey in Newark, New Jersey, at the request of Bishop Denis Mary Bradley of Manchester, New Hampshire, it is the third-oldest Catholic college in New England. Named for Saint Anselm of Canterbury, the college continues to have a functioning and independent Benedictine abbey attached to it, Saint Anselm Abbey; as of 2017, its enrollment is 2,000. According to the college, the student body is selected not only for their academic abilities but for their personal character; the college's academic curriculum requires several philosophy and theology courses as well as the new "Conversatio" program. In 2016, U. S. News and World Report ranked the college 112th among national liberal arts colleges, with an admissions rate, deemed "selective" at 73.7 percent. U. S. News & World Report ranked the college as the most popular New Hampshire venue for presidential candidates.
Forbes magazine has ranked St. Anselm as the 85th best college in the nation, as well as the 40th in the Northeast. In 2015, Saint Anselm was recognized by Time magazine as one of the "50 Best Liberal Arts Colleges" in the nation. Since the 1950s, the college has played an important role in the "first in the nation" New Hampshire primary, has served as the national stage for many future presidents and supporters. Presidents John F. Kennedy and Richard Nixon each delivered important policy speeches there; the college has been home to several national presidential debates which have attracted extensive media attention. The Washington Post referred to Saint Anselm College as "the Benedictine college with a box seat on America's most riveting political theater"; the first bishop of Manchester, Denis Mary Bradley, invited the Benedictine monks of St. Mary's Abbey in Newark, New Jersey, to form a college and preparatory school in his diocese; the monks that came to Manchester from Saint Mary's were of German descent.
This is due to the fact that Manchester was populated with French Canadian and Irish immigrant mill workers, Bradley was unable to find a suitable religious community that would not stir up ethnic tensions. The German monks accepted, founded the third Catholic college in New England. On August 1, 1889, the New Hampshire legislature approved the incorporation of the Order of Saint Benedict of New Hampshire “for religious and charitable purposes, for the education of youth, for establishing churches and conducting services therein.” This historic date marked the founding of Saint Anselm College. A six-year curriculum in philosophy and theology was developed. In 1892, as Alumni Hall neared completion, a fire destroyed the college on a cold winter night in February; the fire was most caused from an ember from the heating stove's gate as it was not closed properly. Thankfully, no one was hurt because of the fire; the monks were forced to rebuild the college, spending less money on the construction, as they had received only $55,000 from the Insurance Commissioner of the State of New Hampshire.
To save money, many bricks were salvaged from the previous structure and pieces of granite were cut from large granite rocks still visible on the current quad. In 1893, the current building that remains the center of campus was completed; the monks rebuilt the college, on October 11, 1893 the college was rededicated. To avoid the possibility of another fire, a power house, which today serves as the college print shop, was constructed separately from the building. Two years in 1895, the New Hampshire legislature granted Saint Anselm College the right to bestow standard academic degrees upon its graduates. In 1912, the bell tower and ivy were added to the building; the second chapel serves today as the Alva deMars Megan Chapel Arts Center. The Abbey Shield was designed by Pierre de Chaignon la Rose of Harvard University, it incorporates the personal coat of Anselm of Canterbury and the first seal of the state of New Hampshire. In 1927, by a monastic vote, the shield design was incorporated as the official shield of Saint Anselm Abbey and the college.
The drops in each quadrant represent the three drops of blood on Anselm's coat of arms, the sheaf of five arrows is taken from the first shield of the State of New Hampshire, representing the five original counties of the state. Hence, the Abbey Shield has been interpreted as Saint Anselm of New Hampshire. One goal of the early college was to be a self-sufficient institution; the college had a farm, over 100 acres in size, complete with chickens and cows. The farm included a full vegetable garden which extended from the lawn of Alumni Hall to the current parking lot located between Joan of Arc Hall and Davison Hall. Due to the hard work of the monks and several lay members from the local community, the college was agriculturally independent of the local community. Bonaventure Ostendarp founded the Studio of Christian Art in 1893 in order to sell paintings to local Catholic churches throughout the region; the current Raphael House of the Courts dorms was the original art studio for the monks, built in 1895.
The Benedictines who established Saint Anselm founded a preparatory school, as well. The preparatory school was a prestigious boarding school for elite men from around New England. In 1935, the monks decided to close the preparatory school to save money for the college's expansion. A notable alum of Saint Anselm Preparatory was
Mexico City, or the City of Mexico, is the capital of Mexico and the most populous city in North America. Mexico City is one of the most important financial centres in the Americas, it is located in the Valley of Mexico, a large valley in the high plateaus in the center of Mexico, at an altitude of 2,240 meters. The city has 16 boroughs; the 2009 population for the city proper was 8.84 million people, with a land area of 1,485 square kilometers. According to the most recent definition agreed upon by the federal and state governments, the population of Greater Mexico City is 21.3 million, which makes it the largest metropolitan area of the Western Hemisphere, the eleventh-largest agglomeration, the largest Spanish-speaking city in the world. Greater Mexico City has a GDP of $411 billion in 2011, making Greater Mexico City one of the most productive urban areas in the world; the city was responsible for generating 15.8% of Mexico's GDP, the metropolitan area accounted for about 22% of total national GDP.
If it were an independent country, in 2013, Mexico City would be the fifth-largest economy in Latin America, five times as large as Costa Rica and about the same size as Peru. Mexico’s capital is both the oldest capital city in the Americas and one of two founded by Native Americans, the other being Quito, Ecuador; the city was built on an island of Lake Texcoco by the Aztecs in 1325 as Tenochtitlan, completely destroyed in the 1521 siege of Tenochtitlan and subsequently redesigned and rebuilt in accordance with the Spanish urban standards. In 1524, the municipality of Mexico City was established, known as México Tenochtitlán, as of 1585, it was known as Ciudad de México. Mexico City was the political and financial center of a major part of the Spanish colonial empire. After independence from Spain was achieved, the federal district was created in 1824. After years of demanding greater political autonomy, residents were given the right to elect both a Head of Government and the representatives of the unicameral Legislative Assembly by election in 1997.
Since, the left-wing Party of the Democratic Revolution has controlled both of them. The city has several progressive policies, such as abortion on request, a limited form of euthanasia, no-fault divorce, same-sex marriage. On January 29, 2016, it ceased to be the Federal District, is now known as Ciudad de México, with a greater degree of autonomy. A clause in the Constitution of Mexico, prevents it from becoming a state, as it is the seat of power in the country, unless the capital of the country were relocated elsewhere; the city of Mexico-Tenochtitlan was founded by the Mexica people in 1325. The old Mexica city, now referred to as Tenochtitlan was built on an island in the center of the inland lake system of the Valley of Mexico, which it shared with a smaller city-state called Tlatelolco. According to legend, the Mexicas' principal god, indicated the site where they were to build their home by presenting a golden eagle perched on a prickly pear devouring a rattlesnake. Between 1325 and 1521, Tenochtitlan grew in size and strength dominating the other city-states around Lake Texcoco and in the Valley of Mexico.
When the Spaniards arrived, the Aztec Empire had reached much of Mesoamerica, touching both the Gulf of Mexico and the Pacific Ocean. After landing in Veracruz, Spanish explorer Hernán Cortés advanced upon Tenochtitlan with the aid of many of the other native peoples, arriving there on November 8, 1519. Cortés and his men marched along the causeway leading into the city from Iztapalapa, the city's ruler, Moctezuma II, greeted the Spaniards. Cortés put Moctezuma under house arrest. Tensions increased until, on the night of June 30, 1520 – during a struggle known as "La Noche Triste" – the Aztecs rose up against the Spanish intrusion and managed to capture or drive out the Europeans and their Tlaxcalan allies. Cortés regrouped at Tlaxcala; the Aztecs thought the Spaniards were permanently gone, they elected a new king, Cuitláhuac, but he soon died. Cortés began a siege of Tenochtitlan in May 1521. For three months, the city suffered from the lack of food and water as well as the spread of smallpox brought by the Europeans.
Cortés and his allies landed their forces in the south of the island and fought their way through the city. Cuauhtémoc surrendered in August 1521; the Spaniards razed Tenochtitlan during the final siege of the conquest. Cortés first settled in Coyoacán, but decided to rebuild the Aztec site to erase all traces of the old order, he did not establish a territory under his own personal rule, but remained loyal to the Spanish crown. The first Spanish viceroy arrived in Mexico City fourteen years later. By that time, the city had again become a city-state, having power that extended far beyond its borders. Although the Spanish preserved Tenochtitlan's basic layout, they built Catholic churches over the old Aztec temples and claimed the imperial palaces for themselves. Tenochtitlan was renamed "Mexico"; the city had been the capital of the Aztec empire and in the colonial era, Mexico City became the capital of New Spain. The viceroy of Mexico or vice-king lived in the viceregal palace on Zócalo; the Mexico City Metropolitan Cathedral, the seat of the Archbishopric of New Spain, was const
A millionaire is an individual whose net worth or wealth is equal to or exceeds one million units of currency. It can be a person who owns one million units of currency in a bank account or savings account. Depending on the currency, a certain level of prestige is associated with being a millionaire, which makes that amount of wealth a goal for some and unattainable for others. In countries that use the short scale number naming system, a billionaire is someone who has at least a thousand times a million dollars, euros or the currency of the given country. Many national currencies have, or have had at various times, a low unit value, in many cases due to past inflation, it is much easier and less significant to be a millionaire in those currencies, thus a millionaire in Hong Kong or Taiwan, for example, may be averagely wealthy, or less wealthy than average. A millionaire in Zimbabwe in 2007 could have been poor. At the end of 2017, there were estimated to be just over 15 million US$ millionaires or high-net-worth individual in the world.
The United States had the highest number of HNWIs of any country, while New York City had the most HNWIs among cities. The word was first used in French in 1719 and is first recorded in English in a letter of Lord Byron of 1816 in print in Vivian Grey, a novel of 1826 by Benjamin Disraeli. An earlier English word "millionary" was used in 1786 by Thomas Jefferson while serving as Minister to France; the first American printed use of the word is thought to be in an obituary of New York tobacco manufacturer Pierre Lorillard II in 1843. While statistics regarding financial assets and net worth are presented by household, the term is often used to describe only the individual who has amassed the assets as millionaire; that is though the term statistically refers only to households, common usage is in reference only to an individual. There are multiple approaches to determining a person's status as a millionaire. One of the two most used measurements is net worth, which counts the total value of all property owned by a household minus the household's debts.
According to this definition, a household owning an $800k home, $50k of furnishings, two cars worth $60k, a $60k retirement savings account, $45k in mutual funds, a $325k vacation home with a $250k mortgage, $40k in car loans, $25k in credit card debt would be worth about $1,025,000. However, according to the net financial assets measurement used for some specific applications, equity in one's principal residence is excluded, as are lifestyle assets, such as the car and furniture. Therefore, the above example household would only have net financial assets of $105,000. Another term used is "net investable assets" or working capital; these practitioners may use the term "millionaire" to mean somebody, free to invest a million units of currency through them as broker. For similar reasons, those who market goods and investments to HNWIs are careful to specify a net worth "not counting principal residence". At the end of 2011, there were around 5.1 million HNWIs in the United States, while at the same time there were 11 million millionaires in a total of 3.5 million millionaire households, including those 5.1 million HNWIs.
In the real estate bubble up to 2007, average house prices in some U. S. regions exceeded $1 million, but many homeowners owed large amounts to banks holding mortgages on their homes. For this reason, there are many people in million-dollar homes whose net worth is far short of a million—in some cases the net worth is negative. While millionaires constitute only a small percentage of the population, they hold substantial control over economic resources, with the most powerful and prominent individuals ranking among them; the total amount of money held by millionaires can equal the amount of money held by a far higher number of poor people. The Gini coefficient, other measures in economics, estimated for each country, are useful for determining how many of the poorest people have the equivalent total wealth of the few richest in the country. Forbes and Fortune magazines maintain lists of people based on their net worth and are considered authorities on the subject. Forbes listed 1,645 dollar billionaires in 2014, with an aggregate net worth of $6.4 trillion, an increase from $5.4 trillion the previous year..
Sixteen percent of millionaires inherited their fortunes. Forty-seven percent of millionaires are business owners. Twenty-three percent of the world's millionaires got that way through paid work, consisting of skilled professionals or managers. Millionaires are, on average, 61 years old with $3.05 million in assets. Depending on how it is calculated, a million US dollars in 1900 is equivalent to $30.1 million. $21.2 million using the GDP deflator, $24.8 million using the consumer price index, $61.4 million using the gold price $114.1 million using the unskilled wage, $162.8 million using the nominal GDP per capita, $642 million using the relative share of GDP,Thus one would need to have thirty million dollars today to have the purchasing power of a US millionaire in 1900, or more than 100 million dollars to have the same impact on the US economy. Another used term is multimillionaire which refers to individuals with net assets of 10 million or more of a currency. There are 584,000 US$ multimillionaires worldwide in
Mexico the United Mexican States, is a country in the southern portion of North America. It is bordered to the north by the United States. Covering 2,000,000 square kilometres, the nation is the fifth largest country in the Americas by total area and the 13th largest independent state in the world. With an estimated population of over 120 million people, the country is the eleventh most populous state and the most populous Spanish-speaking state in the world, while being the second most populous nation in Latin America after Brazil. Mexico is a federation comprising 31 states and Mexico City, a special federal entity, the capital city and its most populous city. Other metropolises in the state include Guadalajara, Puebla, Tijuana and León. Pre-Columbian Mexico dates to about 8000 BC and is identified as one of five cradles of civilization and was home to many advanced Mesoamerican civilizations such as the Olmec, Teotihuacan, Zapotec and Aztec before first contact with Europeans. In 1521, the Spanish Empire conquered and colonized the territory from its politically powerful base in Mexico-Tenochtitlan, administered as the viceroyalty of New Spain.
Three centuries the territory became a nation state following its recognition in 1821 after the Mexican War of Independence. The post-independence period was tumultuous, characterized by economic inequality and many contrasting political changes; the Mexican–American War led to a territorial cession of the extant northern territories to the United States. The Pastry War, the Franco-Mexican War, a civil war, two empires, the Porfiriato occurred in the 19th century; the Porfiriato was ended by the start of the Mexican Revolution in 1910, which culminated with the promulgation of the 1917 Constitution and the emergence of the country's current political system as a federal, democratic republic. Mexico has the 11th largest by purchasing power parity; the Mexican economy is linked to those of its 1994 North American Free Trade Agreement partners the United States. In 1994, Mexico became the first Latin American member of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, it is classified as an upper-middle income country by the World Bank and a newly industrialized country by several analysts.
The country is considered both a regional power and a middle power, is identified as an emerging global power. Due to its rich culture and history, Mexico ranks first in the Americas and seventh in the world for number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Mexico is an ecologically megadiverse country, ranking fourth in the world for its biodiversity. Mexico receives a huge number of tourists every year: in 2018, it was the sixth most-visited country in the world, with 39 million international arrivals. Mexico is a member of the United Nations, the World Trade Organization, the G8+5, the G20, the Uniting for Consensus group of the UN, the Pacific Alliance trade bloc. Mēxihco is the Nahuatl term for the heartland of the Aztec Empire, namely the Valley of Mexico and surrounding territories, with its people being known as the Mexica, it is believed to be a toponym for the valley which became the primary ethnonym for the Aztec Triple Alliance as a result, although it could have been the other way around.
In the colonial era, back when Mexico was called New Spain this territory became the Intendency of Mexico and after New Spain achieved independence from the Spanish Empire it came to be known as the State of Mexico with the new country being named after its capital: the City of Mexico, which itself was founded in 1524 on top of the ancient Mexica capital of Mexico-Tenochtitlan. Traditionally, the name Tenochtitlan was thought to come from Nahuatl tetl and nōchtli and is thought to mean "Among the prickly pears rocks". However, one attestation in the late 16th-century manuscript known as "the Bancroft dialogues" suggests the second vowel was short, so that the true etymology remains uncertain; the suffix -co is the Nahuatl locative, making the word a place name. Beyond that, the etymology is uncertain, it has been suggested that it is derived from Mextli or Mēxihtli, a secret name for the god of war and patron of the Mexica, Huitzilopochtli, in which case Mēxihco means "place where Huitzilopochtli lives".
Another hypothesis suggests that Mēxihco derives from a portmanteau of the Nahuatl words for "moon" and navel. This meaning might refer to Tenochtitlan's position in the middle of Lake Texcoco; the system of interconnected lakes, of which Texcoco formed the center, had the form of a rabbit, which the Mesoamericans pareidolically associated with the moon rabbit. Still another hypothesis suggests that the word is derived from Mēctli, the name of the goddess of maguey; the name of the city-state was transliterated to Spanish as México with the phonetic value of the letter x in Medieval Spanish, which represented the voiceless postalveolar fricative. This sound, as well as the voiced postalveolar fricative, represented by a j, evolved into a voiceless velar fricative during the 16th century; this led to the use of the variant Méjico in many publications in Spanish, most notably in Spain, whereas in Mexico and most other Spanish–speaking countries, México was the preferred spelling. In recent years, the Real Academia Española, which regulates the Spanish l
Consul was the title of one of the two chief magistrates of the Roman Republic, subsequently an important title under the Roman Empire. The title was used in other European city states through antiquity and the Middle Ages revived in modern states, notably in the First French Republic; the related adjective is consular, from the Latin consularis. This usage contrasts with modern terminology. A consul held the highest elected political office of the Roman Republic, ancient Romans considered the consulship the highest level of the cursus honorum. Consuls were held power for one year. There were always two consuls in power at any time. Chronological listings of Roman consuls: List of Roman consuls List of topics related to ancient Rome Pauly–Wissowa Political institutions of Rome Hypatos It was not uncommon for an organization under Roman private law to copy the terminology of state and city institutions for its own statutory agents; the founding statute, or contract, of such an organisation was called lex,'law'.
The people elected each year were members of the upper class. While many cities had a double-headed chief magistracy another title was used, such as Duumvir or native styles such as Meddix, but consul was used in some. Throughout most of southern France, a consul was an office equivalent to the échevins of the north and similar with English aldermen; the most prominent were those of Bordeaux and Toulouse, which came to be known as jurats and capitouls, respectively. The capitouls of Toulouse were granted transmittable nobility. In many other smaller towns the first consul, was the equivalent of a mayor today, assisted by a variable number of secondary consuls and jurats, his main task was to collect tax. The Dukes of Gaeta used the title of "consul" in its Greek form "Hypatos"; the city-state of Genoa, unlike ancient Rome, bestowed the title of consul on various state officials, not restricted to the highest. Among these were Genoese officials stationed in various Mediterranean ports, whose role included helping Genoese merchants and sailors in difficulties with the local authorities.
This institution, with its name, was emulated by other powers and is reflected in the modern usage of the word. After Napoleon Bonaparte staged a coup against the Directory government in November 1799, the French Republic adopted a constitution which conferred executive powers upon three consuls, elected for a period of ten years. In reality, the first consul, dominated his two colleagues and held supreme power, soon making himself consul for life and in 1804, emperor; the office was held by: Napoleon Bonaparte, Emmanuel-Joseph Sieyès, Roger Ducos, provisional consuls Napoleon Bonaparte, Jean-Jacques Cambacérès, Charles-François Lebrun, consuls The short-lived Bolognese Republic, proclaimed in 1796 as a French client republic in the Central Italian city of Bologna, had a government consisting of nine consuls and its head of state was the Presidente del Magistrato, i.e. chief magistrate, a presiding office held for four months by one of the consuls. Bologna had consuls at some parts of its Medieval history.
The French-sponsored Roman Republic was headed by multiple consuls: Francesco Riganti, Carlo Luigi Costantini, Duke Bonelli-Crescenzi, Antonio Bassi, Gioacchino Pessuti, Angelo Stampa, Domenico Maggi, provisional consuls Liborio Angelucci, Giacomo De Mattheis, Reppi, Ennio Quirino Visconti, consuls Brigi, Francesco Pierelli, Giuseppe Rey, Federico Maria Domenico Michele, consuls Consular rule was interrupted by the Neapolitan occupation, which installed a Provisional Government: Prince Giambattista Borghese, Prince Paolo-Maria Aldobrandini, Prince Gibrielli, Marchese Camillo Massimo, Giovanni Ricci Rome was occupied by France and again by Naples, bringing an end to the Roman Republic. Among the many petty local republics that were formed during the first year of the Greek Revolution, prior to the creation of a unified Provisional Government at the First National Assembly at Epidaurus, were: The Consulate of Argos had a single head of state, styled consul, 28 March 1821 – 26 May 1821: Stamatellos Antonopoulos The Consulate of East Greece was headed 1 April 1821 – 15 November 1821 by three consuls: Lambros Nakos, Ioannis Logothetis & Ioannis FilonNote: in Greek, the term for "consul" is "hypatos", which translates as "supreme one", hence does not imply a joint office.
In between a series of juntas and various other short-lived regimes, the young republic was governed by "consuls of the republic", with two consuls alternating in power every 4 months: 12 October 1813 – 12 February 1814, José Gaspar Rodríguez de Francia y Velasco 12 February 1814 – 12 June 1814, Fulgencio Yegros y Franco de Torres 12 June 1814 – 3 October 1814, José Gaspar Rodríguez de Francia y Velasco.
Ireland is an island in the North Atlantic. It is separated from Great Britain to its east by the North Channel, the Irish Sea, St George's Channel. Ireland is the second-largest island of the British Isles, the third-largest in Europe, the twentieth-largest on Earth. Politically, Ireland is divided between the Republic of Ireland, which covers five-sixths of the island, Northern Ireland, part of the United Kingdom. In 2011, the population of Ireland was about 6.6 million, ranking it the second-most populous island in Europe after Great Britain. Just under 4.8 million live in the Republic of Ireland and just over 1.8 million live in Northern Ireland. The island's geography comprises low-lying mountains surrounding a central plain, with several navigable rivers extending inland, its lush vegetation is a product of its mild but changeable climate, free of extremes in temperature. Much of Ireland was woodland until the end of the Middle Ages. Today, woodland makes up about 10% of the island, compared with a European average of over 33%, most of it is non-native conifer plantations.
There are twenty-six extant mammal species native to Ireland. The Irish climate is influenced by the Atlantic Ocean and thus moderate, winters are milder than expected for such a northerly area, although summers are cooler than those in continental Europe. Rainfall and cloud cover are abundant; the earliest evidence of human presence in Ireland is dated at 10,500 BC. Gaelic Ireland had emerged by the 1st century AD; the island was Christianised from the 5th century onward. Following the 12th century Norman invasion, England claimed sovereignty. However, English rule did not extend over the whole island until the 16th–17th century Tudor conquest, which led to colonisation by settlers from Britain. In the 1690s, a system of Protestant English rule was designed to materially disadvantage the Catholic majority and Protestant dissenters, was extended during the 18th century. With the Acts of Union in 1801, Ireland became a part of the United Kingdom. A war of independence in the early 20th century was followed by the partition of the island, creating the Irish Free State, which became sovereign over the following decades, Northern Ireland, which remained a part of the United Kingdom.
Northern Ireland saw much civil unrest from the late 1960s until the 1990s. This subsided following a political agreement in 1998. In 1973 the Republic of Ireland joined the European Economic Community while the United Kingdom, Northern Ireland, as part of it, did the same. Irish culture has had a significant influence on other cultures in the field of literature. Alongside mainstream Western culture, a strong indigenous culture exists, as expressed through Gaelic games, Irish music and the Irish language; the island's culture shares many features with that of Great Britain, including the English language, sports such as association football, horse racing, golf. The names Éire derive from Old Irish Eriu; this in turn comes from the Proto-Celtic *Iveriu, the source of Latin Hibernia. Iveriu derives from a root meaning'fat, prosperous'. During the last glacial period, up until about 10,000 BC, most of Ireland was periodically covered in ice. Sea levels were lower and Ireland, like Great Britain, formed part of continental Europe.
By 16,000 BC, rising sea levels due to ice melting caused Ireland to become separated from Great Britain. Around 6000 BC, Great Britain itself became separated from continental Europe; the earliest evidence of human presence in Ireland is dated at 10,500 BC, demonstrated by a butchered bear bone found in a cave in County Clare. It is not until about 8000 BC, that more sustained occupation of the island has been shown, with evidence for Mesolithic communities around the island; these Mesolithic communities lived as hunter-gatherers across the island until about 4000 BC. Some time before 4000 BC, Neolithic settlers arrived introducing cereal cultivars, domesticated animals such as cattle and sheep, large timber building, stone monuments; the earliest evidence for farming in Ireland or Great Britain is from Co.. Kerry, where a flint knife, cattle bones and a sheep's tooth were carbon-dated to c. 4350 BC. Field systems were developed in different parts of Ireland, including at the Céide Fields, preserved beneath a blanket of peat in present-day Tyrawley.
An extensive field system, arguably the oldest in the world, consisted of small divisions separated by dry-stone walls. The fields were farmed for several centuries between 3500 BC and 3000 BC. Wheat and barley were the principal crops; the Bronze Age – defined by the use of metal – began around 2500 BC, with technology changing people's everyday lives during this period through innovations such as the wheel. According to John T. Koch and others, Ireland in the Late Bronze Age was part of a maritime trading-network culture called the Atlantic Bronze Age that included Britain, western France and Iberia, that this is where Celtic languages developed; this contrasts with the traditional view that their origin lies in mainland Europe with the Hallstatt culture. During the Iron Age, a Celtic language and culture emerged in Ireland. How and when the island became Celtic has been debated for close to a century, with the migrations of the Celts being one of the more enduring themes of archaeological and linguistic studies.
The most recent genetic research s
Miguel Alemán Valdés
Miguel Alemán Valdés was a Mexican politician who served a full term as the President of Mexico from 1946 to 1952, the first civilian president after a string of revolutionary generals. His administration was characterized by Mexico's rapid industrialization called the Mexican Miracle, but for a high level of personal enrichment for himself and his associates, his presidency was the first of a new generation of Mexican leaders, who had not directly participated in the Mexican Revolution, many in his cabinet were young, university-educated civilians, close friends from his days at university. Alemán was born in Sayula in the state of Veracruz, the son of revolutionary Gen. Miguel Alemán González and Tomasa Valdés Ledezma. Both had been married before, with Alemán González having a son by his first wife, they had two sons together and Miguel. The family lived in straitened circumstances, with Miguel remembering when he was young that when huaraches hurt his feet, he would urinate on them to soften the leather.
His father, Miguel Alemán González, began fighting before the outbreak of the Mexican Revolution, a so-called "precursor" in a region of Veracruz state. He avidly read the tracts of Ricardo Flores Magón, of the Mexican Liberal Party and opposed the repressive regime of Porfirio Díaz. Alemán González left his family with his parents to fight with Cándido Aguilar, the son-in-law of Venustiano Carranza against the Díaz regime. In 1920 the family moved to Mexico City, but with the accession to power of the Sonoran generals Adolfo de la Huerta, Álvaro Obregón, Plutarco Elías Calles, Alemán González continued in opposition to the government, he was implicated in the murder of one of Obregón's commanders, Arnulfo R. Gómez, was on the run; the general met his end in March 1929 in a hail of bullets committing suicide. Young Miguel had experienced first-hand the disruption of the impacts of the continuing violence in Mexico. Alemán's schooling was sporadic because of needing to move frequently. For a time, he worked at the British-owned Mexican Eagle Petroleum Company, where he first learned English and became fluent in it.
He recalled his father advised him of "the usefulness of returning to my studies and choosing an occupation more stable than the military." Alemán did that, attending the National Preparatory School in Mexico City from 1920 to 1925, founding the newspaper Eureka. He went to the School of Law at the National University until 1928, completing his law degree with his thesis on occupational diseases and accidents among workers. At UNAM, he was the leader of a group of classmates, all of whom went on the prominence in Mexican life, they included Angel Carvajal. As a successful attorney, his first practice was in representing miners suffering from silicosis, he won two notable legal victories in representing workers against corporations--the first was in securing compensation for dependents of railroad workers who were killed in revolutionary battles, the second was to gain indemnities for miners injured at work. These victories gained him considerable favor with Mexico's labor unions. Alemán started public service with a minor appointment as legal adviser to the Secretary of Agriculture and Livestock.
Other positions followed, including the Federal Board of Conciliation and Arbitration in 1930. In 1933, he served as the President of the Unifying Committee for Plutarco Elías Calles, which brought him into prominence, he served as a Senator from his home state of Veracruz 1934-36, representing the Party of the Mexican Revolution. When governor-elect Manlio Favio Altamirano was assassinated, Alemán accepted appointment as governor from 1936 to 1939; the appointment can be seen as a political reward from the Cárdenas administration for helping oust Plutarco Elías Calles during the intra-party struggle. From 1940 to 1945, he served as Secretary of the Interior under Manuel Ávila Camacho after directing Ávila's national presidential campaign; as Secretary of the Interior during World War II, he dealt with Axis espionage and Sinarquistas, whom some consider Mexican fascists. President Avila Camacho chose Alemán as the official candidate of the party in 1945, running for president in 1946. There were many possibilities for the president to choose among, both civilian and military, including Avila Camacho's older brother, Maximino Ávila Camacho.
The Avila Camacho brothers shared ill health, Maximino died in February 1945, following a banquet. His death averted a possible political crisis of succession. "There were some who wondered whether something more than seasoning had been added to Maximino's food" the day he died. Among the civilians were Javier Rojo Gómez, the head of government of the Federal District. Military men were strong contenders, all previous post-revolutionary presidents had participated in the Mexican Revolution. Miguel Henriquez Guzmán, Enrique Calderón, Jesús Agustín Castro, Francisco Castillo Nájera were in consideration. Alemán received the backing of the Confederation of Mexican Workers